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Full text of "Rudimentary dictionary of terms used in architecture, civil, architecture, naval, building and construction, early and ecclesiastical art, engineering, civil, engineering, mechanical, fine art, mining, surveying, etc., to which are added explanatory observations on numerous subjects connected with practical art and science"

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A Treatise entitled ' Divers Works of Early Masters in Christian Decoration, with 

Examples of Ecclesiastical Ornament, Ancient Painted and Stained Glass,' 

in two folio volumes ; 


' Ensamples of Railway Making ;' 

' Papers on Architecture,' in four volumes quarto ; and 

' Papers on Engineering,' in six volumes quarto. 





IT was intended that the contents of this work should be 
comprised within the space of about one hundred and fifty 
pages, and thus form a single volume of the series of * Rudi- 
mentary Treatises;' but in the course of its compilation 
it soon became apparent that such confined limits were 
wholly inadequate to the admission of explanations of terms, 
which, although not immediately connected with the sub- 
jects mentioned in the title-page, were yet deemed essential 
to their further amplification: its utility as a book of re- 
ference will therefore, it is hoped, be found commensurate 
with its necessarily increased extent. 

Since the publication, in 1819, of Mr. Peter Nicholson's 
elaborate 'Architectural Dictionary,' in two quarto volumes, 
changes of vast import have occurred : the field of practical 
science has been widely extended, and proportionately occupied 
by a new generation of professional men and students ; im- 
portant advances have been made in the arts of design and 
construction ; and the extended application of steam as a 
motive power has not only produced an extraordinary de- 
velopment of the means of internal communication, but 
surmounted those impediments which considerations of space 
and time formerly presented to the pursuits of men in quest 
of business or pleasure, thus influencing, to a great extent, 
the various operations by which the wants and luxuries of 
civilized life are supplied. 

In a ratio proportionate to the rapid extension of what 


may be strictly termed practical knowledge has the study of 
the more pleasurable sciences also progressed : archaeology, 
geology, philosophy, &c., have exercised a powerful and cap- 
tivating influence, which has gradually led to the incorporation 
of societies or associations devoted to the cultivation and 
advancement of the several branches of human knowledge ; 
and hence has arisen an extensive class of non-professional 
men, who, however duly acquainted with scientific principles, 
may yet be anxious to possess any easily available means 
of becoming familiar with the nomenclature and the technical 
language necessarily employed in a series of rudimentary 
treatises on the practical arts and sciences. 

Within the period already adverted to, much professional 
taste and skill has been displayed in the erection of public 
buildings, in the construction of engineering works of vast 
magnitude and importance, and in the invention of the im- 
proved machinery employed in the arts and manufactures 
of the country. These and similar causes have combined 
greatly to augment the ranks of a meritorious and useful 
class of men, among whom, more especially, new wants may 
be said to have been created, a class which comprises no 
inconsiderable number of ingenious operative engineers and 
matured artisans ; and to such this work may become in- 
teresting and useful, however insufficient it may prove to 
those already advanced in their professional pursuits. 

Should, however, the paucity of information contained in 
the following pages induce others more competent to the 
task, and who have sufficient leisure for the purpose, to 
devote their talents and time to the production of a more 
comprehensive and more valuable compilation, some share of 
useful information will at least have been contributed to the 
means of supplying the wants of an improving age. 

The slender efforts here placed before the reader were 


accomplished, by the aid of the lamp, after the hours usually 
devoted to the labours of business, and they are now, with 
the most humble pretensions, submitted to public approval. 
It has been well observed, that 'the language of truth is 
simple :' no attempt has here been made to trace the deriva- 
tions of the scientific or technical terms which have been 
adopted: they are given and explained as generally written 
and understood at the present period, and care has been 
taken to avoid surreptitious or unauthorized versions, with 
the view of guiding the student and the operative workman 
in the onward path of knowledge. 

Some analogous explanations and references may probably 
appear, at a first glance, as superfluous, and to detract from 
the merits of the work; but when it is considered how 
numerous and varied, in the present age, are the ramifications 
into which the employment of those engaged in the building 
and constructive arts has been extended, and how earnestly 
the searchers after technical terms and meanings must desire 
the acquisition of a knowledge of what may not inaptly be 
designated as a correct disposition of fine art, any unfavour- 
able impression of this nature, hastily formed, will probably 
be removed upon mature reflection. 

The collation made from Dugdale's ' Monasticon, 5 of the 
abbeys, alien priories, collegiate churches, monasteries, &c., 
with their several orders, dates of foundation, and localities, 
may perhaps be looked on with indifference by the mechanical 
engineer, as embracing subjects of little or no importance ; 
but viewed archseologically, by the architect, the historian, 
or the antiquary, a reference to researches into the early 
architecture of his country must ever command a paramount 
degree of interest. Similarly, with the latter class, objections 
may be raised with regard to subjects merely mechanical; 
and it is therefore earnestly to be desired that each may be 


disposed to indulge the predilections of the other as to their 
more favoured pursuits. 

In referring to the series of 'Rudimentary Scientific 
Works ' to which this * Dictionary of Terms ' will, it is pre- 
sumed, be deemed an appropriate Companion, it is proper 
to mention that the first suggestion as to their publication 
emanated from Lieutenant - Colonel Reid, of the Corps of 
Royal Engineers, who, during his residence at Barbadoes as 
Her Majesty's representative, kindly forwarded to the Pub- 
lisher, with a recommendation that it should be printed for 
general circulation, a copy of Professor Fownes's 'Rudimen- 
tary Chemistry.' This elementary treatise, the first of the 
series, and to which the recommendation of the late Go- 
vernor of Barbadoes was limited, had been printed at his own 
expense, for the laudable and special purpose of adding to 
the numerous educational arid scientific works which he had 
already distributed among different classes in the West India 

To Lieut .-Colonel Portlock, R. E., to the Commissioners 
of Northern Lighthouses, and to others who have liberally 
contributed their assistance in the production of the suc- 
ceeding treatises, the Publisher thus acknowledges his 
obligations ; and as the series has been extended to thirty 
volumes, the public have now the means of forming a due 
estimate of their efficacy and utility, and of the discretion 
exercised in the selection of subjects. 

J. W. 

59, High Holborn, 

November 1, 1849. 


Adcock's Rules and Data for the Steam Engine, &c. 12mo. 1839. 

Aide-Memoire to the Military Sciences, Parts I. II. III. 1845-8. 

Britton's Architectural Dictionary. 4to. 1838. 

Brown's Principles of Perspective. 4to. 1835. 

Buchanan's Technological Dictionary. 12mo. 1849. 

Practical Essays on Mill-work and on Machinery and Tools. 

2 vols. 8vo. : edited by George Rennie, 1841. 
Builder's (the) Dictionary. 2 vols. 4to. 1788. 
Bury's Styles of Architecture. 12mo. 1849. 
Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible. 8vo. 1848. 
Campbell's Text-Book of Inorganic Chemistry. 12mo. 1849. 
Castell's Villas of the Ancients, fol. 1728. 
Clegg's Essay on the Architecture of Machinery. 4to. 1842. 

Manufacture and Distribution of Coal Gas. 4to. 1840. 

Dana's Seaman's Vade Mecum. 12mo. 1849. 

Dempsey's Practical Railway Engineer. 4to. 1847. 

Dictionary of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers. 8vo. 1810. 

Dodd's (Ralph) Observations on Water. 18mo. 1805. 

Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum. 8 vols. folio : now in course of repub- 

lication in guinea parts. 
Ensamples of Railway Making. 8vo. 1843. 
Ewbank's Hydraulics and Machinery. 8vo. New York, 1849. 
Fergusson's Rock-Cut Temples of India: plates folio, text 8vo. 1845. 
Field's Chromatography. 8vo. 1841. 
Gardner's Railway Mensuration : imperial 8vo. 1848. 
Glossary of Architecture. 2 vols. Oxford, Parker. 1845. 
Greir's Mechanical Dictionary. 12mo. 1847. 
Gregory's Mathematics for Practical Men, by Henry Law : large 8vo. 1848. 


Gwilt's (Joseph) Encyclopaedia of Architecture. 8vo. 1847. 

edition of Sir William Chambers's Civil Architecture. 

2 vols. imperial 8vo. 1824. 
Notitia Architectonica Italiano. 8vo. 1818. 

Hamilton on Terms used in the Arts and Sciences. 12mo. 1825. 
Hann's Theoretical and Practical Mechanics. 8vo. 1849. 
Hann's, &c. Theory and Practice of Bridges. 4 vols. in 3 : large 8vo. 1843. 
Holzapffel's Turnery and Mechanical Manipulation. 2 vols. 8vo. 1846-7. 
Homersham on Water Supply to Manchester and the adjacent Towns. 

8vo. 1849. 

Hunt's Tudor Architecture. 4to. 1830. 

Hutton's Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary. 2 vols. 4to. 1815. 
Jamieson's (Dr.) Dictionary of Mechanical Science. 4to. 1827. 

Mechanics for Practical Men. 8vo. 1830. 

Leeds's Preface to Lamb's Studies : imperial 4to. 

Leeds's Rudimentary Treatise on the Orders of Architecture. 12mo. 1849. 

Meason's Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy. 4to. 1828. 

Meteorological Society's Transactions, vol. i. large 8vo. 1839. 

National Encyclopaedia, now in course of publication by Mr. Charles 

Knight, in monthly parts. 
Nicholson's Architectural Dictionary. 2 vols. 4to. 1819. 

Mechanical Exercises. 8vo. 1819. 

Normand's Parallel of the Orders of Architecture, by Pugin : folio. 1829. 
Palladio's Architecture, with Notes by Inigo Jones. 2 vols. folio. 1742. 
Pambour's Practical Treatise on Locomotive Engines. 8vo. 1840. 
Papers connected with the Duties of the Corps of Royal Engineers. 10 vols. 

4to. 1835-1849. 

Pole on the Cornish Pumping Engine. 1 vol. 4to. folio plates. 1844. 
Pryce's Treatise on Mines and Minerals, folio. 1773. 
Pugin's True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture. 4to. 1841. 
Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England. 

4to. 1843. 

Reid (Lieut.-Col.) on the Law of Storms : large 8vo. 1842. 
Repton's Theory and Practice of Landscape Architecture : large 4to. 1805. 
Rich's Companion to the Greek Lexicon and Latin Dictionary. 8vo. 1849. 
Smith's Classical Dictionary : large 8vo. 1849. 
Stalkartt's Naval Architecture. 2 vols. folio. 1803. 
Stephenson's (Robert) Report on the Atmospheric Railway System. 4to. 


Stuart's Antiquities of Athens, vols. ii. & iii. folio : last edition. 1825. 
Thorman's Taunus Railway. 4to. 1846. 
Tomlinson's Rudimentary Natural Philosophy. 12mo. 1848. 


Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 3 vols. 4to. 1835-40. 

Tredgold on the Steam Engine. 2 vols. 4to. 1838-1849. 

Tredgold on the Strength of Cast Iron. 8vo. 1842. 

Tredgold's Elementary Principles of Carpentry. 4to. 1840. 

Vicat on Cements, by Capt. Smith. 8vo. 1837. 

Vitruvius's Civil Architecture, by Wilkins : imperial 4to. 1812. 

Wathen's Arts, Antiquities, and Chronology of Ancient Egypt : large 8vo. 


Watson's Account of Mines. 8vo. 1843. 
Wightwick's Hints to Young Architects. 8vo. 1846. 
Willis's (Professor) Architectural Nomenclature. 4to. Cambridge. 
Wood's Letters of an Architect from France, Italy, and Greece. 2 vols. 

4to. 1828. 


The two Parts of the work now published, it will be per- 
ceived, extend only to the letter M : the remaining portion 
is now in the press, and will probably be ready for publi- 
cation by the end of the present year ; but as various works 
have necessarily to be consulted for correct definitions and 
explanations, the time required for its completion will not, 
it is presumed, be deemed unreasonable. 

* # * For each Part, comprising six sheets, or 144 pages, Is. is 
charged ; or for the two Parts, bound together, and con- 
taining 12 sheets, or 288 pages, 2s. 








AARON'S-ROD, an ornamental figure 
representing a rod with a serpent 
entwined about it; improperly 
called the caduceus of Mercury 
Abaciscus, small tesserae or square 

stones for tesselated pavement 
Abacot, the cap of state, a double 
crown formerly worn by the sove- 
reigns of England 
Abaculus, a small table or desk 
Abacus, a small tile or covering mem- 
ber of a capital, varying in the 
several orders : in Grecian Doric, 
square, without chamfer or mould- 
ing ; in Roman Doric it has an ogee 
or fillet round the upper edges ; in 
the Tuscan, a plain fillet and a ca- 
vetto under it ; in Grecian Ionic it 
is thinner, with ovolo only ; in Ro- 
man Ionic, an ogee and ovolo, and 
fillet above ; in the Saxon and Nor- 
man styles, and in early English, it 
varies in form and substance, flat, 
chamfered, and hollow, circular and 
octagonal, with mouldings, latterly 

Abacus major, a large trough to wash in 
Abaft, towards the stern of a ship 
Abaised, in heraldry, a term applied 

to the wings of eagles when the 
tips are depressed below the centre 
of the shield 

Abaiser, burnt ivory, or ivory black 

Abamurus, a buttress or second wall, 
added to strengthen another 

Abatement, in heraldry, a figure in a 
coat of arms expressing stain or 

Abat-jour, a skylight, or aperture for 
the admission of light 

Abattoir, a building appropriated to 
the slaughtering of cattle 

Abal-vent, the sloping roof of a tower; 
a pent-house 

Abat-voix, the sounding board over a 
pulpit or rostrum 

Abbey, a building annexed to or ad- 
jacent to a convent or monastery, 
for the residence of the abbot or 
abbess, and the whole combining a 
series of buildings for the accommo- 
dation of a fraternity under ecclesi- 
astical government 

Abbeys in Great Britain and Ireland, 
alphabetically arranged, with their 
respective orders, the dates of their 
foundation, and their several locali- 


Abbotsbury . . . 
Aberbrothic . , . 
Abingdon . . . . 




circa 1026 
ante 955 









Athelney .... 


White Monks 
Black Friars 


circa 888 
temp. Edgar 
14 John 



Balmerinoch . . . 
Ballintobber . . . 
Bardney . 

Bardsey Island 
Basingwork .... 


Beauchief .... 
Bermondsey . . . 
Bittlesden .... 
Blanchland .... 
Blanchland .... 
Bordesley .... 

Buckfastleigh . . . 
Buckland .... 
Builderwas .... 
Burnham .... 
Burton on Trent . . 
Bury St. Edmund's . 

Calder . . 


Cambus Kenneth . . 
Chertsey .... 

Cirencester .... 
Clyve . . . 

Coggeshall .... 
Cokersand .... 
Colchester .... 
Colunsay .... 
Combe . . 

Combermere . . . 
Conw^iy .... 

Coversham .... 
Cranburn .... 

Crossraguel .... 




Croyland .... 
Cumhyre .... 
Dale le . ... 




temp. Hen.II. 
temp. Steph. 
temp. Hen. I. 
temp. Steph. 
temp. Ric. I. 
temp. Steph. 
8 Hen. III. 
temp. John 
temp. Steph. 

temp. H. III. 




De la Pre . . . . 
Denny . 

Derley . . . . . 

Dieulacres . . . ; . 
Dorchester . . ,' ' . 

Downpatrick . . . 
Dryburgh . . '. . 
Dumfermling . . . 
Dunbrody .... 
Dundrenan . . . 
Duiikeswell .... 
Dureford .... 
Egliston . . . ;. . 

Eversham . i . 
Eynsham . . >'. , . 
Faringdon . ... 


Feversham . . v . 
Flexley . 


Fountains .... 
Frethelstoke . <"{ . 
Garendon . . i .' 
Glastonbury . . . 

Grace- Dieu .... 

Great Corrall . i ; . 
Haddington . '. . 
Haghman .... 
Hagneby . . I ' . 
Hales Owen . ] . 
Hasledon .... 

Hertland .... 

Holme-Cultram . . 
Holy- Cross . . 
Holy-Hood . . ..'.} . 
Home Lacy . . i f > 
Humberstayn . . . 



Hurnston .... 
Hyde . . 





temp. H. II. 

temp. Hen. II. 

temp. Dav. I. 
temp. Hen. I 



Icolmkill .... 
Inchaffray .... 
Inchmahome . . . 
Inys . . . 

Jedburgh .... 


Kenilworth .... 
Keynsham .... 
Kilwinning .... 
Kimmer or Cymmer . 
Kingswood .... 
Kinner ..... 

Kirkstall .... 
Kirkstead .... 

Langdon (West) . . 

Lanthony .... 
Lavenden .... 
Leicester .... 
Lesmahagow . . . 
Llantarnam .... 
Lolleshull .... 
Louth Park .... 
Machline .... 
Malmsbiiry .... 
Maynan ..... 

Meaux . 

Medmenham . . . 
Mellifont .... 


Michelney .... 

Missenden .... 

Nerminster .... 

Newbottle .... 
Newenham .... 
Newhouse .... 



Northampton . . . 





St. Columba 
temp. Hen. II. 

temp. Hen. II. 
temp. Ed. III. 

temp. Ed. III. 


Isle of Man 


Oransey .... 


Osulveston .... 


Pipwell . . . 4 :. 
Quarre . . . - 

Radmore .... 
Robertsbridge . . . 

Roncester .... 

Russen . . . M 
Saffron Walden 'v . 
Salley . . . Y . 
Saltry . . . V . 

Selby . *}(?ftiiMJ 
Shaftesbury . *-'' 

Shireburn .... 
Shrewsbury . . . 
Spalding .... 
Stanlaw . . . . . 

St. Agatha .... 
St. Alban's . . . 
St. Augustine . 
St. Bennet of Hulme 
St. James .... 
St. John's, Colchester 
St. Mary 4 . , ; ^ 
St. Maiy . . i' > 
St. Mary de Grace 
St. Mary de Pre . . 
St. Mary de Valle 1 
Salutis . . . J 
St. Radegund . . 
Strada Florida, or "1 
Stratfleur . . J 



Stratford Longthorne 
Stratmargel, or Stra- 1 
ta Marcella . . J 
Sweetheart, or New . 







temp. Steph. 
temp. H. II. 

temp. Hen. I. 
temp. H. III. 
Wm. Conq. 





Swineshead . . . 
Tavistock .... 
Tewkesbury . . . 
Thorneton .... 


Titchfield .... 

Tungland .... 
Tupholm .... 
Vale Royal .... 
Valle Crucis . . . 

Waltham Abbey . . 
Waverley .... 
Wearmouth . . . 
Wellow .... 

Wendling .... 
West Dereham . . 
West Ham .... 
Westminster . . . 
Westwood .... 

Whiteland .... 
Wigmore .... 
Winchcombe . . . 
Windham .... 

Abbey gate-house, a lodge 
or porters at the enti 
abbey edifice 
Abbot, the superior of a r 
monks erected into a 
priory : there are vario 
abbots, as mitred, crc 
dinal, regular, and coi 
Abbot's lodgings, in the e< 
English ecclesiastical 

for warders 
ance of an 

oonastery of 
n abbey or 
us classes of 
siered, car- 

irly times of 

a complete house, with hall, chapel, 
and every convenience for the resi- 
dence of a spiritual baron 
Abbreviate, to contract a word in 
writing or printing 
Abbreviations, characters or marks 
over letters to signify either a word 
or syllable 
Abele-tree, a species of white poplar 
Aberration, in astronomy, an apparent 
motion of the celestial bodies oc- 




casioned by the progressive motion 
of light and the earth's annual 
motion in its orbit 

Aberration, in optics, the deviation 
or dispersion of the rays of light 
when reflected by a lens, by which 
they are prevented from meeting 
or uniting in the same point, called 
the geometrical focus; but spread 
over a small span, they produce a 
confusion of images 

Ablactation, in gardening, the method 
of grafting 

Ablaqueation, the opening of the 
ground around the roots of trees, 
for the admission of the air 

Aboard, a nautical term, the inside of 
a ship, or to go on board 

About-ship, the situation of a ship 
after she has tacked 

About-sledge, the largest hammer em- 
ployed by smiths ; it is slung round 
near the extremity of the handle, 
and generally used by under work- 
men, called hammer-men 

Abrasion, the effect produced by at- 
trition or rubbing 

Abreast, as when two ships have 
their sides parallel 

Abreuvoir, a watering-place 

Abreuvoir, in masonry, the interstice 
or joint between two stones to be 
filled up with mortar or cement 

Abscissa, a geometrical term for a seg- 
ment cut off from the straight line 
by an ordinate to a curve 

Absorbents, in chemistry, those earthy 
substances capable of uniting, by 
capillary attraction, a large pro- 
portion of water: such are mag- 
nesia, lime, and clay, when dry 
and porous 

Absorption, in chemistry, takes place 
when, by the combination of gases 
with other substances, a very con- 
siderable diminution of volume is 
experienced: it differs from con- 

Abstract (To}, a term used by arti- 
ficers and surveyors in arranging 
and apportioning their work, to 
explain and price it 

Abstract mathematics, otherwise de- 
nominated pure mathematics, that 

branch of the science which treats 
of simple properties, magnitude, 
figure, or quantity, absolutely and 
generally considered 

Absurd, a term used in demonstrating 
converse propositions 

Abundant number, a number whose 
aliquot parts, added together, make 
a sum which is greater than the 
number itself 

Abuses. "Architecture," says Palladio, 
" being an imitatrix of Nature, de- 
lights in that which is most conso- 
nant with her prototype." Ancient 
edifices were built with wood, trees 
forming the columns ; and when 
architects began to build with stone, 
theymadethe columns to imitate the 
trunks of trees, tapering from their 
bases. Being thus originally of 
wood, and therefore liable to split 
when much loaded, they bound 
them with rings at top and bottom. 
Thus the bases and capitals in the 
different orders seem originally de- 
rived from these bandages, though 
they are now become essential 
ornaments. Thus also in entabla- 
tures, the triglyphs, modillions, and 
dentils represent the ends of those 
beams and timbers which are em- 
ployed for the support of the floors 
and roofs. If, therefore, all these 
conditions be duly considered, those 
practices in building are highly to 
be reprobated which are in oppo- 
sition to that analogy which should 
exist between the original and its 
imitation, or which depart from Na- 
ture and the simplicity observable 
in all her works. 

Consoles or cartouches, which 
are of a scroll-like form, should 
never be employed for the appa- 
rent support of great weights, in 
place of columns or pilasters ; nor 
should they ever project from, or 
spring out of, cornices. 

Pediments and frontispieces over 
doors and windows, or elsewhere, 
should on no account be broken or 
disconnected in the middle; for 
the intention of these is to shelter 
the parts below from the rain, and 




this result is completely obviated 
by such a practice. 

The projecture of cornices, 
though for the purpose of shelter- 
ing buildings, should not be more 
than in due proportion to their 
height, whether or not accompanied 
by columns ; for if too heavy, they 
seem to threaten with danger those 
who are under them; and if too 
small in projection, they do not 
properly perform their office. 

Again, those columns which are 
feigned to be composed of several 
pieces, by being jointed together 
with rings, should be carefully 
avoided, because the more solid 
and strong the columns appear, the 
better they seem to answer the 
purpose for which they were erect- 
ed, which is securely to receive 
the superincumbent loading. 

There are many other abuses 
which the authority of great mas- 
ters may sanction, but not justify ; 
and such will readily occur to the 
student, and themselves point out 
that they ought to be avoided 

Abutment, the solid part of a pier 
from which the arch springs 

Abutments, the extremities of a 
bridge, by which it joins upon the 
banks or sides of a river, &c. : in 
carpentry and joinery, the junctions 
or meetings of two pieces of timber, 
of which the fibres of the one run 
perpendicular to the joint, and 
those of the other parallel to it 

Abuttals, the buttings or boundaries 
of land 

Abyss, in heraldry, the centre of an 

Acacio, a heavy, durable wood of the 
red mahogany character, but darker 
and plainer ; it is highly esteemed 
in ship-building 

Academia, in antiquity, a villa or 
pleasure-house in one of the sub- 
urbs of Athens, where Plato and 
other philosophers assembled 

Academician, a member of a society 
or academy instituted for the cul- 
tivation of the arts and sciences 

Acanthus, the plant branca ursina, in 

English bear's breech, the leaves of 
which are imitated in decorating 
the Corinthian and Composite ca- 
pitals of columns 

Accelerated motion, a force acting in- 
cessantly upon a body; called also a 
constant or uniformly accelerating 
force when the velocity increases 
equally in equal times : the force of 
gravity near the earth's surface is 
of this kind; it generates a ve- 
locity of 32 feet in each second of 
time ; that is, a body, after falling 
one second, acquires a velocity of 
32^ feet ; after falling two seconds, 
it will acquire a velocity of 2 x 32^- 
feet ; after three seconds, a velocity 
of 3 x 32^ feet, and so on 

Accelerating force, in physics, the 
force which accelerates the motion 
or velocity of bodies; it is equal 
to, or expressed by, the quotient 
arising from the motion or absolute 
force, divided by the mass or the 
weight of the body moved 

Accelerative or retardative force, is 
commonly understood to be that 
which affects the velocity only, or 
that by which the velocity is ac- 
celerated or retarded; it is equal 
or proportional to the motive force 
directly, and to the mass or body 
moved inversely 

Accesses, approaches or passages of 
communication between the various 
apartments of a building, as corri- 

Accessible, in surveying, a place which 
admits of having a distance or 
length of ground measured from 
it; or such a height or depth as 
can be measured by the application 
of a proper instrument 

Accessories, or accompaniments, in 
painting, secondary objects to the 
principal one in a picture, intro- 
duced as explanatory and illus- 
trative of the scene: sometimes 
they are considered as solely con- 
tributing to the general effect and 
harmony of the piece 

Accidental point, in perspective, the 
point in which a right line drawn 
from the eye, parallel to another 




right line, cuts the picture or per- 
spective plane 

Acclivity, the slope or steepness of a 
line or plane inclined to the hori- 
zon, taken upwards ; in contra- 
distinction to declivity, which is 
taken downwards 

Accouplement, in carpentry, a tie or 
brace, or the entire work when 

Accretion, in physics, the growth or 
increase of an organized body 

Accroche, in heraldry, denotes the 
hanging of one thing upon another 

Accubilus, a room annexed to large 
churches, in which the clergy oc- 
casionally reposed 

Aceric acid, in chemistry, an acid 
formed from the juice of the maple- 

Acerra, in antiquity, an altar erected, 
among the Romans, near the bed 
of a person deceased, on which his 
friends daily offered incense until 
his burial 

Acetate of lead, sugar of lead, a 
compound of acetic acid and lead 

Acetate of potash, a compound of 
acetic acid and potash, produced 
by dissolving carbonate of potash 
in distilled vinegar 

Acetates, crystallizable salts, formed 
by the combination of any base with 
acetic acid, named also radical or 
pure vinegar 

Achromatic, a term expressing ab- 
sence of colour : in optics, applied 
to telescopes invented to remedy 
aberrations and colours 

Acids, in chemistry, are sour to the 
taste, and convert vegetable blues 
to a red colour; they combine with 
alkalies, earths, and metallic oxides, 
and form, with them, the well- 
known compounds named salts 

Acinose, a term applied to iron ore 
found in masses, and of several co- 

A-cocJc-bill, in navigation, the situ- 
ation of the yards when they are 
topped up at an angle with the 
deck ; the situation of an anchor 
when it hangs to the cat-head by 
the ring only 

Acolyte, in the ancient church, a 
person who trimmed the lamps, 
prepared for the sacrament, &c. 

Acoustics, the doctrine or theory of 
sounds, consisting of diacoustics, 
or direct sounds, and catacoustics, 
or reflecting sounds 

Acre, a measure of land, containing, 
by the ordinance for measuring 
land in the time of Edward I., 160 
perches or square poles of land; 
and as the statute length of a pole 
is 5.j yards or 16 feet, the acre 
contains 4840 square yards, or 
43560 square feet. The chain 
with which land is now commonly 
measured, invented by Gunter, is 
4 poles, or 22 yards, in length ; and 
the acre is therefore just 10 square 
chains; and as a mile contains 
1760 yards, or 80 chains, in length, 
the square mile is equal to 640 
acres. The acre, in surveying, is 
divided into 4 roods, and the rood 
into 4 perches 

Acrolithes, in sculpture, statues, the 
extremities of which are formed of 

Acropolis, a building strictly appli- 
cable to a Greek city, and usually 
erected upon a hill, rock, or some 
natural elevation, and devoted to 
a magnificent temple ; also a tower, 
castle, or citadel 

Acrostolion, in ancient naval archi- 
tecture, an ornament of the prow 
or forecastle of a ship, chiefly of 
war, most frequently circular or 

Acroteria, small pedestals at the 
angles and vertex of a pediment : 
the gate of the Agora at Athens is 
the only instance in which they 
appear in Grecian buildings 

Actinometer : Sir John Herschel, at 
the third meeting of the British 
Association, submitted an instru- 
ment for measuring at any instant 
the direct heating power of the 
solar ray: it affords a dynamical 
measure of the solar radiation, by 
receiving a quantity of heat per 
second, or any short space of time, 
on a surface exposed to the sun. 




In making observations with this 
instrument, it should be freely ex- 
posed in the shade for one minute, 
and the variation read ; afterwards 
expose it for the same time to the 
solar action, and again note it ; and 
lastly, repeat the experiment in the 
shade : the mean of the two varia- 
tions in the shade being subducted 
from the variation in the sun, the 
excess gives the dilatation per minute 
due to the sun's rays ; the quantity 
subducted being the effect of the 
other causes at the time 

Actus, a Roman measure of length, 
equal to 120 Roman feet 

Acute angle, in geometry, less than a 
right angle, and measured by less 
than 90, or a quadrant of a circle 

Acute-angled cone, that in which the 
opposite sides make an acute at the 
vertex, or whose axis, in a right 
cone, makes less than half a right 
angle with the side 

Acute-angled section of a cone, an el- 
lipsis made by a plane cutting both 
sides of an acute-angled cone 

Acute -angled triangle, that in which 
the three angles are all acute 

Adamant, a very hard stone, used by 
the ancients for cutting and polish- 
ing other hard stones and glass 

Adeling, a title of honour given to the 
children of princes among the An- 

Adhesion, the force with which differ- 
ent bodies remain attached to each 
other when brought into contact 

Adit, the passage or approach to a 
house; applied also to the hori- 
zontal shaft of a mine, driven for 
the purposes of ventilating, water- 
ing, or draining 

Adit level, in mining, a horizontal 
excavation through which the water 
is drawn by the engine 

Adjacent angle, in geometry, an angle 
immediately contiguous to another, 
so that one side is common to both 

Adjutage (Ajutage), or jet d'eau, a 
tube fitted to the aperture of a ves- 
sel through which water is to be 

Adonia, a festival celebrated in ho- 


nour of Aphrodite and Adonis in 
most of the Grecian cities 

Adrift, the condition of a vessel broken 
from her moorings 

Adumbration, in heraldry, a figure 
painted of the same colour as the 
ground of the field, but darker 

Adytum, the most sacred place in the 
heathen temples ; the Holy of Ho- 
lies ; in Christian architecture, the 
chancel or altar-end of a church 

Adze, an edged tool used to chip sur- 
faces in a horizontal direction ; the 
axe being employed to chop mate- 
rials in vertical positions 

JEcclesiolo, in Domesday Book, a cha- 
pel subordinate to the mother church 

Mdes, an inferior kind of temple ; in 
Christian architecture, a chapel ; 
also sometimes applied to a house 

JEdicula, a small chapel, house, or 
building of any kind; not unfre- 
quently applied to the niches of 
tabernacles in a wall which held 
statues of the lares or penates 

^Egricanes, a name given to rams' 
heads when sculptured on friezes, 
altars, &c. 

SEolipile, in hydraulics, an instrument 
consisting of a hollow metallic ball 
with a slender neck or pipe pro- 
ceeding from it, which, being filled 
with water, produces a violent blast 
of wind 

JEolus, a small portable machine for 
refreshing and changing the air of 

JErarium, a treasury among the Ro- 
mans ; the place where public mo- 
ney was deposited 

Aerial perspective, the relative appa- 
rent recession of objects from the 
foreground, owing to the quantity 
of air interposed between them and 
the spectator 

Aerology, the doctrine or science of 
the air 

Aerometer, an instrument contrived 
to ascertain the mean bulk of gases 

Aerometry, the science of measuring 
the air, its powers and proper- 

Aeronautics, the art of sailing or float- 
ing in the air 




Aerostatics, the doctrine of the 
weight, pressure, and balance of 
the air and atmosphere 

dErugo, rust, more especially that of 
copper; verdigris 

^Esthetics, the power of perception hy 
means of the senses : the word im- 
plies the perception and the study 
of those qualities which constitute 
the beautiful and artistic, and form 
the finer essence of all productions 
of fine art. It carries with it, there- 
fore, a more exact and philosophic 
meaning than the word ' taste.' In 
its adjective form, in which it more 
frequently occurs, it is particularly 
useful, as no adequate epithet can 
be substituted for it. Thus we speak 
of the ' aesthetic sense,' of ' aesthetic 
feeling,' or ' study,' or ' principles,' 
&c.; but we cannot correctly say 
the ' tasteful sense,' or ' tasteful 

Aetoma, a pediment, or the tympanum 
of a pediment 

Affinity, in chemistry, the power by 
which the ultimate particles of 
matter are made to unite, and kept 

Afflux, a flow of electric matter to a 
globe and conductor, in opposition 
to efflux, from them 

After, in ship-building, implies a con- 
nexion, as belonging to the after- 
body, after-timber, &c. 

Agalma, a sculptural ornament or 

Ager, a Roman acre of land 

Agger, a heap or mound of any kind, 
formed of stone, wood, or earth 

Agglutination, the cohesion of bodies 

Aggregation, in chemistry, the collec- 
tion of bodies, solid, fluid, or gaseous 

Agora, a place of public assembly in 
a Greek city for the transaction 
of all public business ; a market- 

Aguilla, an obelisk, or the spire of a 
church tower 

A-hull, the condition of a vessel when 
she has all her sails furled, and her 
helm lashed a-lee 

Air -casing, the sheet-iron casing 
which surrounds the base of the 


chimney of a steam vessel, to pre- 
vent too great a transmission of 
heat to the deck 

Air-drains, cavities between the ex- 
ternal walls of a building, protected 
by a wall towards the earth, which 
is thus prevented from causing 

Air-escape, a contrivance for letting 
off the air from water-pipes 

Air-holes, those made for admitting 
air to ventilate apartments 

Air-machine, in mining, the apparatus 
used for forcing purer air into or 
withdrawing foul air from parts 
badly ventilated 

Air-pipes, in mining, tubes or pipes 
of iron or wood, for ventilating 
under ground, or for the convey- j 
ance of fresh air into levels having 
but one communication with the 
atmosphere, and no current of air : 
also used for clearing foul air from 
the holds of ships or other close 

Air-pump, a pneumatic instrument, 
by means of which the air is ex- 
hausted out of the proper vessels : 
its effects are produced by the elas- 
ticity of the air; and as at each 
stroke of the pump only a part of 
the remaining air is withdrawn, an 
absolute vacuum cannot be obtain- 
ed, although so near an approxi- 
mation to it may be had as to 
remove the general effects of the 
atmosphere. The proportion of 
the air-pump, as given by Watt, 
is usually about two-thirds of the 
diameter of the cylinder, when the 
length of the stroke of the air- 
bucket is half the length of the 
stroke of the steam piston. The 
area of the passages between the 
condenser and the air-pump should 
never be less than one-fourth of 
the area of the air-pump. The 
apertures through the air-bucket 
should have the same proportion ; 
and, if convenient, the discharging 
flap or valve should be made larger. 
The capacity of the condenser 
should at least be equal to that of 
the air-pump ; but, when conveni- 




ence will admit of it, the larger it 
is the better 

Air-pump bucket, an open piston, 
with valves on the upper surface, 
opening upwards, so as to admit 
the air and water in the down- 
stroke, and lift it with the up- 
stroke of the pump 

Air-pump rod, the rod for connecting 
the bucket to the beam 

Air-tint, in painting, the tint by 
which the distant parts of a land- 
scape are rendered more distinct, 
or sometimes giving a misty appear- 
ance to the whole : it is generally 
compounded of a blue-grey, occa- 
sionally approaching to purple 

Air-trap, a trap immersed in water, 
to prevent foul air arising from 
sewers or drains 

Air-valve, applied to steam boilers 
for the purpose of preventing the 
formation of a vacuum when the 
steam is condensing in the boiler 

Air-vessel, the closed cylinder con- 
nected to the discharge-pipe of a 
force-pump, and by the action of 
which the water ejected by the pis- 
ton or plunger of the pump enters 
the cylinder and compresses the air 
within ; it acts as a spring during 
the return stroke, and thiis renders 
the stream constant : also a cham- 
ber containing air, attached to 
pumps and other water engines, for 
thepurpose of making thedischarge 
constant when the supply is inter- 

Aisle, the side passage or division of 
a church, partially separated from 
the nave and choir by columns or 

Aitre, a hearth or chimney 

Alabaster, a species of gypsum, a mi- 
neral substance, chemically termed 
sulphate of lime: also a box or 
vase for holding perfumes and oint- 
ments ; so called because originally 
made of alabaster, and for which 
the variety called onyx-alabaster 
was usually employed 

Alba, a beacon or light-house 

Albarium, white-wash ; according to 
Pliny and Vitruvius, a white stucco 


or plaster, made of a pure kind of 
lime burned from marble, and used 
to spread over the roofs of houses 

Albarium opus, according to Vitru- 
vius, a species of stucco-work 

Alcahest, in ancient chemistry, a 
universal dissolvent 

Alcha, a cellar, pantry, or an apart- 
ment for the reception of drinking 

Alchemist, one skilled in the art of 
alchemy or chemistry 

Alchemy, that branch of chemistry 
which presumes the transmutation 
of metals : Lord Bacon calls it the 
art of distilling or drawing quin- 
tessences out of metals by fire 

Alcohol, in chemistry, a pure spirit 

Alcoholometer, an instrument for as- 
certaining the strength of spirits 

Alcorans, in oriental architecture, 
high slender towers attached to 
mosques, in which the Koran is 

Alcove, a recess in a chamber, or a 
recess separated from other parts 
of the room by columns, antse, and 

Alder, a wood formerly much used. 
The common alder seldom exceeds 
40 feet in height, is very durable 
under water, and was used for the 
piles of the Rialto at Venice, the 
buildings at Ravenna, &c.: it was 
formerly much used for pipes 
pumps, and sluices 

Aleaceria, a palace, castle, or other 
large edifice 

Aleatorium, an apartment in a Roman 
house appropriated to the use of 
persons playing with dice 

A-lee, a term used to denote the posi- 
tion of the helm when it is put 
in the opposite direction from that 
in which the wind blows 

Alembic, in chemistry, a vessel used 
in distillation 

Aieois, loopholes in the walls of a castle 
or fortification, through which ar- 
rows may be discharged 

Algaroth, in chemistry, a white pow- 
der obtained from muriate of anti- 
Algebra, literal arithmetic, or the 


science by which quantity, and the houses erected in different coun- 
operations of quantity, are ex- tries, and distinguished as alien 
pressed by conventional symbols from their dependence on large 
Alhambra, in Saracenic architecture, foreign monasteries. The following 
the royal palace of the kings of is a list of those established in 
Granada England, with the dates of their 
Alien Priories, cells or small religious foundation : 






Black Monks 
Black Monks 
Black Monks 


Henry I. 

Win. Conq. 
Henry III. 
Wm. Conq. 
Henry II. 

Henry III. 
Wm, Rufus 

Richard II. 
Wm. Conq. 
King Steph. 
Henry II. 
King John 

Henry I. 
Henry II. 
King Steph. 
King John 
Richard II. 

Wm. Conq. 
Edw. Conf. 
Wm. Conq. 


Isle of Wight 
Isle of Wight 

Alberbury .... 
Allerton Mallever . . 
Andewell . . ; . . 

Appledercomb . . . 

Avebury . . 

Axmouth .... 
Beccanford .... 


Blakenham .... 
Brimsfield . . 
Burne (College of) . 
Burwell . 

Cameringham . . . 
Carisbrook .... 
Charleton .... 
Charltonupon Otmoor 

Clatford . . . 


Cevenham .... 
Cowike ... 

Cresswell .... 
De la Grave . . . 
Ecclesfield .... 
Edith Weston . . . 
Elingham .... 
Fieldallying . . . 
Frampton .... 
Grosmont .... 
Hagham . . 

Hao-he . . ' ^ 

Hamele . . . . 3 
Hinckley . . . . 
Horkeslegh . . * . 
Hou '. 5 . 

Ipilpen .... ^ 
Lancaster .... 
Lappele .... 

Lavenestre .... 




Lesingham .... 
Lewisham .... 
Limburgh Magna . . 
Llangewith .... 
Llangkywan . . . 


Black Monks 




Black Monks 

Black Monks 



Cell of Monks 
Black Monks 





Wm. Rufus 
before Conq. 
Richard II. 
King Steph. 
Henry I. 
Edw. Conf. 
Richard II. 
Wm. Conq. 
Henry I. 

Wm. Conq. 
King Steph. 

Wm. Rufus 
King John 
Wm. Conq. 
Henry I. 
Sax. period 
Henry I. 
Henry II. 


Wm. Conq. 
Edward I. 

Henry I. 
Wm. Conq. 
Wm. Rufus 
King Steph. 
Henry I. 
Henry I. 
Wm. Conq. 
Henry I. 
Wm. Conq. 


Isle of Wight 

Long Bengton . . . 

Minster Lovel . . . 
Modbury .... 
Monkenlane . . . 
Monks Kirby . . . 

Okerington .... 
Overdon .... 
Newington Longeville 
New Romney . . . 

Paunsfield .... 
Povington .... 

Rotherfield .... 
Sidmouth .... 
Spedtesbury . . . 

Stayning .... 
Steventon .... 
Stoke Curcy . . . 
Stratfieldsay . . . 
St. Clare .... 
St. Cross .... 
St. Helen's .... 
St. Michael's Mount . 
Sumpting .... 
Swavesey .... 
Takeley .... 

Thurlegh .... 

Tykeford .... 
Uphaven .... 

"Wareham .... 
Warmington . . . 
Wedon on the Street . 
Wedon Pinkney . . 







Wenghale .... 
West Ravendale . . 
West Shirburne . . 
Westwood .... 
Willesford .... 
Wilmington . . . 
Winterbury Wast . . 
Wirhara .... 




Henry III. 
Henry I. 
Henry II. 
King Steph. 
Wm. Rufus 
Richard I. 



Wolfricheston . . . 
Wolton Wawra . . 

Black Monks 

Wm. Conq. 
Henry I. 


Alipterion, in ancient Rome, a room 
wherein bathers anointed themselves 

Aliquot part, such part of a number 
as will exactly divide it without a 
remainder ; a part as, being taken 
or repeated a certain number of 
times, exactly makes up or is equal 
to the whole : thus 1 is an aliquot 
part of 6 or any other whole number 

Alkalescent, a chemical term applied 
to such animal and vegetable sub- 
stances as have a tendency to pro- 
duce muriate of ammonia, or vola- 
tile alkali 

Alkali, in chemistry: potash and soda 
were usually termed fixed, and am- 
monia volatile, alkalies : alkalies 
combine with and neutralize acids, 
thereby producing salts ; they also 
change vegetable blues to green 

Alkalimeter, an instrument for mea- 
suring and determining the quantity 
and strength of alkalies 

Allette, used to express a small wing 
of a building; also applied to a pilas- 
ter or buttress 

Alley, a passage from one part of a 
building to another ; a passage or 
court with houses 

Alligation, one of the rules of arith- 
metic, by which are resolved ques- 
tions which relate to the compound- 
ing or mixing together of divers 
simples or ingredients 

Allorium, a piazza, corridor, or co- 
vered way in the flank of a building 

Alloy, baser metal, commonly mixed 
with the precious metals 

Alluvium, the debris occasioned by 
causes still in operation, as deposits 
left by the action of rivers, floods, 
and torrents 


Almacantar, lines parallel to the ho- 
rizon, and conceived to pass through 
every degree of the meridian 

Almehrab, a niche in the mosques of 
the Arabs, for praying 

Almond-tree, a hard, heavy, oily or 
resinous kind of wood, somewhat 

Almonry, a room or place where alms 
were formerly distributed to the 

Almshouse, a house for the reception 
and support of the poor 

Aloof, in navigation, to keep the ship 
near the wind when sailing upon a 
quarter wind 

Alquifore, lead ore found in Cornwall, 
and used by potters to green var- 
nish their wares 

Alrunae, small images carved out of 
roots of trees, and anciently held in 
much veneration by the northern 

Altar, an elevated table of either 
stone, marble, or wood, dedicated 
to the ceremonies of religious wor- 
ship. " And Noah builded an altar 
unto the Lord ; and took of every 
clean beast, and of every clean fowl, 
and offered burnt offerings on the 
altar." Gen. viii. 20. 

Altar-piece, the ornamental sculpture 
or painting behind the altar in a 
Christian church 

Altar-screen, the back of an altar, or 
the partition by which the choir is 
separated from the presbytery and 

Altars, among the Greeks, according 
to Wilkins's ' Vitruvius/ faced the 
east, and were placed lower than 
the statues arranged about the cella, 




in order that those who offered up 
prayers and sacrifices might know, 
from their different heights, to 
what particular deities the several 
altars were consecrated 

Altare chori, a reading desk in a 

Altare f arum, the lustre, chandelier, 
or cresset, suspended over an altar 

Altimetry, the art of taking or mea- 
suring altitudes or heights 

Altitude, of a figure, the length of a 
line drawn perpendicularly from 
the vertex to the hase 

Alto-rilievo, highly relieved sculpture 
representing figures either entirely 
or nearly detached from the hack- 

Alum, a salt extracted from various 
minerals called alum ores ; of great 
use to chemists, dyers, and artists ; 
acid and sharp to the taste 

Aluminum, in chemistry, the metallic 
hase of the earth alumina, which is 
found in nature along with some 
oxides, and acting as an acid : these 
combinations are termed alumin- 
ates, and are insoluble in acids 

Alveus, in hydrography, the channel 
or belly of a river 

Amalgam, a mixture of mercury with 
any other metal, tin, lead, &c. 

Ambitus, an enclosure, more particu- 
larly applied to the space around a 
building, as a church-yard or a 

Ambo, Ambone, a rostrum or raised 

Ambulatio, walks, or places of exer- 
cise, according to Vitruvius, adja- 
cent to theatres 

Ambulatory, a cloister, gallery, or alley 

Ammonia, in chemistry, a compound 
of hydrogen and azote, which can 
only be exhibited pure in a state of 
gas ; with carbonic acid, it forms 
volatile alkali or hartshorn. Am- 
monia is found in the urine of 
animals, in the earth, and also in 
the atmosphere: it w T as formerly 
obtained by distilling horn, from 
which it acquired the name of 
hartshorn. It is generally prepared 
from chloride of ammonium or sal- 


ammoniac, from which it receives 
its name 

Ammoniac, a gum used for metallic 

Amphiprostyle, a term applied to a 
temple with a portico in front and 
also behind 

Amphitheatre, an edifice formed by 
the junction of two theatres at the 
proscenium, so as to admit of seats 
all round the periphery 

Amphitheatre, in Roman antiquity, a 
large edifice of an elliptic form, 
with a series of rising seats or 
benches disposed around a spacious 
area, called the arena, in which 
the combats of gladiators and wild 
beasts, and other sports, were ex- 
hibited. It consisted exteriorly of 
a wall pierced in its circumference 
by two or more ranges of arcades, 
and interiorly of vaulted passages 
radiating from the exterior arcades 
towards the arena, and several 
transverse vaulted corridors which 
opened a free communication to 
the stairs at the ends of the passage 
and to every other part of the 
building ; the corridors and ranges 
of seats forming elliptical figures 
parallel to the boundary wall 

Amphithura, in the Greek Church, 
the veil or curtain opening to the 
folding doors, and dividing the 
chancel from the rest of the church 

Amphora (pi. amphorae), an earthen 
vase or jar, with a handle on each 
side of the neck ; among the an- 
cients, the usual receptacles of 
olives, grapes, oil, and wine. Hence, 
in decoration, amphoral means, 
shaped like an amphora or vase 

Amulet, in decoration, a figure or cha- 
racter to which miraculous powers 
were supposed to be attached, and 
which particularly distinguished 
the buildings of Egypt 

Amussium., anciently a carpenter's 
and mason's instrument, the use of 
which was to obtain a true plane 
surface ; but the statements of the 
ancient writers render its construc- 
tion extremely difficult 

Amylum, in chemistry, starch 




Anabathra, steps to any elevated situ- 
ation, as the anabathra of theatres, 
pulpits, &c. 

Anacampteria, the lodgings of per- 
sons who fled for sanctuary to pri- 
vileged religious houses 

Anacamptics, the doctrine of reflected 

Anachorita, the cell of a hermit 

Anaclastics, the doctrine of refracted 

Anaglyph, an engraved, embossed, or 
chased ornament 

Anaglypha, chased or embossed ves- 
sels made of bronze or the precious 
metals, which derived their name 
from the work on them being in 
relief, and not engraved 

Anaglyphic work, a species of sculp- 
ture wherein figures are made pro- 
minent by embossing 

Analemma, a projection of the meri- 
dian; used also to designate a wall, 
pier, or buttress 

Analogium, a tomb over the bodies of 
saints; also a term formerly applied 
to pulpits wherein the gospels and 
epistles were read 

Anamorphosis, a distorted piece of per- 
spective, occasioned by too near a 
point of view, and from the injudi- 
cious attitude or situation of the 
object, but perfectly true accord- 
ing to the laws of perspective 

Anchor, an instrument used for the 
mooring of ships ; in architecture, 
a decorative moulding used in the 
orders, and applied to the echinus ; 
also an ornament in the form of the 
fluke of an anchor, frequently cut 
in the ovolo of Ionic capitals, and 
in the bed-mouldings of Ionic and 
Corinthian cornices 

Anchor-stock, in ship-building, a me- 
thod of working planks, by which 
the abutments are to be disposed 
near the middle of those planks 
which are above or below them 

Ancon, in decoration, a carved drink- 
ing-cup or horn ; an elbow or 
angle, or corner-stone. The An- 
cona foot measure is 1*282 of an 
English foot 


Ancone, a console or ornament cut on 
the key-stone of an arch 

Ancones, trusses or consoles employed 
in the dressings of apertures ; also 
used to signify the corners or quoins 
of walls, cross-beams, or rafters, &c. 

Andirons, iron bars with legs to sup- 
port logs of wood in fire-places 

Android, in mechanics, an automaton 

Andron, an apartment, cloister, or 
gallery, assigned to the male part 
of a monastic establishment ; ap- 
plied also to the space in a church 
by which the men were separated 
from the women 

Anemography, a description of the 

Anemometer, an instrument for mea- 
suring the force of the wind 

Anemoscope, a machine to denote 
the changes of the wind or weather 

Angiportum, among the ancients, a 
narrow lane between two rows of 

Angle, in geometry, the mutual in- 
clination of two lines meeting in a 

Angle-bar, in joinery, the upright bar 
at the angle of a polygonal window 

Angle-bead, a vertical bead, commonly 
of wood, fixed to an exterior angle, 
and flush with the surface of the 
plaster, &c. of rooms, arches, &c. 

Angle-brace, in carpentry, timber 
fixed to the two extremities of a 
piece of quadrangular framing, 
making it to partake of the form of 
an octagon 

Angle-bracket, a bracket placed in the 
vertex of an angle, and not at right 
angles with the sides 

Angle-capital, used in Ionic capitals 
to the flank columns which have 
their volutes placed at an angle of 
45 with the planes of the front 
and returning friezes 

Angle-float, in plastering, a float made 
to any internal angle to the planes 
of both sides of a room 

Angle-modillion, a modillion placed in 
a direction parallel to a diagonal 
drawn through a cornice at its 

Angle of application, the angle which 




the line of direction of a power 
gives the lever it acts upon 

Angle of inclination, the angle an in- 
clined plane makes with the hori- 

Angle of traction, the angle which 
the direction of a power makes 
with the inclined plane 

Angular perspective, a term applied 
to the horizontal lines, both of the 
front and end of a building, con- 
verging to vanishing points, and 
terminating in the horizon ; it is 
sometimes called oblique perspec- 

Anhydrous sulphuric acid, pure sul- 
phuric acid, in the form of a crys- 
talline solid 

Annealing, the process of softening 
and restoring the malleability of 
metals, by heating and allowing 
them to cool very slowly ; and by 
which means glass, cast iron, and 
steel may be united to other sub- 

Annotto, in chemistry, a reddish-yel- 
low vegetable dye, obtained from 
the seeds of the bixa orellana, and 
used for colouring cheese 

Annular engine, a direct-action ma- 
rine engine, having two concentric 
cylinders ; the annular space is 
fitted with a piston which is at- 
tached to a T-shaped cross-head 
by two piston-rods : the cross-head 
is formed by two plates with a space 
between for the connecting-rod to 
vibrate, and the lower end slides 
within the inner cylinder, and is 
connected to the crank. This ar- 
rangement has been patented by 
Messrs. Maudslay 

Annular vault, a vaulted roof sup- 
ported on circular walls 

Annulated columns, ihose clustered to- 
gether or joined by rings or bands 

Annulet, in architecture, a small 
square member in the Doric capi- 
tal ; also the name of a small flat 

Antce, square pilasters terminating 
the walls of a temple : when a 
temple had no portico in front, two 
columns were made to intervene 


between the antae, and the aspect 
of the temple was said to be in 

Ante-chamber, a room or passage to 
an inner chamber, for the accom- 
modation of servants and persons 
in waiting 

Ante-capitulum, part of a cloister be- j 
fore the door of a chapter -house 

Antefixce (by some called Greek tiles), j 
upright ornamental blocks placed j 
at intervals on the cornice along 
the side of a roof, to conceal or 
rather terminate the ridges formed 
by the overlapping of the roof tiles ; 
also heads of lions, &c., for water 
spouts, below the eaves of temples 

Antemural, a term applied to the 
outward wall of a castle ; or that 
which separates a presbytery from 
a choir; also to a barbican entrance 
before a castle 

Antepagmenta, or Antepagmentum, 
the jamb of a door-case 

Ante -parallels, in geometry, lines 
which make equal angles with two 
other lines, but in a contrary direc- 

Ante-portico, a term sometimes used 
to denote an outer porch or vesti- 
bule ; the propylcBum in classic 

Anterides, buttresses for strengthen- 
ing walls 

Ante-solarium, a balcony facing the 

Ante-venna, an awning or projecting 
roof of wood-work ; a wooden or 
pent-house before a shop 

Anthepsa, a Grecian vessel used for 
boiling water or keeping it hot ; a 
cooking utensil 

Anthracite, a coal not bituminous, 
found principally in South Wales 
and in the United States 

Antics, in architecture, figures of men, 
beasts, &c., placed as ornaments to 

Anticum, a porch before a door 

Antilia, an ancient machine similar 
to the modern pump 

Antimensium, a portable altar or con- 
secrated table, used as a substitute 
for a proper altar 




Antimeter, an optical instrument for 
measuring angles 

Antimony, a metal usually found in a 
crude state combined with sulphur, 
of a bluish-white colour, crystal- 
line texture, brittle, and easily pul- 
verized. It does not oxidate at 
ordinary temperatures in the air, 
but, when heated, it burns with a 
light flame, producing the oxide ; 
it fuses at 800, and volatilizes at a 
white heat 

Antimony yellow, a preparation of 
antimony, of a deeper colour than 
Naples yellow, and similar in its 
properties : it is principally used 
in enamel and porcelain painting, 
and is very various in tint; that 
of a bright colour is not affected 
by foul air, although blackened by 
sugar of lead 

Antipagments, ornaments in carved 
work on the architrave, jambs, 
posts, or puncheons of doors 

Antiquarium, a repository for antique 

Antrellum, a small cave or grotto; 
also a small temple 

Antrum, an early temple for Christian 

Antrum tumbale, a sepulchral cave or 

Antwerp blue, light - coloured, and 
somewhat brighter than Prussian 
blue, or ferro-prussiate of alumine, 
having more of the terrene basis, 
but all the other qualities of that 
pigment, except its extreme depth. 
Haarlem blue is a similar pigment 

Antwerp brown, a preparation of 
asphaltum ground in strong drying 
oil, by which it becomes less liable 
to crack 

Anvil, a large block of iron with a 
very hard smooth horizontal sur- 
face on the top, in which there is 
a hole at one end, for the purpose 
of inserting various tools, and a 
strong steel chisel, on which a piece 
of iron may be laid, and cut through 
by a blow with a hammer 

A-peek, a nautical term implying that 
the cable is hove taut, so as to bring 
the vessel nearly over her anchor : 


the yards are a-peek when they are 
topped up by contrary lifts 

Aperture, an opening in a wall, door- 
way, or window 

Apex, the top or highest point of a 
cone, mountain, pyramid, spire, 
roof, &c. 

Apiary, a place where bees are kept 

Aplome, a mineral of a deep orange 

Aplustre, in early naval architecture, 
a carved tablet fixed on the ex- 
tremity of a ship's head 

Apodyterium, a dressing-room or ante- 
room to a bath in Roman villas, con- 
tiguous to the laconicum 

Apophyge, in architecture, that part 
of a column between the upper 
fillet of the base and the cylindrical 
shaft, which is usually curved into 
it by a concave sweep or inverted 

Apostles (the) of Jesus Christ were his 
chief disciples, whom he invested 
with his authority, filled with his 
spirit, and instructed particularly 
in his doctrines and services : they 
were chosen to raise the edifice of 
his church; and, after his resurrec- 
tion, sent into all the world, com- 
missioned to preach, to baptize, and 
to work miracles. The names of 
the twelve were, 1. Peter. 2. An- 
drew. 3. John. 4. Philip. 5. James, 
major. G.Bartholomew. 7. Thomas. 
8. Matthew. 9. Simon. 10. Jude. 
11. James, minor. 12. Judas Is- 
cariot. The last betrayed his mas- 
ter, and having hanged himself, 
Matthias was chosen in his place 

Apotheca, a place in the upper part 
of the house, in which the Romans 
frequently placed their wines in 
earthen amphorae ; also an apothe- 
cary's shop, a cabinet, storehouse, 

Apothesis, a recess on the south side 
of the chancel of a church, fitted 
up with shelves for books, vest- 
ments, &c. 

Apparatus, a term denoting a com- 
plete set of instruments belonging 
to an artist or a mechanist 

Appaumee, in heraldry, to extend the 




palm of the hand and the thumb 
and fingers at full length 

Appian way, a celebrated road lead- 
ing from Rome to Brundusium : so 
named from Appius Claudius 

Appii forum, the forum built by Ap- 
pius, the Roman consul, about 50 
miles distant from Rome, near the 
modern town of Piperno, on the 
way to Naples. The uses to which 
the Romans applied the forum were 
so various, that it is not easy to as- 
certain the nature of the building. 
It might have been a place for the dis- 
tribution of justice, or for holding a 
market. The 'Three Taverns' were 
nearer to Rome than the Appii 
forum, as Cicero intimates, who, 
in going from Rome, a little before 
he came to the forum of Appius, 
arrived at the Three Taverns; so 
that probably the chief number of 
Christians waited for the Apostle 
Paul at a place of refreshment, 
while some of their number went 
forward to meethim and to acquaint 
him with their expectation of seeing 
him among them, and for which 
they respectfully waited his coming. 

Apple-tree, a wood generally hard 
and close, and of reddish-brown 
tints, used commonly in Tunbridge 
turnery, &c. 

Apricot-tree, a native wood of Ar- 
menia, used by the French in 

Apron, the sill or lower part of a win- 
dow ; a platform or flooring of plank 
raised at the entrance of a dock : in 
naval architecture, a piece of curved 
timber fixed behind the lower part 
of the stern of a ship 

Apsis, the east end of a church or 
chancel; sometimes applied to a 
canopy over an altar ; also to a 
circle about a star or planet 

Apsis gradata, a bishop's throne in 
cathedral churches 

Apyrous, a chemical term applied to 
refractory bodies which resist heat 

Aquafortis, in chemistry, nitric acid 
diluted ; the more concentrated is 
named spirit of nitre 


Aqua-male, a holy-water basin 

Aqua regia, nitro- muriatic acid; a 
compound of two parts nitric acid 
and one part muriatic acid 

Aquatinta, in the arts, engraving 
which resembles drawings in Indian 

Aqua tofano, a poisonous liquor 

Aqueduct, a conduit for water : a con- 
struction of stone or timber, built 
on uneven ground, to preserve the 
level of water, and convey it by a 
canal from one place to another 

Aquemola, a water-mill 

Aquila, a reading-desk, so called from 
its shape being that of an eagle 
with extended wings, supported by 
a pedestal 

Arabesque, generally applied to a style 
of ornament for pilasters, friezes, 
&c., as those painted by Rafaelle 
in the Vatican 

Arabo-tedesco, a term applied to the 
Moorish style of buildings in Spain, 

Ara dignitatis, an altar at which none 
but the highest ecclesiastics perform 
divine riies 

Ar&ostyle, in architecture, the great- 
est interval or distance which can 
be made between columns, that is, 
eight modules or four diameters ; 
also a species of temple which has 
its columns placed widely asunder 

Arbor, a spindle or axis upon which a 
ring or wheel is turned in a lathe 

Arbor Diance, in chemistry, crystals 
formed by the combination of sil- 
ver and mercury 

Arbores, brass branches for lights sus- 
pended from ceilings 

Arboretum, a grove of trees in a park, 
pleasure-ground, or garden 

Arbor vit&, a tree which attains to a 
height of from 40 to 50 feet ; its 
wood is of a reddish colour, very 
light, soft, and fine-grained, and is 
much used in house carpentry 

Arc, in geometry, part of the circum- 
ference of a circle, or any curve 
lying between two points ; a bow, 
vault, or arch 

Area, a place in a vaulted chamber 
for sepulchral purposes ; an exca- 




vation before the basement story 
of a house ; an enclosed space ; a 
chest in which the Romans depo- 
sited their money: the word is also 
used to signify a beam of wood 
which has a groove or channel hol- 
lowed in it from one end to the 

Arcade, a series of recesses with 
arched ceilings or soffits ; a covered 
passage ; in modern appliances, a 
vaulted avenue, now much in vogue, 
more particularly in Paris. Arcades, 
though less magnificent than colon- 
nades, are of extraordinary beauty 
when well contrived, affording shade 
from the sun and shelter from the 
rain. Though not so magnificent 
as colonnades, they are stronger, 
more solid, and less expensive. 
They are proper for triumphal en- 
trances, gates of cities, of palaces, 
of gardens, and of parks; for public 
squares, markets, or large courts in 
general, and for all apertures that 
require an extraordinary width. 

of arcades may be decorated with 
columns, pilasters, niches, and aper- 
tures of different forms. The arch 
itself may be turned either with 
rock-worked or plain rustic arch 
stones or voussoirs, or with an 
archivolt properly moulded. The 
keystone is generally carved in the 
form of a console, or sculptured 
with some head, or the like. The 
archivolt springs from an impost or 
plat-band, or sometimes from co- 
lumns ; but this is not to be prac- 
tised except in cases of the most 
urgent nature, for it makes neither 
substantial nor beautiful work. 

In arches that are of large dimen- 
sions, the keystone should never be 
omitted ; its carving, however, may 
be dispensed with, if expense be an 
object. When the piers are deco- 
rated with disengaged columns, the 
entablature must break round over 
the columns; and the columns, 
whether engaged cr not, should 
stand either on a pedestal or high 
plinth, by which means they will 


not only be kept dry, but their 
bases will likewise be protected 
from accidental damage. Arches 
must always rise from an impost or 
a plat-band; and if there be no 
keystone to the archivolt, its sum- 
mit should be kept down from the 
under side of the architrave of the 
accompanying order, at least half 
the distance that it would be, were 
a keystone employed, in order 
that the disagreeable appearance of 
the acute angle which it would 
otherwise form with the architrave 
may be avoided. 

height of arches to the under side 
of their crowns should not exceed 
twice their clear width, nor should 
it be much less ; the piers not 
less than one-third the breadth of 
the arch, nor more than two-thirds; 
but the piers at the angles should 
be wider than the other piers by 
one-half or one-fourth at least 

Area, in Roman architecture, the 
gutters of the cavedium 

Arc-boutant, a kind of arched but- 
tress formed of a flat arch, or part 
of an arch, and abutting against the 
feet or sides of another arch or 
vault, to support them, and prevent 
them from bursting or giving way 

Arcella, in mediaeval architecture, a 

Arch, the curved part of a building, 
supported at its extremities only, 
and concave towards the earth ; a 
vaulted roof, or dome, constructed 
either with bricks, stone, or other 
materials : the arch of a bridge is 
formed of segments of a circle, 
elliptical or catenarian ; in Christian 
architecture, arches display twenty- 
two varieties of form. Arches 
are used in large intercolumni- 
ations of spacious buildings ; in 
porticoes, both within and without 
temples; in public halls, as ceil- 
ings, the courts of palaces, cloisters, 
theatres, and amphitheatres : they 
also are used to cover the cellars in 
the foundations of houses and pow- 
der-magazines ; also as buttresses 


and counterforts, to support large 
walls laid deep in the earth ; 
for triumphal arches, gates, win- 
dows, &c. ; and, above all, for the 
foundations of bridges and aque- 
ducts : they are supported by piers, 
abutments, imposts, &c. Arches 
are of several kinds, circular, ellip- 
tical, cycloidal, catenarian, &c., ac- 
cording as their curve is in the form 
of a circle, ellipse, cycloid, cate- 
nary, &c. Arches are to be found 
in the Greek theatres, stadia, and 
gymnasia, some of them erected 
probably 400 years before Christ. 
The most ancient arches of which 
we have correct data are those of 
the cloacae at Rome. The emperor 
Hadrian threw a bridge over the 
Cephisus, between the territories of 
Attica and Eleusis, on the most 
frequented road of Greece. 
Arch (the theory of). This important 
subject has exercised the talents 
and ingenuity of some of the great- 
est mathematicians in modern 
times, and many different solutions 
have been given to the various pro- 
blems connected with it ; but, as 
the greater part of them are founded 
on suppositions that have no exist- 
ence whatever either in nature or 
practice, they have had a tendency 
rather to mislead than direct those 
who are engaged in the operations 
of bridge-building. Dr. Olinthus 
Gregory, in the preface to his ex- 
cellent work on Mechanics, states, 
that " theoretical and practical men 
will most effectually promote their 
mutual interests, not by affecting 
to despise each other, but by blend- 
ing their efforts ; and further, that 
an essential service will be done to 
mechanical science, by endeavour- 
ing to make all the scattered rays 
of light they have separately thrown 
upon this region of human know- 
ledge converge to one point." 
Gauthey, speaking of the theory of 
La Hire, observes that such analy- 
tical researches are founded on hy- 
potheses which every day's experi- 
ence contradicts. The following are 



the principal writers on the equilib- 
rium of the arch. In 1691, the ce- 
lebrated mathematicians, Leibnitz, 
Huygens*, James and John Ber- 
nouilli, solved the problem of the 
catenary curve: it was soon perceiv- 
ed that this was precisely the curve 
of that should be given to an arch 
which the materials were infinitely 
small and of equal weight, in order 
that all its parts may be in equili- 
brium. In the ' Philosophical 
Transactions' for the year 1697, it 
is stated that David Gregoiy first 
noticed this identity; but his mode 
of argument, though sufficiently 
rigorous, appears not to be so per- 
spicuous as could be desired. In 
one of the posthumous works of 
James Bernouilli, two direct solu- 
tions of this problem are given, 
founded on the different modes of 
viewing the action of the voussoirs : 
the first is clear, simple, and precise, 
and easily leads to the equation of 
the curve, which he shows to be 
the catenary inverted ; the second 
requires a little correction, which 
Cramer, the editor of his works, 
has pointed out. In 1695, La 
Hire, in his ' Treatise on Mecha- 
nics,' laid down, from the theory of 
the wedge, the proportion accord- 
ing to which the absolute weight 
of the materials of masonry ought 
to be increased from the keystone 
to the springing in a semicircular 
arch. The historian of the Acade- 
my of Sciences relates, in the vo- 
lume for the year 1704, that Parent 
determined on the same principle, 
but only by points, the figure of the 
extrados of an arch, the intrados 
being a semicircle, and found the 
force or thrust of a similar arch 
against the piers. In the ' Memoirs 
of the Academy of Sciences' for the 
year 1712, La Hire gave an inves- 
tigation of the thrusts in arches 
under a point of view suggested by 
his own experiments : he supposed 
that arches, the piers of which had 
not solidity enough to resist the 
thrust, split towards the haunches 




at an elevation of about 45 degrees 
above the springings or impost; he 
consequently regarded the upper 
part of the arch as a wedge that 
tends to separate or overturn the 
abutments, and determined, on the 
theory of the wedge and the lever, 
the dimensions which they ought 
to have to resist this single effort. 
Couplet, in a memoir composed of 
two parts, the first of which was 
printed in the volume of the Aca- 
demy for 1729, treats of the thrusts 
of arches and the thickness of the 
voussoirs, by considering the mate- 
rials infinitely small, and capable of 
sliding over each other without any 
pressure or friction. But, as this 
hypothesis is not exactly conform- 
able to experiment, the 2nd part of 
the memoir, printed in the volume 
for 1730, resumes the question by 
supposing that the materials have 
not the power of sliding over each 
other, but that they can raise them- 
selves and separate by minute rota- 
tory motions. It cannot, however, 
be said that Couplet has added 
materially to the theories of La 
Hire and Parent, and none of them 
treated the subject, either in theory 
and practice, in such a satisfactory 
manner as was afterwards done by 
Coulomb. S ubsequently a memoir 
was published by Bouguer on the 
curve lines that are most proper 
for the formation of the arches 
of domes. He considers that there 
may be an infinite number of curve 
lines employed for this purpose, 
and points out the mode of select- 
ing them. He lays it down uni- 
formly that the voussoirs have their 
surfaces infinitely smooth, and es- 
tablishes, on this hypothesis, the 
conditions of equilibrium in each 
horizontal course of the dome, but 
has not given any method of inves- 
tigating the thrusts of arches of 
this kind, nor of the forces that 
act upon the masonry when the 
generating curve is subjected to 
given conditions. In 1770, Bossut 
gave investigations of arches of the 


different kinds, in two memoirs, 
which were printed among those 
of the Academy of Sciences for the 
years 1774 and 1776: he appears 
to have been engaged in this in 
consequence of some disputes con- 
cerning the dome of the French 
Pantheon, begun by the celebrated 
architect Soufflot, and finished from 
his designs. In 1772, Dr. Hutton 
published his principles of bridges, 
in which he investigated the form 
of curves for the intrados of an 
arch, the extrados being given, and 
vice versa. He set out by develop- 
ing the properties of the equili- 
brated polygon, which is extremely 
useful in the equilibrium of struc- 
tures. Mr. Attwood has written a 
dissertation on the construction of 
arches on the same principles as La 

Arch, in architecture, a concave struc- 
ture raised or turned upon a mould, 
called the centering, in form of the 
arc of a curve, and serving as the 
inward support of some superstruc- 
ture. Sir Henry Wotton says, " An 
arch is nothing but a narrow or 
contracted vault ; and a vault is a 
dilated arch." 

Arch, in geometry, a part of any 
curved line, as of a circle or ellipsis 

Arch, in masonry, a part of a building 
suspended over a hollow, and con- 
cave towards the area of the hollow : 
the top of the wall or walls which 
receives the first arch-stones is 
technically called the abutment or 

Arch, in mining, a piece of ground left 

Arch-buttress, a piece of insulated 
masonry usually named a flying- 
buttress, extending from the cleres- 
tory of a church and over the roof 
of its aisle, where it rests on the 
buttress of the outer wall 

Arch of equilibration, that which is in 
equilibrium in all its parts, having 
no tendency to break in one part 
more than in another 

Arch, triumphal, a building of which 
an arch is the principal feature, 




usually raised to commemorate 
some great achievement 

Archaeology, the study of ancient art, 
but more particularly that of the 
middle ages 

Arched, in mining : the roads in a 
mine, when built with stones or 
bricks, are generally arched level 

Archeion, a recess in a Grecian tem- 
ple, for the reception of the trea- 
sures of the deity to whom the 
temple was dedicated 

Archeion, in Athens, the office in 
which the decrees of the people 
and other state documents were 

Archetus, a saw for cutting stones : 
Muratori used the term for a crane 
or pulley for raising stones to the 
upper part of a building 

Archimedean screw, a machine in- 
vented by Archimedes for raising 
water ; also now applied to propel 
vessels through water 

Architect, a person skilled in the art 
of building; one who forms, plans, 
and designs for edifices, conducts 
the work, and directs the secondary 
artificers employed ; and whose 
emoluments are generally 5 per 
cent, on the amount of money ex- 

Architecture, a science applicable to 
the art of constructing domestic, 
ecclesiastical, municipal, palatial, 
or other buildings, and the adorn- 
ment of the same according to the 
rules of the several orders, Doric, 
Ionic, and Corinthian, also the Tus- 
can, and Composite, from Roman 
models, or other styles, each for its 
purpose, such as is usually called 
Gothic architecture, and modes 
subservient to climate and fashion, 
or caprice. " Architecture," says 
Palladio, " being grounded upon 
rules taken from the imitation of 
Nature, admits of nothing that is 
contrary or foreign to that order 
which Nature has prescribed to all 
things. An architect is not re- 
strained from departing sometimes 
from common methods or usage, 


provided such variation be agree- 
able and natural." 

The public at large has a claim 
over the architecture of a coun- 
try. It is common property, in- 
asmuch as it involves the national 
taste and character; and no man 
has a right to pass off his own 
barbarous inventions as the na- 
tional taste, and to hand down to 
posterity his own ignorance and dis- 
grace to become a satire and a libel 
on the knowledge and taste of his 
age. There is perhaps no subject 
on which persons are more apt to 
differ in their opinions than on the 
beauty of a building. In archi- 
tecture the creative power of Nature 
herself is the model imitated. It 
is an art which appeals directly to 
the understanding, and has not the 
means of flattering the senses in 
the same way as the sister arts : 
hence its productions are not uni- 
versally appreciated. The beautiful 
models of Nature, however, are the 
index and guide of the painter and 
sculptor : a successful imitation of 
these models, even without an ad- 
vance on the part of the artist 
towards those higher intellectual 
beauties which distinguish the his- 
torical painter, is capable of affecting 
us with very agreeable sensations. 
The object of an artist's inquiry is 
not so much to investigate meta- 
physically the cause of beauty in 
the productions of his art, as to 
study the effects that flow from 
those which by the common con- 
sent of ages are esteemed beautiful, 
and thus shorten his road by an a 
priori method. It is in this way 
that he will more readily obtain 
information on those qualities which 
act on the understanding and ex- 
cite our affections by means of the 
beautiful result they exhibit. These 
qualities may be classed as fol- 

qualities which affect the eye. 

ties which affect the understanding. 




qualities which excite the affec- 
tions, in which taste is the prin- 
cipal guide. 

These qualities answer to the 
three divisions which those who 
have written on architecture have 
usually adopted, namely 

CONSTRUCTION, in which the 
chief requisites are solidity and 

which the principal requisites are 
order and harmony. 

DECORATION, whose requisites 
are richness or simplicity, according 
to the nature of the composition. 

That there are, however, many 
other circumstances which tend to 
the production of an agreeable and 
beautiful result, is sufficiently ob- 
vious: one of them should be more 
particularly noticed, because there 
can be no doubt of its influence in 
the excitement of our admiration 
of the splendid monuments of Gre- 
cian art ; it is an association with 
the times and countries which are 
most hallowed in our imagination. 
It is difficult for us to see them, 
even in their modern copies, with- 
out feeling them operate upon our 
minds, as relics of those polished 
nations where they first arose, and 
of that great people by whom they 
were afterwards borrowed. 

The business of an architect re- 
quires him rather to be a learned 
judge than a skilful operator ; and 
when he knows how to direct and 
instruct others with precision, to 
examine, judge, and value their 
performances with masterly accu- 
racy, he may truly be said to have 
acquired all that most men can ac- 
quire : there are but few instances 
of such prodigies as Michael An- 
gelo Buonarotti, who was at once 
the first architect, painter, geome- 
trician, anatomist, and sculptor of 
his time. 

Vitruvius furthermore observes, 
that an art enriched with such 
variety of knowledge is only to be 


learned by long and constant appli- 
cation ; and advises his contempo- 
raries never to assume the title of 
architects till they are perfect mas- 
ters of their own profession, and of 
the arts and sciences with which it 
is connected ; a caution that even 
in the present times may perhaps 
not be unnecessary. 
Architecture (the application of the 
orders of). Among the ancients, 
the use of the orders was very fre- 
quent; many parts of their cities 
were provided with spacious porti- 
coes, their temples were surround- 
ed with colonnades, and their the- 
atres, baths, basilicse, triumphal 
arches, mausolea, bridges, and other 
public buildings were profusely 
enriched with columns; as were 
likewise the courts, vestibules, and 
halls of their private villas and 

In pure architecture, says A. W. 
Pugin , the smallest detail should have 
a meaning or serve a purpose ; and 
even the construction itself should 
vary with the material employed, and 
thedesigns should be adapted to the 
material in which they are executed. 

Strange as it may appear at first 
sight, it is in pointed architecture 
alone that these great principles 
have been carried out : we may be 
enabled to illustrate them from the 
vast cathedral to the simplest erec- 
tion. Moreover, the architects of 
the middle ages were the first who 
turned the natural properties of 
the various materials to their full 
account, and made their mechanism 
a vehicle for their art. The won- 
derful strength and solidity of their 
buildings are the result, not of quan- 
tity or size of the stones employed, 
but of the art of their disposition. 

On the following page is a synopsis 
of the proportions of the orders, 
and of the various examples of 
each, compiled expressly by Mr. 
W. H. Leeds for Pugin's edition of 
Normand's 'Parallel of the Or- 


Names of the Orders. 








T3 g P. 


Jl ft 

7 i o 

5 1 
5 1 
4 15 
5 25 
6 20 
8 10 
5 1 
7 1 18 
7 1 
8 1 

8 1 2| 
8 1 
8 1 15 
7 1 

9 1 15 
9 15 
9 1 
10 6 
9 1 164 
9 1 44 

ll * 

T3 5 ft 


1 2f 

o 9* 
o 134 


o 14 

1 l| 
1 If 

o o 264 
o i 04 


o i 14 


o 71 
o 124 



o 54 


o o 27 

a -a 

* ~ 

T3 8 ft 


o 24 


o 144 


o 114 


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T3 S ft 

1 9 
1 5 

o i 194 

1 254 

o i 24 
o i 7 

1 14 

1 Serlio 

Vignola . 


Temple of Theseus, do. ... 

. . . 

Portico of Philip do. ... 

Temple at Corinth 
Propyleeum at Athens .... 

Theatre of Marcellus, Rome . 





o 214 

1 16 
1 15 
1 15 
1 15 
1 15 
1 15 
1 15 
1 15 

1 19 

1 184 

Doric Order at Albano .... 

Baths of Diocletian . 



1 Of 

o o 204 
o o 224 

1 84 

o o 224 






Temple on the Ilissus .... 
Temple of Minerva Polias, Athens 
Temple of Erechtheus, Athens . 
Temple of Fortuna Virilis . . . 
Theatre of Marcellus .... 
Baths of Diocletian . 


o 74 


o 164 
o 124 
o 134 


o 144 


o 134 



1 254 

1 6 
1 15 

o o 224 


1 94 
1 124 
1 10 
1 13i 
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1 12 
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1 14^ 
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1 10 
o 1 9i 
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1 2 
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1 14 
1 14 
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Serlio ... . . 



Lantern of Demosthenes, Athens 
Temple of Jupiter Olympius, do. 
Incantada at Salonica .... 
Arch of Theseus, Athens . . . 
Temple of Jupiter Stator, Rome . 
Temple of Jupiter Tonans . . . 
Portico of the Pantheon . . . 
Interior of the Pantheon . . . 

Temple of Antoninus and Faustina 


o o 204 


9 1 64 
9 l 7 

Temple of Mars the Avenger . . 

Basilica of Antoninus .... 
Temple of the Sibyl. Tivoli . . 


o o 164 


1 14 

10 llf 
9 25 
9 1 

10 6 
9 1 10 
9 1 15 




Arch of Titus . . 

Arch of Septimius Severus . . 
Baths of Diocletian . . 




Caryatides of the Temple of-i 
Pandrosus j 






Diameter of 

Architecture, Naval, the art of con- 
structing ships and vessels to float 
on the waters. Naval architecture 
has suffered more than most other 
sciences by the arbitrary systems 
of those interested in its improve- 
ment. Disregarding the fundamen- 
tal principles of all floating bodies, 
and too hastily giving up as hope- 
less the attainment of a theory 
combining experiment with esta- 
blished scientific principles, they 
have contented themselves with 
ingeniously inventing mechanical 
methods of forming the designs of 
ships' bodies, which they did not 
even pretend to prove had any 
connexion with the properties of 
the machine necessary to insure 
the qualities conducive to its in- 
tended use. For instance, some 
invented methods of forming ships' 
bodies of arcs of circles ; others, of 
arcs of ellipses, parabolas, or of 
whatever curve they might arbi- 
trarily assume. They did not at- 
tempt to show that these curves 
possessed any property which would 
render a ship a faster sailer, a more 
weatherly or safer ship, than any 
other curves which might have 
been adopted in tiie construction 
of the ship's body 
Architholus, a round chamber, the 
sudatorium of a Roman bath 
Architrave, the lower of the three 
principal members of the entabla- 
ture of an order, being the chief 
beam resting immediately on the 
Architrave cornice, an entablature 
consisting of an architrave and cor- 
nice only, without the interposition 
of a frieze 
Architrave doors, those which have 
an architrave on the jambs and 
over the door 
Architrave windows, of timber, are 
usually an ogee raised out of the 
solid timber, with a roll over it 
Archivolt, a collection of members 
in the face of an arch, concentric 
with the intrados, and supported 
by imposts 


1 134 
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1 10 


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feet, inches. 

2 20 
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2 25 
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6 1ft 
6 1ft 
7 0'03 

2' 5 : 10* 

4 4'05 


1 2 

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1 20 
1 1 23 


1 1 25 
1 1 25 

2 16 
2 174 

2 1 15 
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. . . 

. . . 

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1 1 20 
2 1 5 

1 9'4 
2 9'4 
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o 274 


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2 204 
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2 64 
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2 15$ 
2 284 
2 164 
2 26$ 
2 234 

2 74 

. . . 

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1 2 
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2 5' 9" 

1 1 5 
1 1 34 
2 15 
2 24 

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1 1 

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2 14 
2 20 

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4 8& 
4 11 
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2' 'll'tk 
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2* '4 

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1 1 254 





Archivolt of the arch of a bridge, 
the curve line formed by the upper 
sides of the arch-stones in the face 
of the work ; it is sometimes un- 
derstood to be the whole set of 
arch-stones which appear in the 
face of the work 

Archivoltum, a cesspool or common 

Archway, an aperture in a building 
covered with a vault 

Arcula, a small coffer or box 

Arcus, an area in the form of an an- 
cient basilica : 

Arcus, an arch. A true arch is formed 
of a series of wedge-like stones or 
of bricks, supporting each other, 
and all bound together by their 
mutual pressure 

Arcus-toralis, in mediaeval architec- 
ture, the lattice separating the choir 
from the nave in a basilica 

Ardesia, a slate used in Italy for co- 
vering roofs 

Area, in geometry, the superficial 
content of any figure 

Areas, in computing the superficial 
content of land, are generally ex- 
pressed in statute acres, roods, and 
perches. The acre is equal to 10 
square chains of 66 jfeet, or 22 
yards in length 

Arena, the area or floor of an amphi- 

Arenarium, an amphitheatre, ceme- 
tery, crypt, or sepulchre 

Areometer, an instrument for mea- 
suring the density or gravity of 

Areopagus, the court in which the 
areopagites, or supreme judges of 
Athens, assembled 

Areostylos, intercolumniations, when 
their distance from each other is 
four diameters 

Arerde, reared, built, or raised up 

Argand lamp, a lamp with a circular 
wick, through which a current of 
air passes 

Argent, in heraldry, in the blazoning 
of arms, signifies also white or silver 

Argyrocopeion, the mint at Athens 

Ark, a shelter, a place of protec- 
tion from floods : in the time of 


Moses a coffer or sort of bark, 
in shape and appearance like a 
chest or trunk; also described by 
Moses as a little wicker basket in 
which he was exposed on the Nile. 
The ancients inform us that the 
Egyptians used on the Nile barks 
made of bulrushes. Noah's Ark 
was, in all probability, in form like 
these Egyptian boats, but much 
larger. If we reckon the Hebrew 
cubit at 21 inches, the ark of Noah 
was 512 feet long, 87 wide, and 
52 high ; and the internal capacity 
of it was 357,600 cubical cubits. 
If we suppose the cubit to be only 
18 inches, its length was 450 feet, 
its width 75, and its height 45. 
Its figure was an oblong square ; 
the covering had a declivity to 
carry off water. Its length ex- 
ceeded that of most churches in 
Europe. The wood used for the ark 
was called gopher-wood, square 
pieces of wood, cedar or box, or 
woods that do not easily perish; 
some supposed it to have been con- 
structed of Cyprus wood 

ArJe : " And this is the fashion which 
thou shalt make it of; the length 
of the ark shall be three hundred 
cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, 
and the height of it thirty cubits." 
Gen. vi. 15. 

Ark (Noah's), supposed by some 
authors to be a mere variation 
from the customary construction of 
houses for residence, and to change 
its character from that of a house 
for standing, to that of a house for 
floating. Niebuhr compares it with 
ordinary houses of the east, that 
the sides are constructed of upright 
supports of timber, which are plas- 
tered over with clay. The appli- 
cation of canes, split and laid across 
these quarterings, is very like the 
usage of laths, which are common 
every where. The same may be 
said of the coating of bitumen : the 
substance was employed on account 
of its property of resisting water ; 
the mode of its application might 
be similar to our plastering. 




Armarium, a niche or cupboard near 
the side of an altar 

Armiger, in heraldry, an armour- 
bearer, an esquire 

Armilla, an ornament worn by Greek 
men and women as a bracelet or an 

Armour, a defensive clothing of metal 

Armoury, a storehouse or room in 
which armour is preserved 

Arnotta (colour), the name of a vege- 
table substance from the West 
Indies, of an orange-red colour, 
soluble in water and spirit of wine, 
but very fugitive and changeable, 
and not adapted for painting. It is 
principally used by the dyer, and 
in colouring cheese. It is also an 
ingredient in lacquering 

Aronade, embattled, a junction of 
several lines forming indentations 

Arris, in joinery and masonry, the 
line of concourse, edge, or meeting 
of two surfaces 

Arris fillet, a slight piece of timber 
of a triangular section, used in 
raising the slates against chimney 
shafts, &c. 

Arris gutter, a wooden gutter of the 
V form, fixed to the eaves of a 

Arris-wise, in bricklaying, tiles laid 

Arrondee, in heraldry, the carved 
cross, the arms which terminate in 
the escutcheon 

Arschin, a Russian measure of length, 
equal to 2 feet English 

Arsenal, a building for naval or mili- 
tary stores 

Arsenic, a white metal of a crystal- 
line appearance, and very brittle. 
It sublimes out of the air unchanged 
at 360, but in air it is oxidated, 
and becomes arsenious acid; it is 
occasionally found alone, but is ge- 
nerally combined with nickel, co- 
balt, and other metals 

Artesian wells, so called from a mode 
practised in Artois in boring for 

Artificer, one who possesses a supe- 
rior knowledge as an artist or ma- 


Asarotum, a kind of chequered pave- 
ment used by the Romans 

Ash, a superior woodof British growth, 
of a brownish white, with a shade 
of green ; it is tough and elastic, and 
superior to any other wood exposed 
to sudden shocks and strains ; used 
for frames of machines, wheel car- 
riages, inside work of furniture, &c. 

Ashlar, a term applied to common or 
free stones as they come out of the 
quarry. By ashlar is also meant 
the facing of squared stones on the 
front of a building : if the work be 
so smoothed as to take out the 
marks of the tools by which the 
stones were first cut, it is called 
plane ashlar; if figured, tooled ash- 
lar, or random tooled, or chiselled, 
or bousted, or pointed: if the stones 
project from the joints, it is said to 
be rusticated 

Ashlar, or Achelor, hewn stone, used 
for the facings of walls 

Ashlering, in carpentry, the fixing of 
short upright quarterings between 
the rafters and the floor 

Ash-pan, in locomotive engines, an 
iron box, open to the front only, 
attached to the fire-box to receive 
the ashes from the fire 

Asphalt, native bitumen used with 
pitch as a substitute for pavement 

Asphaltum, a bituminous substance, 
used for pavements and as a build- 
ing material 

Asphaltum, called also Bitumen, 
Mineral Pitch, &c.; it is a resinous 
substance rendered brown by the 
action of the fire, natural or artifi- 
cial. The substances employed in 
painting under this name are the 
residua of the distillation of various 
resinous and bituminous matters 
in preparing their essential oils, 
and are all black and glossy like 
common pitch, which differs from 
them only in having been less 
acted upon by fire, and in their 
being softer. Asphaltum is prin- 
cipally used in oil-painting ; for 
which purpose it is first dissolved 
in oil of turpentine, by which it is 
fitted for glazing and shading. Its 




fine brown colour and perfect 
transparency are lures to its free 
use with many artists notwith- 
standing the certain destruction 
which awaits the work on which 
it is much employed, owing to its 
disposition to contract and crack 
from changes of temperature and 
the atmosphere 

Assay, to examine and prove metals 

Assay balance, a very accurate ba- 
lance, used in determining the ex- 
act weights of very small bodies 

Assaying, ascertaining the qualities 
of gold and silver with respect to 
their purity 

Assemblage, in carpentry and joinery, 
framing, dovetailing, &c. 

Assemblage of the Orders in archi- 
tecture, the placing of columns upon 
one another in the several ranges 

Asserts, small rafters immediately 
beneath the tiles of a roof 

Assurance, or Insurance, a contract to 
make good a loss 

Assurance Companies, or Societies, af- 
ford protection to persons from the 
chances or hazards to which their 
property or interests may be exposed. 
Assurance on human life is a 
contract by which a certain amount 
or capital is secured at the expira- 
tion of a stipulated period, either 
by the payment of a specified sum 
at the time of effecting the assur- 
ance, or by the annual payment of 
a smaller amount, according to the 
age of a person whose life is assured. 
A person, with the view of se- 
curing a certain sum of money to 
his family after his death, desires 
to effect an assurance, either for a 
determinate period, as one, three, 
five, seven, ten, or more years, or 
for the whole term of his life. In 
the first case, if the person whose 
life is assured, die before the expi- 
ration of the term specified in the 
policy, his inheritors receive the 
amount for which the assurance has 
been effected; but, if the assured 
live beyond that period,they receive 
nothing, and the assurer reaps the 
advantage of the contingency. In 


the latter case, that is, by assur- 
ance for the whole term of life, 
the inheritors are entitled to re- 
ceive the amount named in the 
policy, upon proof of the death of 
the person whose life has been as- 
sured. To prevent the forfeiture 
of the policy, it is in all cases es- 
sentially important that the con- 
ditions upon which it has been 
granted be strictly complied with. 
The calculation as to the amount 
of premium should be made ac- 
cording to mathematical expecta- 
tion, that is, equitably as to both 
parties, allowing a fair rate of pro- 
fit to the party granting the assur- 
ance. If the terms for assuring 
100 be required, for one year, 
the probability must depend on the 
age of the person whose life is pro- 
posed to be assured ; and in equity 
the sum to be paid should be equal 
to the value of the expectation, 
multiplied by the probability of its 
being obtained. Should the age of 
the person be 40 years, the probabi- 
lity of death in the course of the 
year will be, according to the ta- 
bles of mortality generally adopted, 
^timr; and this fraction, multiplied 
by 100, gives the price of the as- 
surance, namely, 1-74 nearly. The 
result, according to the tables of 
mortality used in France, is T89. 
This is the rate charged by the 
' Genei'al Assurance Company ' es- 
tablished at Brussels ; but the ' Bel- 
gic and Strangers' Union Society' 
charges at the rate of 1-87. Both 
societies adopt Dubillard's table of 
of mortality, which is deposited in 
the Bureau of Longitude in Paris. 

The profit to the assurer thus 
appears to be reduced to the in- 
terest on the sum paid by the as- 
sured; but persons in health being 
alone accepted, the chance of pro- 
fit thereby becomes considerable. 
For a longer term than one year, 
the calculations are made on an 
estimate of the probable amount of 
interest derivable from the pre- 
mium paid by the assurer. 




Astel, in mining, a board or plank, 
an arch or ceiling of boards, over 
the men's heads in a mine, to pro- 
tect them 

Astragal, a small moulding, whose 
contour is circular, at the neck of 
the shafts of columns, next the apo- 
physes : it also occurs in the base 
of Ionic columns, and below the 
fasciae of the Corinthian epistylium 

Astronomy, a mixed mathematical 
science, which treats of the hea- 
venly bodies, their motions, periods, 
eclipses, magnitudes, &c., and of the 
causes on which they depend : the 
knowledge of astronomy is essential 
in navigation and in measuring the 
earth's surface ; the diameter of 
this, the third planet in the system, 
is 7924 miles and 7 furlongs 

Astylar, a term which expresses the 
absence of columns or pilasters, 
where they might otherwise be 
supposed to occur 

Astyilen, in mining, a small ward or 
stoppage in an adit or mine, to 
prevent the free and full passage 
of water, by damming up 

Asylum, in the Greek states, the tem- 
ples, altars, sacred groves, and 
statues of the gods ; a place pro- 
vided for the protection of debtors 
and criminals \vho fled for refuge 

Aticamite, prismatoidal green mala- 
chite, a native muriate of copper 

Athanor, an ancient term for a metal 

Athen&um, a school founded by the 
Emperor Hadrian at Rome for the 
promotion of literary and scientific 

Athwart-hawse, the situation of a ship 
when driven by the wind or tide 
across the fore-part of another 

Atlantes, in architecture, male figures, 
used similarly to the female Carya- 
tides, in place of columns 

Atmosphere, the invisible elastic fluid 
which surrounds the earth to an 
unknown exact height, and par- 
takes of all its motions ; the con- 
stituent parts are air, water, car- 
bonic acid gas, and unknown bodies. 
The atmosphere is measured by a co- 


lumn of mercury of 29'922 inches, 
which has been adopted in France 
as the mean height of the barome- 
ter at the surface of the sea 

Atmospheric currents, in high lati- 
tudes, when undisturbed, are west- 
erly, particularly in the winter sea- 
son. If storms and gales revolve 
by a fixed law, and we are able, by 
studying these disturbing causes of 
the usual atmospheric currents, to 
distinguish revolving gales, it is 
likely that voyages may be short- 
ened. The indications of a revolv- 
ing gale are, a descending barome- 
ter, and a regularly veering wind 

Atmospheric engine, an engine in 
which the steam is admitted only 
to the under side of the piston 
for the up-stroke ; it is then con- 
densed, and the top of the-cylinder 
being open, the down-stroke is 
caused by the pressure of the at- 
mosphere. Marine engines on this 
principle have three cylinders con- 
nected to one crank-shaft, to obtain 
uniformity of motion 

Atmospheric railway. The con elusions 
drawn by Mr. R. Stephenson are 
as follows : 1st, That the atmo- 
spheric system is not an economical 
mode of transmitting power, and 
inferior in this respect both to loco- 
motive engines and stationary en- 
gines with ropes. 2ndly, That it is 
not calculated practically to ac- 
quire and maintain higher veloci- 
ties than are comprised in the pre- 
sent working of locomotive engines. 
Srdly, That it would not in the ma- 
jority of instances produce economy 
in the original construction of rail- 
ways, and in many would most ma- 
terially augment their cost. 4thly, 
That on some short railways, where 
the traffic is large, admitting of 
trains of moderate weight, but re- 
quiring high velocities and frequent 
departures, and where the face of 
the country is such as to preclude 
the use of gradients suitable for 
locomotive engines,theatmospheric 
system would prove the most eli- 
gible. 5thly, That on short lines 




of railway, say four or five miles in 
length, in the vicinity of large towns, 
where frequent and rapid communi- 
cation is required between the ter- 
mini alone, the atmospheric system 
might be advantageously applied. 
6thly, That on short lines, such as 
the Blackwall Railway, where the 
traffic is chiefly derived from inter- 
mediate points, requiring frequent 
stoppages between the termini, the 
atmospheric system is inapplicable, 
being much inferior to the plan of 
disconnecting the carriages from a 
rope, for the accommodation of the 
intermediate traffic. 7thly, That on 
long lines of railway, the requisites 
of a large traffic cannot be attained 
by so inflexible a system as the 
atmospheric, in which the efficient 
operation of the whole depends so 
completely upon the perfect per- 
formance of each individual section 
of the machinery. 

Atmospheric vapour. Deluc proves 
the amount offeree and vapour in a 
vacuum of any given dimensions 
is equal to its force and quantity 
in an equal volume of air at the 
same temperature, or that the tem- 
perature of the air will determine 
the force and quantity of vapour 
held in it. M. Le Roi, however, 
first observed the temperature at 
which dew commences to be de- 
posited as a rule of ascertaining 
the moistnre of the atmosphere. 
Dr. Dalton investigated the force 
of vapour of every temperature, 
from Zero to the boiling point of 
water, Fahrenheit, and expressed 
this force by the weight of the 
mercurial column it could support 
in the tube of the barometer. 
Dalton and Le Roi find the clear 
point by pouring cold water into a 
glass, and marking the temperature 
at which it just ceases to deposit 
dew on the sides of the glass in the 
open air. The temperature here 
observed is the point at which dew 
would begin to be formed. From 
this Dalton infers not only the 
force exerted by the vapour, but 


also its amount in a perpendicular 
column of the whole atmosphere, 
and likewise the force of evapora- 
tion at the time of observation 

Atramentum, a dye made of soot 
mixed with burnt resin or pitch, 
used by the ancients, particularly 
by painters ; and also as a varnish 

Atrium, a term applied by the Romans 
to a particular part of a private 
house ; the court or hall of a Greek 
or Roman house entered imme- 
diately from the fauces of the ves- 

Attal, Attle, Adall, Addle, in mining, 
corrupt, impure off-casts in the 
working of mines 

Attic base, the base of a column of 
upper and lower torus, a scotia, 
and fillets between them 

Attic Order, a low order of architec- 
ture, used over a principal order, 
never with columns, but with antes 
or small pilasters 

Attics should not be less than one- 
quarter nor more than one-third 
of the order they surmount : they 
are frequently decorated with small 
short pilasters, whose breadth 
ought to be equal to the upper 
diameter of the column underneath 
them, and their projection usually 
not more than one-quarter of their 

At tic story, the upper story of a house 
when the ceiling is square with the 
sides, by which it is distinguished 
from a common garret 

Atticuryus, a term applied by Vitru- 
vius to the base of a column, which 
he describes as divided by a scotia 
or trochilus, with a fillet above 
and below, and beneath all a plinth 

Attle, in mining, rubbish, deads, re- 
fuse, or stony matter 

Attributes, in architecture, symbols 
given to figures, or disposed as 
ornaments on a building, to indicate 
a distinguished character 

Attrition, the rubbing of bodies one 
against another, so as to destroy 
their surfaces 

Auditorium, an apartment in monas- 
teries for the reception of strangers ; 




also a place where the Roman ora- 
tors and poets recited their compo- 

Auger, a tool for boring large holes ; 
it consists of a wooden handle, ter- 
minated at the bottom with steel 
Aula,a,n area or open place ; in ancient 
Roman architecture, a court or hall 
Auleolum, a small church or chapel 
Aureola, a crown of glory, given by 
statuaries, &c. to saints, &c. to de- 
note the victory they have obtained 
Aiirificina, a place for melting and re- 
fining gold, &c. 
Aurum, anciently, gold 
Automaton, an apparently self-acting 
machine, constructed of weights, 
levers, pulleys, means 
of which it continues in motion for 
a definite period 

Autometer, an instrument to mea- 
sure the quantity of moisture 
Avenue, a passage from one part of a 

building to another 
Aviary, an apartment or building for 

the keeping of birds 
Avolta, a place vaulted or arched over 
A-weather, the situation of the helm 
of a ship when it is put in the di- 
rection from which the wind blows 
Awning, a covering of canvass over the 
deck of a vessel, or over a boat, as 
shelter from the sun or rain 
Aval section, a section through the 

axis of a body 

Axes, the timbers of a roof which 
form two sides of a triangle, the 
tignum being the base : more gene- 
rally termed Principals 
Axiom, a self-evident truth 
Axis, in architecture, an imaginary 
line through the centre of a column, 
&c., or its geometrical representa- 
tion : where different members are 
placed over each other, so that the 
same vertical line, on the elevation, 
divides them equally, they are said 
to be on the same axis, although 
they may be on different planes : 
thus, triglyphs and modillions are 
so arranged, that one coincides with 
the axis or line of axis of each co- 
lumn : in like manner, the windows 
or other openings in the several 

stories of a fa9ade must all be in the 
same respective axis, whether they 
are all of the same breadth or not 
Axis, in geometry, the straight line in 
a plane figure, about which it re- 
volves to produce or generate a solid 
Axis, in mechanics : the axis of a 
balance is the line upon which it 
moves or turns 

Axis, in turning, an imaginary line 
passing longitudinally through the 
middle of the body to be turned, 
from one point to the other of the 
two cones, by which the work is 
suspended, or between the back 
centre and the centre of the collar 
of the puppet which supports the 
end of the mandril at the chuck 
Axis of a circle or sphere, any line 
drawn through the centre, and ter- 
minated at the circumference on 
both sides 
Axis of a cone, the line from the 

vertex to the centre of the base 
Axis of a cylinder, the line from the 
centre of the one end to that of the 

Axis in peritrochio, a wheel and axle, 
one of the five mechanical powers, 
or simple machines ; contrived 
chiefly for the raising of weights to 
a considerable height, as water 
from a well, &c. 

Axis of rotation, of any solid, the line 
about which the body really re- 
volves when it is put in motion 
Axle bearing, in locomotive engines, 
the gun-metal, or other metal bear- 
ing, under which the axle journal 
revolves : it is nicely fitted to the 
journal, and lubricated by a syphon, 
to reduce, as far as practicable, the 
friction on the journal 
Axle, in locomotive engines, journal 
or neck, the part of the axle turned 
and polished for revolving in the 
axle-box bearing 

Axle, leading, in locomotive engines, 
the front axle of the engine : eight- 
wheeled engines have two axles in 
front of the driving wheel axle, and 
they are often called leading axles 
Axle, trailing, the last axle of the en- 
gine, usually placed under the foot- 

B 5 




plate : in Stephenson's and Cramp- 
ton's patent engines, the driving 
wheel axle is the last axle 

Axles, in locomotive engines, the iron 
shafts supporting the engine, and 
on which the wheels are fixed 

Axles : driving wheel ; in locomotive 
engines, with inside cylinders, this 
is a cranked axle; with outside 
cylinders, it is a straight axle : it 
is called the driving axle because 
the connecting-rods and eccentric- 
rods connect this axle to the pis- 
tons, slide-valves, and pumps, and 
by converting the rectilinear mo- 
tion of the piston into a rotatory 
one, it propels or drives the engine 
in the direction required 

Axle-box, in locomotive engines, the 
box (usually cast iron) fitted up with 
a metal bearing in it, which rests 
upon the polished part of the axle 

Axle-box cover,in locomotive engines, 
the plate of iron (usually lined with 
leather) fitted to the top of the 
axle-box to keep the oil clean, and 
also from shaking out by the motion 
of the engine 

Axle-box syphon, in locomotive en- 
gines, the small tubes fitted into the 


BABEL, tower of, built by the posterity 
of Noah, after the Flood ; remark- 
able for its great height, and for 
the disappointment of the builders 
by the confusion of their language. 
It was erected in the plain of Shi- 
nar, upon the banks of the great 
river Euphrates, and near the place 
where the famous city of Babylon 
subsequently stood. " Let us build 
us a city and a tower whose top 
may reach unto heaven." Gen. xi. 
4. * * * The name of it is called 
Babel, because the Lord did there 
confound the language of all the 
earth, and from thence did the 
Lord scatter them abroad upon the 
face of all the earth." Ib. xi. 9 

Babylonian architecture takes its ap- 
pellation from the magnificence and 
extent of the public buildings of 


top of the axle-box for feeding oil on 
to the axle journal as it revolves : 
the oil is fed by a piece of cotton 
or worsted, having one end intro- 
duced into these pipes, and the other 
end lying down amongst the oil in 
the axle-box 

Axle-guards, or horn-plates, in loco- 
motive engines, the parts of the 
frame in which the axle-box slides 
up and down, as acted upon by 
the springs 

Axle-guard stays, in locomotive en- 
gines, the iron rods bolted to the 
frame and to all the ends of the 
axle-guards, to strengthen them 

Azimuth compass, an instrument used 
at sea for finding the sun's magnetic 

Azimuth dial, a dial of which the style 
or gnomon is perpendicular to the 
plane of the horizon 

Azote, in chemistry, an important 
constituent of atmospheric air, &c. ; 
also a gas called nitrogen, which, 
when breathed alone, destroys life 

Azure, in heraldry, the blue colour, 
in the shields of all persons under 
the rank of baron : in painting, a 
light or sky-coloured blue 


Babylon. This city was founded 
by Nimrod about 1665 years before 
Christ : its walls were 50 cubits 
thick and 200 in height, built of 
bricks made from the eai'th dug 
out of the ditch that surrounded 
the city. In the walls were 100 
gates made of brass ; the jambs and 
lintels were made of the same metal 
Babylonian engine. The engine that 
raised water from the Euphrates to 
supply the hanging gardens of Ba- 
bylon was constructed and used in 
this the most ancient and splendid 
city of the early age, founded by the 
builders of Babel, and enlarged by 
Nimrod; extended and beautified 
by Semiramis. This engine greatly 
exceeded in the perpendicular the 
the height to which the water was 
elevated by it. Extensive terraces 




were formed one above another to 
the top of the city walls ; and to 
supply them with the necessary 
moisture, the engine was erected, 
of which no account is known at 
the present time 

Bac, in navigation, a praam or ferry- 

Bac, in brewing, a cooler 

Baccalaureus, an ecclesiastical appari- 
tor or verger, who carries a staff 
of office 

Bacca, a light-house, watch-tower, or 

Baccharis, a ploughman's spikenard 

Back, the back of a lode is the part 
of it nearest the surface ; the back 
of a level is that part of the lode 
extending above it to within a short 
distance of the level above 

Back-board, in turning, that part of 
the lathe which is sustained by the 
four legs, and which sustains the 
pillars that support the puppet-bar ; 
the back-board is only used in the 
best constructed lathes 

Back centre screw, the screw for set- 
ting up the back centre of a lathe, 
to the work to be turned, after the 
puppet-head has been fixed 

Backed, a sea phrase, to back an an- 
chor, to carry out a smaller one a- 
head of the one by which the vessel 
rides, to take off some of the strain 

Back-ground, in painting, is the space 
of ground behind the principal ob- 
jects of the picture 

Back-links, the links in a parallel mo- 
tion which connect the air-pump 
rod to the beam 

Back of a hip, in carpentry, is the 
upper edge of a rafter between two 
sides of a hipped roof, formed to an 
angle, so as to range with the raft- 
ers on each side of it 

Back of a window, the board or wain- 
scotingbetween the sash -frames and 
the floor, uniting with the two elbows 
in the same plane with the shutters: 
when framed it is commonly with 
single panels, with mouldings on 
the framing corresponding with the 
doors, shutters, &c., in the apart- 
ment in which it is fixed 

Back-painting, the art of painting 
mezzotinto prints, on plate or 
crowned glass with oil colours 

Backs, in carpentry, the principal 
rafters of a roof 

Back-staff, an instrument invented by 
Capt. Davis for a sea quadrant, so 
named because the back of the ob- 
server is turned towards the sun 
when using it 

Back-stays, long ropes from the top- 
mast heads to both sides of the 
ship, where they are extended to 
the channels 

Back-stay stool, a short piece of plank 
fitted for the security of the dead 
eyes and chains for the back-stays, 
though sometimes the channels are 
left long enough at the after end for 
the back -stays to be fitted thereto 

Bac-maker a cooper who makes 
liquor bacs, &c. 

Baculometry, the art of measuring 
either accessible or inaccessible 
lines, by the help of baculi, staves, 
or rods 

Badigeon, in statuary, a mixture of 
plaster and freestone sifted and 
ground together, used by statuaries 
to repair defects in their work 

Baguette, a small moulding, like the 
astragal : when enriched with foli- 
age, it is called a chaplet ; when 
plain, a head 

Bagnio, a bath 

Bagpipe. To bagpipe the mizen is to 
lay it aback by bringing the sheet 
to the weather-mizen rigging 

Bailey, an area of ground, a court 
within the walls of a fortress ; in 
modern acceptation, frequently used 
as prison 

Bakehouse, an apartment with an oven 
to bake bread 

Baker's central rule for the construc- 
tion of equations; is a method of 
constructing all equations not ex- 
ceeding the 4th degree 

Bal, a term used in mining , 

Balance, or equilibrium, in a picture, 
is when the forms of objects, the 
lights, shades, colours, and expres- 
sions, are happily adapted to each 
other, and no one figure or colour 




overpowers or obscures the rest. 
When a building is seen in one 
corner of a picture, it is frequently 
balanced by something in the other; 
even a large bird will have the 

Balance, one of the six simple powers 
in mechanics, chiefly used in de- 
termining the equality or differ- 
ence in heavy bodies, and conse- 
quently their masses or quantities 
of matter 

Balance, in mechanics, are various; the 
common balance, the bent lever 
balance, the Roman balance, and 
the Swedish or Danish balance, 
adjustmentof differences in weights, 

Balance (Hydrostatical), an instru- 
ment for determining the specific 
gravity of bodies 

Balance, of a clock or watch, is that 
part which, by its motion, regulates 
and determines the beats 

Balance gates, in hydraulic engineer- 
ing, are best described as follows : 
Balance gates at the Compensation 
Reservoir of the East London Wa- 
ter Works. These gates were de- 
signed for the purpose of discharg- 
ing the body of water collected in 
the reservoir during the rise of the 
tide, in order to supply the mills 
lower down the river Lea, which 
might otherwise have been injured 
by the amount withdrawn from 
the river by the pumping-engines 
of the water company. They dif- 
fer in construction from common 
flood-gates, being made to work 
upon a vertical shaft or spindle, as 
a centre, and having an equal sur- 
face of gate on each side of that 
centre, so that whatever pressure 
of water there may be on one side 
of the gate tending to force it open, 
there is as great a pressure on the 
opposite leaf to keep it shut 

Balance reef, a reef in a spanker or 
fore-aft mainsail, which runs from 
the outer head eaving diagonally to 
the tack; it is the closest reef, and 
makes the sail triangular 

Balcony, a projection in the front of 


a house or other building, supported 
by consoles or columns, sometimes 
applied to the interiors of theatres, 
and for public convenience in larger 

Balcony, the projecting gallery in the 
stern of large ships 

Baldachin, a canopy supported by 
columns, and raised over altars, 
tombs, &c. 

Baldachino, in architecture, an open 
building supported by columns and 
covered with a canopy, frequently 
placed over an altar 

Bale. To bale a boat, is to throw water 
out of her 

Balistics, used by some for projectiles 
in the art of throwing heavy bodies 

Balistraria, a room in fortified build- 
ings, wherein the crossbows were 

Ball, is any spherical body, either 
natural or artificial 

Ballast, for ships, materials for which 
consist of gravel, iron, or stone, or 
any heavy substance, to stow away 
in the hold, to bring a ship to a 
proper water-line when unladen, 
and counterbalance the effect of the 
wind on the masts, and to give sta- 

Ball-cock, a hollow globe of metal at- 
tached to the end of a lever, which 
turns the stopcock of a cistern-pipe 
by floating on the surface of the 
water, thereby regulatingthe supply 

Ball flower, an ornament like a ball, 
placed in a circular flower, the pe- 
tals of which form a cap round it, 
and belongs to the decorated style 
of the 14th century 

Ball of a pendulum, is the weight at 
the bottom of it, and is sometimes 
called the bob 

Ball and socket, an instrument made 
of brass with a perpetual screw, so 
as to move horizontally, vertically 
or obliquely, and is used for the 
managing of surveying and astro- 
nomical instruments 
Ballista, in practical geometry, the 
same as the geometrical cross, 
called the Jacob's Staff 
Ballistic Pendulum is an instrument 




for measuring the velocity of a 
cannon ball, L e. the force of gun- 
powder. It consists, in its simplest 
form, of a beam, which can swing 
on a fixed axis at one end, while 
the ball strikes the other end ; and 
the angle through which that end 
moves being known, the velocity 
of the cannon ball may be com- 

Balloon, a spherical hollow body, 
floating in the air by means of its 
inflation with gas specifically lighter 
than the atmosphere 

Balloon, a globe placed on the top of 
a pillar or pediment, as an acroter 
or crowning 

Balls, in electricity, invented by Mr. 
Canton, are two pieces of cork or 
pith of elder-tree, nicely turned in 
a lathe to the size of a small pea, 
and suspended by delicate threads 

Ball valves, the valves in the force- 
pumps of a locomotive engine : the 
balls are turned and ground truly 
spherical, so as to fit water-tight 
into the valve-seats in every position 

Balneac, in Greek, signifies a bath or 
bathing vessel 

Balteum, a band or girdle, according 
to Vitruvius : this word is used to 
denote the moulding on the bolsters 
or sides of the Ionic capital 

Baltei, the bands in the flanks of 
Ionic pulvinated capitals. Balteum 
and balteus were generally used 
by the Romans to signify the belt 
by which the sword or quiver was 

Baluster, a small column or pillar, 
used in a balustrade 

Balusters, placed round the gallery 
in the stern, and likewise in the 
quarter gallery of large ships 

Balustrade, a series or row of balus- 
ters, joined by a rail, serving for a 
rest to the arms, or as a fence or 
inclosure to balconies, altars, stair- 
cases, &c. 

Balustrades, when intended for use, 
as against windows, on flights of 
steps, terraces, and the like, should 
not be more than three feet six 
inches, nor less than three feet in 

height. When used for ornament, 
as on the summit of a building, 
their height may be from two- 
thirds to four-fifths of the entabla- 
ture whereon they are employed : 
and this proportion is to be taken 
exclusive of their zoccolo or plinth, 
so that from the proper point of 
sight the whole balustrade may be 
exposed to view. There are vari- 
ous species of balusters ; if single- 
bellied, the best way is to divide 
the total height of the space al- 
lotted for the balustrade into thir- 
teen equal parts, the height of 
the baluster to be eight, of the base 
three, and of the cornice two of 
those parts ; or divide the total 
height into fourteen parts, making 
the baluster eight, the base four, 
and the cornice two. If double- 
bellied, the height should be di- 
vided into fourteen parts, two of 
which are to be given to the cor- 
nice, three to the base, and the re- 
mainder to the baluster. 

The distance between two ba- 
lusters should not be more than 
half the diameter of the baluster in 
its thickest part, nor less than one- 
third of it; but on inclined planes 
the intervals should not be quite so 
wide. Gwilt. 

Band, in architecture, denotes any 
flat low member, or moulding, that 
is broad and not very deep 

Banderole, in heraldry, a narrow flag 
or streamer affixed under the crook 
of a crosier, and folding over the 

Bandlet, a small fillet, or flat moulding 

Bandrol, a little flag or streamer 
affixed to the top of masts 

Bank, a long piece of timber 

Bank. To double bank an oar, is to 
have it pulled by two men 

Banker, in bricklaying, is a bench 
from 6 to 12 feet in length ; is used 
for preparing the bricks for gauged 

Banker, a cushion or covering for a 

Banneret, in heraldry, a knight made 
in the field 




Banquet, the raised footway adjoining 
to the parapet on the sides of a 

Baptaterium, a hack mill or fulling 

Baptistery, a place or edifice where 
baptism is performed. A basin, 
pool, or place for bathing 

Bar, a barrier, gatehouse: in law, a 
place where counsellors plead 

Bar, a bank or shoal at the entrance 
of a harbour 

Bar of ground, in mining, any course 
of vein which runs across a lode, or 
different from those in its vicinity 

Barberry wood is of small size, re- 
sembling alder, and is straight and 

Barbican, in the middle ages, the 
part of a fortress where watch and 
ward was kept 

Barcella, a vessel containing incense 

Barcon, a luggage vessel used in the 

Bardiglione, a blue variety of anhy- 
drite, cut and polished for orna- 
mental purposes 

Bare poles, the condition of a ship 
when she has no sail set 

Barge, a large double-banked boat 
used by the commander of a vessel 
in the navy 

Barge board, the front or facing of 
the former, to conceal the barge 
couples, laths, tiles, thatch, &c. 

Barge boards, or, more properly, 
verge boards, pendants, pinnacles, 
and brackets, being the chief deco- 
rations of houses in early domestic 
architecture, should always be 
made of strong oak, and left to 
acquire by age a grey hue ; and 
not of slight deal, painted, as is 
now the too frequent practice 

Barge couples, in architecture, a beam 
mortised into another, to strengthen 
the building 

Barge course, a part of the tiling or 
thatching of a roof, projecting over 
the gable, and filled up with boards, 
mortar, &c. 

Bar iron, long prismatic pieces of 
iron, being rectangular parallelepi- 
peds, prepared from pig iron, so as 


to be malleable for the use of black- 
smiths for the method of joining 

Barium, a metal that exists in the 
sulphate and carbonate of barytes; 
found in nature in great abund- 

Barker's mill, an hydraulic machine 
in much use 

Barkery, a tan -house; also a sheepcote 

Barmkyn, the rampart or outer forti- 
fication of a castle 

Barn, a covered farm-building for 
laying up grain, hay, straw, &c. 

Barnacle, a shell fish often found on 
a vessel's bottom 

Barometer and Sympiesometer. The 
barometer is a measure for the 
weight of the atmosphere, or its 
pressure on the surface of the globe. 
It is well known, that it is owing 
to the atmospheric pressure that 
water rises in a common pump, after 
the air has been drawn from the 
barrel ; but that the height to w T hich 
it can be raised by this means is 
limited, and not much exceeds 30 
feet. A little more than 30 feet of 
water, therefore, balances the at- 
mosphere. Mercury being about 
twelve times heavier than water, 
about 30 inches of mercury will 
also counterpoise the atmosphere. 
The principle of the barometer is 
simple. If a tube, about 3 feet 
long, closed at one end and open at 
the other, be filled with mercury, 
and, with the open end stopped 
by a finger, this tube be reversed, 
and placed upright in a cup partly 
filled with the same liquid, the 
mercury in the tube, in ordinary 
states of the weather, will descend 
to 30 inches, measured from the 
surface of the fluid in the cup, and 
not much lower. The mercury is 
sustained in the tube by the pres- 
sure of the atmosphere on the sur- 
face of the fluid in the cup. Such 
a tube and cup, so filled, would in 
fact be a barometer ; and if a move- 
able index were added to it, this 
simple instrument would indicate 
the changes which take place in the 



atmospheric pressure. The sympie- 

to be set according to the actual 

someter is a more delicate 


temperature, before the atmospheric 

merit, for measuring the atmospheric 

pressure can be read off. 

pressure ; but it is also a more com- 

Since mercury expands by heat, 

plicated one than 

the mercurial 

a correction for temperature is also 

barometer, and it would be best un- 

required for the mercurial barome- 

derstood by inspection. The upper 

ter, when exact calculations are to 

part of the tube contains hydrogen 

be made; and for this reason ba- 

gas, which is elastic 

; and the lower 

rometers usually have athermometer 

part, including the 

well, contains 

attached to them, in order that the 

oil. By this compound construc- 

temperature may be read off, and 

tion, whilst the length of the tube 

recorded at the same time that the 

is less than that of the mercurial 

barometer is registered. 

barometer, the index, or scale for 

The following is a table for the 

measuring the pressure, is increased. 

correction to be applied to the ob- 

Hydrogen gas being very 


served height of the mercury, to 

affected by all chai 

iges of tempe- 

reduce it to the freezing point, at 

ratnre, the index, by which 

the at- 

32 Fahrenheit, or zero of the cen- 

mospheric pressure is read, 


tigrade scale. 

Reduction of the English Barometer to the Freezing Point, or to 32 on 

Fahrenheit's Scale. Subtractive. 


I. For Mercury only. 

PART II. Mercury and Brass. 


Height of the Barom. in Inches. 

Height of the Barom. in Inches. 




28 In. 

29 In. 

30 In. 

31 In. 

28 In. 

29 In. 

30 In. 

31 In. 























































































































































































































































































0-1394 10-1444 




















































P. P. for 

0. 4 0. 8 1 

2 1. 6 2. 

0. 4 0. 8 1. 2 1. 6 2. 

Temp. F. + 


24 35 47 59 

10 21 31 42 52 

From Galbraith's Tables. 




The atmosphere is supposed to 
extend to about the height of 50 
miles ; and its density to diminish 
from the surface of the globe up- 
wards, in a geometrical ratio. 

Thus, when observations are made 
on land, above the level of the sea, 
a correction is required for altitude, 
since the weight of the atmosphere 
diminishes as we ascend. It is 
owing to this that we are enabled 
to determine the height of moun- 
tains by barometers ; and that aero- 
nauts compute the altitude to which 
they ascend in balloons. 

If any fluid in a cup be put into 
rapid circular motion, we should 
have a representation of the form 
that portion of the atmosphere as- 
sumes which is within the limits of 
a storm; the most depressed part 
of the fluid would represent the 
centre of the gale where the atmo- 
spheric pressure is the least. 

The principle of the barometer 
should be explained in all works 
on navigation, and in all schools 
where navigation is taught 

Baron, in heraldry, a degree of no- 
bility next to a viscount 

Baronet, in heraldry, the lowest de- 
gree of honour that is hereditary 

Baroscope, an instrument for proving 
the weight of the atmosphere 

Barque, a three-masted vessel having 
her fore and main masts rigged like 
a ship's, and her mizen-mast like 
the main-mast of a schooner, with 
no sail upon it but a spanker 

Barra, in the middle ages, a tower or 
bar at one end of a bridge 

Barrack, a building for the lodgment 
of soldiers 

Barraly, in heraldry, the field divided 
barwise,intoseveral parts, sideto side 

Barrel, in machinery, is a term ap- 
plied generally to any thing hollow 
and cylindrical 

Barrow, in mining, a heap of dead 
attle, rubbish, &c. 

Barrows, or tumuli, monuments of 
the greatest antiquity, raised as se- 
pulchres for the interment of the 
great ^ 


Barrulet, in heraldry, the fourth part 
of the bar, or one-half the closet 

Barry, in heraldry, is when an escut- 
cheon is divided barwise, or into 
any number of compartments 

Barry-bendy, in heraldry, is when 
the escutcheon is divided evenly 
barwise and bendwise 

Barry-pily, in heraldry, is when a 
coat is divided by several lines 
drawn obliquely from side to side, 
where they form acute angles 

Bars, straight pieces of timber or 
metal that run across from one 
part of a machine to another 

Bartisan, in architecture, the small 
overhanging turrets which project 
from the angles on the top of a 
tower, or from the parapet or other 
parts of a building 

Bartisan, a wooden tower; a turret 
on the top of a house, castle, or 
church tower 

Barton, a manor-house, or out-house 

Bar Wood, is an African wood, four 
to five feet long. It is used as red 
dip wood, used for violin bows, 
ramrods, and turning 

Barytes, a heavy mineral substance, 
found in copper mines, and for- 
merly named ' ponderous spar' 

Basalt, a variety of trap rock, usually 
of a dark green or brownish black 
colour, composed of augite and fel- 
spar, with some iron and olivine 

Basaltes, a heavy, hard stone, chiefly 
black or greenish, consisting of 
prismatic crystals, the number of 
whose sides is uncertain 

Basanite, a variety of schistose horn- 
stone, called also Lydian stone 

Base of a figure, in geometry, denotes 
the lowest part of its perimeter 

Base of a conic section, is a right 
line in the parabola and hyperbola 
formed by the common intersection 
of the cutting plane and the base 
of the cone 

Base, in architecture, the lower part 
or member of a column, on which 
the shaft stands 

Base-court, the outer or lower yard 
of a castle, appropriated to stables, 
offices, &c. 




Base-line, in perspective, the common 
section of a picture and the geo- 
metrical plane 

Base-line, in surveying, a line, mea- 
sured with the greatest possible 
exactness, on which a series of tri- 
angles are constructed, in order to 
determine the position of objects 
and places. The measurement of 
degrees of the meridian, for the 
purpose of ascertaining the size of 
the earth, have been undertaken 
in various countries, with extreme 
accuracy. The arc measured by 
the French extended from Dunkirk 
to the southernmost point of the 
Balearic Islands, including 120, 
22', 14", having its centre half- 
way between the equator and the 
north pole. Another survey of this 
kind was performed on a part of 
the shore of Pennsylvania, which 
happens to be so straight and level 
as to admit of a line of more than 
100 miles being measured directly 
without triangulation. Very long 
lines have also been measured (tri- 
gonometrically) by order of the 
English government, both at home 
and in India, the mean result of 
which makes the earth's axis 7898 
miles, 5 furlongs, 16 yards, and the 
diameter of the equator 7924 miles 
7 furlongs 

Basement, the lower story or floor of 
a building; the story of a house 
below the level of the ground 

Basements. As an alternative for 
employing orders upon orders, the 
ground floor is made to assume the 
appearance of a basement, and the 
order that decorates the principal 
story placed thereupon: in such 
cases the basements should not be 
higher than the order it supports, 
nor lower than one-half the height 
of the order ; but if a basement be 
introduced merely for the purpose 
of raising the principal or ground- 
floor, it may be three, four, five, or 
six feet high, at pleasure. 

These basement stories are gene- 
rally in rock-worked or plain rus- 
tics ; and in no case should the 


height of a rustic course be less 
than one module of the order rest- 
ing on the basement, nor should it 
ever much exceed it : their joints, 
if square, ought not to be broader 
than one-eighth of the height of 
the rustic, nor narrower than one- 
tenth, and their depth should equal 
their breadth ; if chamfered, the 
whole joint may be one-quarter to 
one-third the height of the rustic, 
the joint being always right-angled. 
When the basement is high, it is 
sometimes crowned with a cornice, 
but a platband is more commonly 
used. Gwilt. 

Basenet, a helmet 

Base-plate, the foundation plate of an 

Basil, that angle the edge of a tool is 
ground to 

Basilica, in the time of the Romans, 
a public hall or court of judicature. 
After the conversion of the em- 
peror Constantine to Christianity, 
these edifices were converted into 
Christian churches The Basilicce 
of the Romans were the types from 
which the early Christian places of 
worship were taken ; and the ruins 
of these buildings were the chief 
materials used. In several instances 
the columns that divide the centre 
part of the church from the aisles 
have been taken from other edifices, 
either on account of the want of 
artists capable of executing any 
thing equal to them, or the haste 
with which they were erected, 
The expedient that was adopted 
tends to show that proportion was 
not considered ; some columns were 
reduced from their former height, 
and others mounted on pedestals 
to suit the purposes to which they 
were applied. Besides this total 
disregard to proportion in the shafts 
of the columns, capitals and bases 
were applied without any consider- 
ation to their fitness. The heathen 
basilicae, generally situated in the 
forums, were of rectangular form, 
and divided into three or five parts 
by rows of columns parallel to the 




length of the building; another 
colonnade at the extremity crossed 
the former at right angles, and in 
the middle of the end wall was a 
semicircular recess, in which was 
situated the tribune of the judge. 
These basilica had likewise galle- 
ries over the aisles, in which com- 
mercial or other business was trans- 
acted; but in the Christian churches 
this was appropriated to the wo- 
men, who (as in the Jewish syn- 
agogues) were not allowed to join 
with the men in the lower parts of 
the building. These galleries were 
omitted in the after basilicee, and 
one of the aisles was retained solely 
for their use. Six of the principal 
churches or basilicas at Rome are 
attributed to the zeal of Constan- 
tine. The basilicae of St. John de 
Lateran, St. Peter, St. Laurentius, 
St. Paul, St. Agnes, and St. Ste- 
phen were built by him, besides 
the baptisterium that bears his 

Basilicula, a shrine, oratory, or ceno- 

Basins and ewers. In early times, 
before the cleanly custom of using 
a fork was practised, the hands 
were frequently washed during din- 
ner : a basin and ewer were handed 
for that purpose by an attendant. 
At the feast given by Henry VIII. 
to the French ambassadors, there 
were three ewry boards ; one for 
the king, another for the queen, 
and the third for the princes, &c. 

Basset. The basset or outcrop means 
the emergence at the surface of the 
different mineral strata from be- 
neath each other 

Bass-relief or Basso-rilievo, a species 
of low sculpture, the figures of 
which do not stand out from the 
ground in their full proportion 

Bastard stucco, a three-coated plaster, 
the first generally roughing in or 
rendering ; the second floating, as 
in trowelled stucco ; but the finish- 
ing coat contains a little hair be- 
sides the sand: it is not hand- 
floated, and the trowelling is done 


with less labour than what is called 
trowelled stucco 

Bastard-toothed file, in smithing, that 
employed after the rubber 

Bastard-wheel, a flat bevil-wheel, or 
one which is a near approach to a 

Bastida, in the twelfth century, a 
place of defence, a fortress 

Bastile, a prison ; a castle, tower, fort- 
ress, or any place of defence 

Bastion, a rampart, bulwark, or 
earthen mound 

Batardean, a coffer-dam, or case of 
piling without a bottom, for build- 
ing the piers of a bridge 

Batch, in mining, a certain quantity 
of ore sent to the surface by any 
pair of men 

Bateau, a light boat, long in propor- 
tion to its breadth 

Bath, a receptacle of water, in which 
to plunge, wash, or bathe the body. 
Among the Romans, baths were 
erected both in magnificence of 
style and purpose, many of them of 
great architectural beauty. In later 
times the bath was always used by 
the Romans before they went to 
their supper. The rich generally 
had hot and cold baths in their 
own houses ; and it was not till the 
time of Augustus that the baths 
assumed an air of grandeur and 
magnificence. The situation chosen 
for baths ought to be sheltered 
from the north and north-east. 
The caldaria and tepidaria should 
be made to receive their light 
from the west ; or, should local 
circumstances not admit of this 
disposition, they may both be made 
to face the south, because the ge- 
neral time of bathing is from mid- 
day until sunset. One thing neces- 
sary to be observed is, that the 
caldaria of that division of the bath 
which is appropriated to the women 
should be contiguous to that exclu- 
sively used by the men, and have 
the same aspect ; for then the cop- 
pers of both may be heated from 
the same furnace. Three brazen 
vessels are fixed over the furnace, 




which are severally called calda- 
rium, tepidarium, and frigidarium : 
they are so arranged) that whatever 
heated water is taken from the 
first, is replaced by warm water 
from the second, the deficiency of 
which is supplied, in a similar man- 
ner, from the third. The concave 
coverings of the small tubes of both 
baths are likewise heated from the 
same furnace. The insulated stages 
of the caldaria are thus constructed: 
the floor is made inclining towards 
the furnace, so that if a ball were 
placed upon any part of it, it would 
not remain at rest, but take a direc- 
tion towards the mouth ; by which 
means the flame will more easily 
pervade the interval between the 
floors, which is paved with tiles a 
foot and a half square: upon the 
floor, earthen props, eight inches 
each way, are arranged at such in- 
tervals as to receive upon them 
square tiles two feet in length : the 
props are two feet in height; the 
tiles which form them are cemented 
with clay and hair mixed together. 
The square tiles which they sup- 
port form the substratum of the 
pavement of the caldaria 

Bath stone, Bath oolite ; minute glo- 
bules, cemented together by yel- 
lowish earthy calcareous matter ; 
is much used in building, but not 
a lasting material. It is soft when 
quarried, but hardens by exposure 
to the air 

Batifolium, a moveable wooden tower 
used by besiegers in attacking a 

Batten, in carpentry, a scantling of 
wooden stuff, from two to four 
inches broad, and about one thick, 
principally used for wainscot, on 
which also are bradded,on the plain 
boards, also batten doors, those 
which resemble wainscot doors, 
but are not so ; for in wainscot 
doors the panels are grooved in 
the framing 

Battens, nautical, thin strips of wood 
put around the hatches to keep the 
tarpaulin down ; also put upon 


rigging to keep it from chafing. 
A large batten widened at the end, 
and put upon rigging, is called a 

Batter, to displace a portion of the 
iron of any bar or other piece by 
the blow of a hammer, so as to 
flatten or compress it inwardly, 
and spread it outwardly on all 
sides around the place of impact 

Batter, a term applied to walls built 
out of the upright, or gently sloping 
inwards; wharf walls and retaining 
walls built to support embankments 

Batter, the leaning back of the up- 
per part of the face of a wall, so as 
to make the plumb-line fall within 
the base 

Battery, in electricity, a combina- 
tion of coated surfaces of glass, 
commonly jars, so connected to- 
gether that they may be charged 
at once and discharged by a com- 
mon conductor 

Battlement, an open or interrupted 
parapet on the roof of a building ; 
a parapet with embrasures 

Bauffium, an out-house or domestic 

Baulk, a piece of foreign fir, or deal, 
from 8 to 16 inches square, being 
the trunk of a tree of that species 
of wood; generally brought to a 
square for the use of building 

Bawk, a cross beam in the roof of a 
house which unites and supports 
the rafters ; a tie-beam 

Bay, a division of a roof or vaulting 
of a building, consisting of the 
space between the beams or arches. 
A part of a window between the 
mullions is often called a bay or 

Bay, in plastering, the space between 
the skreeds, prepared for regulating 
and working the floating-rule 

Bay of joists, the joisting between 
two binding joists, or between 
two girders when binding joists 
are not used 

Bay of roofing, the small rafters and 
their supporting purlins between 
two principal rafters 

Bay-salt, salt obtained by evaporating 




sea-water in shallow ponds by the 
heat of the sun ; is of a dark grey 
colour, and contains iodine 

Bay tree, a native of Italy and Greece ; 
grows to the height of thirty feet, 
and is an aromatic wood 

Bay-window, an oriel window : a win- 
dow jutting outwards; frequently 
called bow-window 

Bazaar, a market-place 

Beacon, a post or buoy placed over a 
shoal or bank, to warn vessels off: 
also a signal-mark on land 

Beacon, an eminence on which a 
tower is placed, with a light to de- 
note the approach of danger 

Bead, a small globular ornament used 
in ancient and modern architecture 

Bead and Butt work, in carpentry, 
framing in which the pannels are 
flush, having beads stuck or run 
upon the two edges, the grain of the 
wood being in the direction of them 

Bead and quirk, a bead stuck on the 
edge of a piece of stuff, flush with 
its surface 

Bead-butt and square-work, framing 
with bead and butt on one side, 
and square on the other ; is used 
in doors 

Bead-house, a dwelling-place for poor 
religious persons 

Bead-plane, is a moulding plane of a 
semi-cylindric contour, and is ge- 
nerally used in sticking a moulding 
of the same name on the edge, or 
on the side close to the arris 

Beak, the crooked end of a piece of 
iron, to hold any thing fast 

Beak, a small pendent fillet, forming 
a channel behind, to prevent water 
from running down the lower bed 
of the cornice 

Beak-head, a small platform at the 
forepart of the upper deck in large 

Beak iron, the conic part of the an- 
vil, with its base attached to the 
side, and its axis horizontal 

Beaking -joint, is the joint formed by 
the meeting of several heading joints 
in one continued line, which is 
sometimes the case in folded floors 

Beam, a horizontal piece of iron or 

44 " 

timber, used to resist a force or 
weight, as a tie-beam, where it acts 
as a string, or chain, by its ten- 
sion; as a collar-beam, where it 
acts by compression ; as a bres- 
summer, where it resists a trans- 
verse insisting weight 
Beam, in steam-engine, a large lever 
turning upon a centre, and forming 
the medium of communication be- 
tween the piston-rod and the crank 

Beams. FORMS OF BEAMS. In the 
construction of beams, it is ne- 
cessary that their form should be 
such that they will be equally 
strong throughout ; or, in other 
words, that they will offer an equal 
resistance to fracture in all their 
parts, and will, therefore, be equally 
liable to break at one part of their 
length as at another. 

If a beam be fixed at one end 
and loaded at the other, and the 
breadth uniform throughout its 
length, then, that the beam may be 
equally strong throughout, its form 
must be that of a parabola. 

This form is generally used in 
the beams of steam-engines ; and, 
in double-acting steam-engines, the 
beam is strained sometimes from 
one side, and sometimes from the 
other; therefore, both the sides 
should be of the same form. 

Mr. Emerson gives the load that 
may be safely borne by a square 
inch rod of each of the following : 

Ibs. avoird. 

Iron rod, an inch square! ,-/. , nft 

will bear . . . / 7MU 

Brass 35,600 

Hempen rope . . . 19,600 

Ivory ...... 15,700 

Oak, box, yew, plum- ~| 

tree . . . . J 

Elm, ash, beech . . 6,070 

Walnut, plum . . . 5,3GO 
Red fir, holly, elder, "1 

plane, crab . . J 

Cherry, hazel . . . 4,760 

Alder, asp, birch, willow 4,290 

Lead 430 

Freestone 914 




He also gives the following prac- 
tical rule, viz., That a cylinder, the 
diameter of which is d inches, 
loaded to one-fourth of its absolute 
strength, will carry as follows : 

Iron 135 x d 2 

Good rope .... 22 x d 2 

Oak 14 x cP 

Fir 9 x d* 

Also he says, that a cylindric rod 
of good clean fir, of an inch cir- 
cumference, drawn in length, will 
bear at its extremity 400 Its. ; and 
a spear of fir, 2 inches diameter, 
will bear about 7 tons, but not 

A rod of good iron, of an inch 
circumference, will bear nearly 3 
tons weight. 

A good hempen rope, of an inch 
circumference, will bear 1000 frs. 
being at its extremity. 

Mr. Barlow gives the following 
table as a mean derived from his 
experiments, on the strength of 
direct cohesion on a square inch of 
the following : 

Box is about .... 20,000 

Ash 17,000 

Teak 15,000 

Fir 12,000 

Beech 11,500 

Oak 10,000 

Pear 9,800 

Mahogany .... 8,000 

BEAMS, ETC. The transverse 
strength of rectangular beams, or 
the resistance which they offer to 
fracture, is as the breadth and 
square of the depth: therefore, if 
two rectangular beams have the 
same depth, their strengths are to 
each other as their breadths ; but 
if their breadths are the same, 
then their strengths are to each 
other as the squares of their depths. 

The transverse strengths of 
square beams are as the cubes of 
the breadths or depths. Also, in 
cylindrical beams, the transverse 


strengths are as the cubes of the 

Thus, if a beam which is one foot 
broad and one foot deep support a 
given weight, then a beam of the 
same depth, and two feet broad, 
will support double the weight. 

But if a beam be one foot broad 
and two feet deep, it will support 
four times as much as a beam one 
foot broad and one foot deep. 

If a beam one foot square, sup- 
port a given weight, then a beam 
two feet square will support eight 
times as much. Also, a cylinder 
of two inches in diameter will sup- 
port eight times as much as a cy- 
linder one inch in diameter. 

The following table of data is 
extracted from tables in Barlow's 
Essay : 

Teak 2,462 

English oak . . . . 1,672 
Canadian do. . . , . 1,766 

Dantzic do 1,457 

Adriatic do 1,383 

Ash 2,026 

Beech 1,556 

Elm 1,013 

Pitch pine 1,632 

Red pine 1,341 

New England fir ... 1,102 

Riga fir 1,108 

Mar Forest fir. . . . 1,262 

Larch 1,127 

Beam-ends. A ship is said to be on 
her beam-ends when she inclines 
very much on one side, so that her 
beams approach to a vertical position 
Beam engine, generally a land en- 
gine, which has the top of the pi 
ton-rod connected to one end of a 
lever or beam : by a contrivance 
called a parallel motion, the beam 
vibrates upon a central axis, and 
communicates the motion of the 
piston to the crank by means of a 
connecting-rod attached to the 
other end of the beam, and also 
gives motion to the various parts 
Beam-filling, the brickwork, or ma- 
sonry, brought up from the level 
of the under to the upper sides oJ 
the beams 




Beam gudgeons, the bearings on the 
centre of the beam, or the central 
pivot upon which it vibrates 

Beam of a balance, the horizontal 
piece of iron from the ends of 
which the scales are suspended 

Beams, in naval architecture, strong 
thick pieces of timber stretching 
across the ship from side to side, to 
support the decks : they are sus- 
tained at each end by thick planks 
in the ship's side, called clamps, 
upon which they rest 

Bearer, any thing used by way of 
support to another weight 

Bearer, in turning, that part of the 
lathe which supports the puppets 

Bearing, the distance that a beam 
or rafter is suspended in the clear : 
thus, if a piece of timber rests upon 
two opposite walls, the span of the 
void is called the bearing, and not 
the whole length of the timber 

Bearing, that part of a shaft or 
spindle which is in contact with 
the supports 

Bearing, a word for delineating an 
antique plaster figure. It is gene- 
rally said, if the drawing of a figure 
has not the same bearing or angles 
of inclination as the original pos- 
sesses, it is out in all its bearings 

Bearing, in heraldry, the figures on 
a coat of arms ; a coat of arms in 

Bearing, the direction of an object 
from the person looking. In ship- 
ping, the bearings of a vessel are the 
widest part of her below the plank- 
sheer ; that part of her hull which 
is on the water line w r hen she is at 
anchor and in her proper trim 

Beat away, in mining, to excavate, 
usually applied to hard ground 

Beating, in navigation, the operation 
of making progress at sea against 
the wind 

Beaufet, a cupboard or niche 

Beau ideal, in painting, that beauty 
which is freed from the deformity 
and the peculiarity found in nature 
in all individuals of a species 

Beauty, in architecture, consists of 
the following qualities : magnitude 


and strength, order and harmony, 
richness and simplicity ; Construc- 
tion, in which the chief requisites 
are magnitude and strength, order 
and harmony; Decoration, whose 
requisites are richness or simplicity, 
according to the nature of the com- 

Becalm, to intercept the wind by al- 
ternate tacks 

BecJcet, a piece of rope placed so as 
to confine a spar or another rope ; 
a handle made of rope in the form 
of a circle 

Beconage, dues levied for the mainten- 
ance of beacons 

Bed of a brick, the horizontal sur- 
faces as disposed in a wall 

Bed, a term used in masonry to de- 
scribe the direction in which the 
natural strata in stones lie ; it is 
also applied to the top and bottom 
surface of stones when worked for 

Bed, in mining, a seam or horizontal 
vein of ore 

Beds of a stone are the parallel sur- 
faces which intersect the face of the 
work in lines parallel to the horizon 

Beds and Bedding. Feather-beds, 
bolsters, and pillows filled witb 
feathers and down, with mattresses 
and every other comfort of this 
kind, seem to have been as well 
known to, and enjoyed by, the su- 
perior orders of society three cen- 
turies ago, as they are now. Direc- 
tions are, however, mentioned as 
having been given in the reign of 
Henry VIII. "to examine every 
night the straw of the king's bed, 
that no daggers might be con- 

Beds (trussing} were beds which 
packed into chests, for travelling ; 
and, considering the frequent re- 
movals, these must havte been the 
most convenient kind. John of 
Ghent seems to have always slept 
in such beds, as by his will it ap- 
pears that he demised to his wife 
all the beds made for his body, 
" called in England trussing-beds ;" 
and the "best chambers" of both 




Master Fermor and Sir Adrian Fos- 
kewe had trussing-beds 

Bed-chambers, in Tudor times. The 
furniture of these apartments, in 
great houses, was of the same gor- 
geous character as that in the chief 
rooms ; and the paraphernalia of an 
ancient dressing-table yielded only, 
in the splendour and costliness of 
plate, to the cupboard of the great 
chamber, or the altar of the chapel. 
Like the hall, the state bed-cham- 
ber had a high place, on which 
were placed the ' standing bed' and 
the ' truckle-bed ' : on the former lay 
the lord, and on the latter, his at- 

Beddern, a refectory 

Bedding-stone, used in bricklaying, a 
straight piece of marble : its use is 
to try the rubbed side of the brick ; 
first, to square, to prove whether the 
surface of the brick be straight; se- 
condly , to fit it upon the leading skew- 
back, or leading end of the arch 

Bed-mouldings. This may be under- 
stood as a collective term for all 
the mouldings beneath the corona 
or principal projecting member of 
a cornice, which, without bed- 
mouldings, would appear too much 
like a mere shelf 

Bed-plate, the foundation plate of a 
marine or a direct action engine 

Bedsteads, in Tudor times. The posts, 
head-boards, and canopies, or sper- 
vers of bedsteads were curiously 
wrought and carved in oak, walnut, 
box, and other woods, and variously 
painted and gilt. Ginger-colour, 
hatched with gold, was a favourite 
style, but purple and crimson w r ere 
also used in their decorations 

Beech, a species of timber very much 
used by artificers ; while young, it 
possesses great toughness, and is of 
awhitecolour: the cohesive strength 
is 1 2,225 tbs. weight, which will tear 
asunder a piece of this timber one 
square inch 

Beech wood, common in Buckingham- 
shire and Sussex as the best ; about 
fifty feet high and thirty inches in 
diameter ; white, brown, and black 


colour : it is used for piles in wet 
foundations ; is used also, for its 
uniform texture and closeness, in 
in-door works, as the frames of 
machines, bedsteads, and furniture; 
also for planes, tools, lathe-chucks, 
keys, cogs of machinery, brushes, 
handles, &c. 

Beef wood, red-coloured wood, gene- 
nerally applied to Botany Bay oak 

Beer-drawing machines are contriv- 
ances by means of which beer is 
drawn up from the ban-el or cask 

Bees, pieces of plank bolted to the 
outer end of the bowsprit, to score 
the fore-top mast stays through 

Beetle, or Maul, a large mallet to 
knock the corners of framed work, 
and to set it in its proper position : 
the handle is about three feet in 

Before the beam, in naval architec- 
ture, is an arch of the horizon, 
comprehended between a line which 
crosses aships'length at right angles, 
and some object at a distance be- 
fore it ; or between the line of the 
beam, and that point of the com- 
pass which she stems 

Belay, to make a rope fast by turns 
round a pin or coil, without hitch- 
ing or seizing it 

Belfry, that part of the tower of a 
church which contains bells 

Bell, The body of a Corinthian or Com- 
posite capital, supposing the foliage 
stripped off, is called the bell ; the 
same is applied also to the early 
English and other capitals in Go- 
thic architecture which in any de- 
gree partake of this form 

Bell, a metallic instrument rung in the 
belfry of a church for the attend- 
ance of divine w r orship, and upon 
occasions of rejoicing; composed 
of three parts of copper and one of 
tin, called bell-metal 

Bell-cranJc, a bent lever, used for 
changing a vertical into a horizon- 
tal motion 

Bell-gable, a term applied to the gable 
of a religious edifice, having a plain 
or ornamental niche for the recep- 
tion of one or more bells 




Bellows, the instrument for blowing 
the fire, with an internal cavity so 
contrived as to be of greater or less 
capacity by reciprocating motion, 
and to draw in air at one place while 
the capacity is upon the increase, 
and discharge it by another while 
upon the decrease. " The bellows are 
placed behind the forge, with a pipe, 
and are worked by means of a lever, 
called a rocket. Steam machinery 
is now much used in the generating 
of wind for blowing the wind or 

Bellows, or water-blowing engine, is a 
machine in which the stream of air 
is supplied by the flowing of water 

Belly, the hollow part of a compass 
timber, the round part of which is 
called the back 

Belt, in building, a string-course and 
blocking-course ; a course of stones 
projecting from a wall, either mould- 
ed, plain, fluted, or enriched 

Belvedere, a turret, lantern, or cupola, 
raised above the roof of a building. 
It is sometimes applied in Italy to 
open galleries or corridors 

Bema, an ambo, or reading-desk ; a 
raised structure for the seat or throne 
of a bishop 

Bema, the sanctuary, presbytery; or 
chancel of a church 

Bema, in Greek, the platform from 
which the orators spoke in the 

Ben-alive, Cornish mining 

Bench, for carpenters and joiners to 
do their work on, usually 10 or 12 
feet in length, and about 2| feet in 

Bench planes. The jack-plane, the try- 
ing-plane, thelong-plane,the jointer, 
and the smoothing-plane, are called 
bench planes 

Bench table, a low stone seat round 
the interior of the walls of many 

Bend, in mining, indurated clay, a 
name given by miners to any indu- 
rated argillaceous substance 

Bend, the form of the ship from the 
keel to the top of the side, as the 
midship bend, &c. 


Bend, in heraldry, an honourable or- 
dinary, formed by lines drawn from 
the dexter-corner to the sinister- 

Bends, the strongest part of a vessel's 
side, to which the beams, knees, and 
foot-hooks are bolted 
Bending - straJces, are two strakes 
wrought near the coverings, worked 
all fore and aft, about one inch or 
one inch and a half thicker than 
the rest of the deck, and let down 
between the beams and ledges so as 
the upper side to be even with the 
rest of the deck 

Bending of timber. The process of 
bending wood to any required curve 
depends on the property of heat, for 
its pressure increases the elasticity 
of the wood 

Bendlet, in heraldry, the sixth part of 
a shield 

Bendy, in heraldry, applied to the 
field when divided into parts dia- 
gonally, and varying in metal and 

Benefice, a church endowed with a re- 
venue for the performance of divine 

Benetier, a vesselto containholy water; 
a font, or piscina 

Ben-heyl, in Cornish mining, rich in tin 

BenticJc -shrouds, formerly used, and 
extending from the futtock staves 
to the opposite channels 

Benzine, the bi-carburet of hydrogen, 
procured by heating benzoic acid 
with lime 

Berymote, a court held on a hill to 
decide controversies among mi- 

Berne machine, for rooting up trees, 
the invention of Peter Sommer, of 

Berth, the place where a vessel lies ; 
the place in which a man sleeps 

Beryl, a pellucid gum, of a bluish green 
colour, found in the East Indies, 
Peru, &c., used by artists 

Betty, in mechanics, an instrument to 
break open doors 

Bevel, any angle except one of 90 de- 

Bevel, in bricklaying, is for drawing 




the soffit-line on the face of the 

Bevel, in joinery. One side is said to be 
bevelled with respect to another, 
when the angle formed by these two 
sides is greater or less than a right 

Bevel year, in mechanics, denotes a 
species of wheel-work where the 
axis or shaft of the leader or driver 
forms an angle with the axis or shaft 
of the follower or the driven. In 
practice it is requisite to have finite 
and sensible teeth in bevel gear : 
these are made similarly to those of 
spur gear, except that in the latter 
they are parallel, while in bevel gear 
they diminish in length and thick- 
ness in approaching the apex of the 
cone : the teeth are of any breadth, 
according to the strength required. 
Bevel gearing is stronger, works 
smoother, and has superseded the 
face-wheel and trundle 

Bevelling, in ship-building, the wind- 
ing of a timber, &c., agreeably to 
directions given from the mould-loft 

Bevel-wheel, a wheel having teeth 
formed so as to work at an angle 
either greater or less than half a 
right angle 

Bibbs, in ship-building, pieces of tim- 
ber bolted to the hounds of a mast, 
to support the trestle-trees 

Bibliotheca, in Greek, the place, apart- 
ment or building where books were 

Bicarbide of hydrogen. This gas is 
known by the names of light car- 
buretted hydrogen, marsh-gas, fire- 
damp, and gas of the acetates. It 
is discharged from fissures in coal 
in large quantities, and from the 
bottoms of the pools in which there 
is vegetable matter 

Bice, a blue colour used in painting, 
prepared from the lapis Armenius 

Bice or Bise, in painting, a pale blue 
colour, procured by the reduction 
of smalt to a fine powder 

Bicellum, the dwelling of a tradesman, 
having under it two vaults, for the 
reception of merchandise 

Bichoca, a turret or watch-tower 


Bier-balk, the church road for burials 

Bifrons, in sculpture, double-fronted 
or faced, usually applied to Janus 

Bigelf, an arch or chamber 

Bigg, to build 

Bigger, a builder 

Bight, the double part of a rope when 
it is folded, in contradistinction 
from the ends 

Bilander, a small vessel with two 
masts, used chiefly in the canals of 
the Low Countries 

Bilboes, large bars or bolts of iron, 
with shackles sliding on them, used 
for criminals 

Bilection-mouldings, those surrounding 
the panels, and projecting before 
the face of a door, gate, &c. 

Bilge, that part of the floor of a ship 
which approaches nearer to an hori- 
zontal than to a perpendicular di- 

Bilge-pump, the forcing-pump worked 
by a marine engine, to discharge 
the bilge-water from the vessel 

Bilge-pump rod, the plunger-rod, or 
rod connecting the piston of the 
bilge-pump to one of the side-levers 

Bill, the point at the extremity of the 
fluke of an anchor 

Billet -moulding, an ornament used in 
string-courses and the archivolts of 
windows and doors 

Billion, in numbers, the sum of a mil- 
lion of millions 

Bills, the ends of compass or knee- 

Bimedial line, in geometry, the sum 
of tw r o medials. When medial lines, 
equal only in power and containing 
a rational rectangle, are compound- 
ed, the whole will be irrational 
with respect to either of the two : 
this is called a first bimedial line ; 
but if two medial lines, commen- 
surable only in power, and con- 
taining a medial rectangle, be com- 
pounded, the whole will be irra- 
tional, and is then called a second 
bimedial line 

Binary, in arithmetic, double 

Binder, one who undertakes to keep 
a mine open 

Binding-joists, those beams in a floor 




which support transversely the 
bridgings above and the ceiling- 
joists below 

Bindings, the iron wrought round the 

Binnacle, a box near the helm, con- 
taining the compass 

Binocular telescope, one to which both 
eyes may be applied 

Bins, for wine, open subdivisions in a 
cellar for the reception of bottles 

Birch wood, a forest tree common to 
Europe and North America ; an 
excellent wood for turning, being 
of light colour, compact, and easily 

Birds, in heraldry, are emblems of 
expedition, liberty, &c. 

Bird's-eye perspective is of two kinds, 
angular and parallel : it is used in 
the drawings of extensive buildings 
having spacious courts and gardens, 
as palaces, colleges, asylums, &c. 
The observer is supposed to be on 
an eminence, and looking down on 
the building, as from a steeple or 

Bird' 's-mouth, in carpentry, an interior 
angle or notch cut in the end of a 
piece of timber for its reception on 
the edge of a pole or plate. It sig- 
nifies also the internal angle of a 

Bireme, a vessel with two banks or 
tiers of oars 

Birhomooidal, having a surface of 
twelve rhombic faces, which, being 
taken six and six, and prolonged 
till they intercept each other, would 
form two different rhombs 

Birthing, the working a top side, bulk- 
heads, &c. 

Bisection, in geometry, the division of 
any quantity into two equal parts 

Bishops, prelates holding baronies of 
the King or of the Pope, and exer- 
cising ecclesiastical jurisdiction over 
a certain extent of territory, called 
their diocese 

Bismuth. This metal is found native, 
crystallized in cakes, which gene- 
rally contain small quantities of 
silver; it is also combined with 
oxygen, arsenic, and sulphur 


Bisjna, a bishopric or episcopal pa- 

Bissextile, or leap-year, a year con- 
sisting of 366 days, happening once 
every four years, by the addition of 
a day in the month of February, to 
recover the six hours which the 
sun spends in his course each year, 
beyond the 365 days usually allow- 
ed for it 

Bistre, a brown pigment, extracted 
by watery solution from the soot 
of wood fires, when it retains a 
strong pyroligneous scent. It is 
of a wax-like texture, and of a ci- 
trine-brown colour, perfectly dura- 
ble. It has been much used as a 
water colour, particularly by the 
old masters, in tinting drawings 
and shading sketches, previously to 
Indian ink coming into general use 
for such purposes. In oil, it dries 
with the greatest difficulty 

Bisturres, small towers placed at in- 
tervals in the walls of a fortress, 
forming a barbican 

Bit, an instrument for boring holes in 
wood, &c. 

Bitter end, that part of the cable 
w r hich is abaft the bitts 

Bitter Nut wood, a native of America, 
is a large timber wood, measuring 
30 inches when squared ; plain and 
soft in the grain, like walnut 

Bitts, in ship-building, perpendicular 
pieces of timber going through the 
deck, placed to secure any thing to. 
The cables are fastened to them, if 
there is no windlass. There are 
also bitts to secure the windlass, 
and each side of the heel of the 

Bitumen, a name for a number of 
inflammable mineral substances, 
known under the names of naph- 
tha, mineral tar, mineral pitch, 
sea-wax, asphalte, elastic bitumen, 
or mineral caoutchouc, jet, mineral 
coal, &c. 

Bituminous cement, a factitious sub- 
stance, used for pavements, for 
roofs, and other useful purposes 

Bituminous limestone, a limestone of 
a lamellar structure 




Black, the last and the lowest in the 
series or scale of descending co- 
lours ; the opposite extreme from 
white; the maximum of colour. 
To be perfect, it must be neutral 
with respect to colours individually, 
and absolutely transparent, or desti- 
tute of reflective power in regard 
to light ; its use in painting being 
to represent shade or depth, of 
which it is the element in a picture 
and in colours, as white is of light 

Black-band iron-stone, discovered by 
Mr. David Mushet, in 1801, while 
engaged in the erection of the 
Calder iron works. Great prejudice 
was exerted against him by the 
iron-masters, in presuming to class 
the wild coals of the country with 
iron-stones fit and proper for the 
blast furnace ; yet that discovery 
has elevated Scotland to a consi- 
derable rank amongst the iron- 
making nations of Europe, and pro- 
duces an annual average income of 
16,500 to Sir W. Alexander, 

Black Botany Bay wood is the hardest 
and most wasteful of all woods : 
some of the finest, however, if well 
selected, exceeds all woods for ec- 
centric turning 

Black chalk is an indurated black 
clay, of the texture of white chalk: 
its principal use is for cutting into 
the crayons which are employed in 
sketching and drawing 

Black dye. The ingredients of black 
dye are logwood, Aleppo galls, ver- 
digris, and sulphate of iron, or green 

Black iron, malleable iron, in contra- 
distinction to that which is tinned, 
called white iron 

Black Jack, in mining, blende 

Black lead, plumbago, or graphite, is 
a native carburet of iron, or oxide 
of carbon, found principally at Bor- 
rodale in Cumberland; consumed in 
large quantities in the formation of 
crayons and black-lead pencils for 
writing, sketching, designing, and 

Black ochre, a variety of the mine- 


ral black, combined with iron and 
alluvial clay 

Black tin, tin ore when dressed, 
stamped, and washed, ready for 

Black wadd, one of the ores of man- 
ganese, used as a drying ingredient 
in paints 

Blade, in joinery, is expressive of any 
part of a tool that is broad and 
thin, as the blade of an axe, of an 
adze, of a chisel, of a square : the 
blade of a saw is more frequently 
called the plate 

Blades, the principal rafters or breaks 
of a roof 

Blanc d* argent, or silver white. This 
is a false appellation for a white 
lead, called also French white. It 
is first produced in the form of 
drops, is exquisitely white, but is 
of less body than flake white, and 
has all the properties of the best 
white leads; but, being liable to 
the same changes, is unfit for gene- 
ral use as a water colour, though 
good in oil or varnish 

Blast, the ah* introduced into a fur- 

Blasting of stone, from rocks and 
beds of stone, for the purpose of 
quarrying and shaping stones to be 
used for building purposes. The 
ordinary implements used are the 
jumper or cutting-tool, the ham- 
mer, and scraper. For the process 
and its effect, see Sir John Bur- 
goyne's Rudimentary Volume on 
Blasting, &c. 

Blast-pipe, the waste steam-pipe of 
an engine, but more particularly 
applied to locomotive engines : in 
the latter it leads from the exhaust 
passages of the cylinders into the 
chimney, and is of great use for 
forming the draught through the 
fire-tubes, as each jet of steam 
emitted creates a partial vacuum in 
the chimney, which is immediately 
filled by a current of air rushing 
through the fire-grate 

Blazonry, in heraldry, deciphering of 
coats of arms 

Bleaching,&n art divided into branches, 




bleaching of vegetable and animal 
substances requiring different pro- 
cesses for whitening them 

Blende, in mining, one of the ores of 
zinc, composed of iron, zinc, sul- 
phur, silex, and water : on being 
scratched, it emits aphosphoriclight 

Blending and melting, in colouring 
or painting, are synonymous terms. 
They imply the method of laying 
different tints on buildings, trees, 
&c., so that they may mingle to- 
gether while wet, and render it im- 
possible to discover where one 
colour begins and another ends. 
A variety of tints of nearly the 
same tone, employed on the same 
object and on the same part, gives 
a richness and mellowness to the 
effect ; while the outline, insensibly 
melting into the back-ground, and 
artfully disappearing, binds the ob- 
jects together, and preserves them 
in unison 

Bleostaning, Mosaic pavement 

Block, a lump of wood or stone 

Blocks, pieces of wood in which the 
sheaves or pulleys run, and through 
w r hich the ropes pass 

Block cornices and entablatures are 
frequently used to finish plain build- 
ings, where none of the regular or- 
ders have been employed. Of this 
kind there is a very beautiful one 
composed by Vignola, much used 
in Italy, and employed by Sir Chris- 
topher Wren to finish the second 
design of St. Paul's cathedral 

Block-house, a building erected by be- 
siegers for the investment of a cas- 
tle. Block-houses were erected in 
the time of Henry VIII. on the 
south and south-western coast of 

Blocking-course, a course of masonry 
or brick -work, laid on the top of a 
cornice crowning a wall 

Blockings, small pieces of wood, fitted 
in, or glued, or fixed to the interior 
angle of two boards or other pieces, 
in order to give strength to the 

Block-machinery, the machinery for 
manufacturing ships' blocks, invent- 


ed by the elder Brunei, and ad- 
justed by the late Dr. Gregory 

Block- tin, tin cast into blocks or in- 

Blood-red heat, the degree of heat 
which is only necessary to reduce 
the protuberances on coarse iron by 
the hammer, in order to prepare it 
for the file, the iron being previ- 
ously brought to its shape. This 
heat is also used in punching small 
pieces of iron 

Bloom, a mass of iron after having un- 
dergone the first hammering 

Blower, in mining, a smelter 

Blowing, the projection of air into a 
furnace, in a strong and rapid cur- 
rent, for the purpose of increasing 

Blow-off cock, the stop-cock in the 
blow-off pipe 

Blow-off pipe, the pipe fixed to the 
bottom of a boiler, for discharging 
the sediment, which is effected by 
blowing through a portion of the 
water from the boiler 

Blow-pipe. The blow-pipe is a most 
valuable little instrument to the 
mineralogist, as its effects are strik- 
ing, rapid, well characterized, and 
pass immediately under the eye of 
the operator. The most efficacious 
flame is produced by a regular, mo- 
derate stream of air ; while the act 
of blowing with more force only 
has the effect of fatiguing the mus- 
cles of the cheeks, oppressing the 
chest, and at the same time renders 
the flame unsteady. 

The student should fill his mouth 
with air, so as to inflate the cheeks 
moderately, and continue to breathe 
without letting the air in the mouth 
escape ; the blow-pipe may then be 
introduced between the lips, and 
while the breathing is carried on 
through the medium of the nose, 
the cheeks will expel a stream of 
air through the blow-pipe ; and by 
replenishing the mouth at each ex- 
piration, and merely discharging 
the surplus air through the nostrils, 
a facility will be acquired of keep- 
ing up a constant stream of air. 




The best flame for the purpose 
of this instrument is that of a thick 
wax candle, such as are made for 
the lamps of carriages, the wick 
being snuffed to such a length as 
to occasion a strong combustion : 
it should be deflected a little to one 
side, and the current of air directed 
along its surface towards the point : 
a well-defined cone will be pro- 
duced, consisting of an external 
yellow, and an internal blue flame. 
At the point of the former, calcina- 
tion, the oxidation of metals, roast- 
ing of ores to expel the sulphur 
and other volatile ingredients, may 
be accomplished; and by the ex- 
treme point of the latter (which 
affords the most intense heat) fu- 
sion, the deoxidation of metals, and 
all those operations which require 
the highest temperature, will be 
effected. The piece of mineral to 
be examined must necessarily be 
supported on some substance ; and 
for the earths, or any subject not 
being metallic, or requiring the 
operation of a flux, a spoon or pair 
of forceps made of platina will be 
found useful; but, as the metals 
and most of the fluxes act on pla- 
tina, the most serviceable support, 
for general purposes, will be a piece 
of sound, well-burnt charcoal, with 
the bark scraped off, as free as pos- 
sible from knots or cracks : the 
piece of mineral to be examined 
should not in general be larger than 
a pepper-corn, which should be 
placed in a hollow made in the 
charcoal ; and the first impression 
of the heat should be very gentle, 
as the sudden application of a high 
temperature is extremely liable to 
destroy those effects which it is 
most material to observe. Many 
substances decrepitate immediately 
they become hot; and when that is 
found to be the case, they should 
be heated red, under circumstances 
which will prevent their escape : 
this may be effected, with the 
earthy minerals, by wrapping them 
in a piece of platina foil, and, with 


the metallic ores, by confining them 
between two pieces of charcoal, 
driving the point of the flame 
through a small groove towards the 
place where the mineral is fixed, by 
which means a sort of reverberating 
furnace may be formed. The prin- 
cipal phenomena to be noticed are, 
phosphorescence, ebullition, intu- 
mescence, the exhalation of vapours 
having the odour either of sulphur 
or garlic (the latter arising from 
the presence of arsenic), decrepita- 
tion, fusibility; and, amongst the 
fusible minerals, whether the pro- 
duce is a transparent glass, an 
opaque enamel, or a bead of metal. 
Having first made some observa- 
tions on a particle of the mineral 
alone, either the residue or a fresh 
piece should be examined with the 
addition of a flux, more particularly 
in the case of the ores, as the na- 
ture of the metal may be generally 
decided by the colour with which 
it tinges the substance used. The 
most eligible flux is glass of borax: 
a piece about half the size of a pea 
being placed on the charcoal, is to 
be heated till it melts ; the particle 
of ore being then taken in a pair of 
forceps, is to be pressed down in it, 
and the heat applied; or, should 
the mineral not be inclined to de- 
crepitate, it may be laid on the 
charcoal, and two or three pieces 
of glass of borax, about the size of 
a pin's head, placed over it ; and on 
using the blow-pipe, the whole will 
form itself into a globular bead. 

Blow-valve, the ' snifting valve ' of a 
condensing engine 

Blue, one of the seven primitive co- 
lours of the rays of light, into which 
they are divided when refracted 
through a glass prism 

Blue-black is a well-burnt and lavi- 
gated charcoal, of a cool, neutral 
colour, and not differing from the 
common Frankfort black. Blue- 
black was formerly much employed 
in painting, &c. 

Blue carmine is a blue oxide of mo- 
lybdena, of which little is known 




as a substance or as a pigment. 
It is said to be of a beautiful blue 
colour, and durable in a strong 
light, but is subject to be changed 
in hue by other substances, and 
blackened by foul air: we may 
conjecture, therefore, that it is not 
of much value in painting 

Blue dyes, indigo, Prussian blue, log- 
wood, bilberry, &c. 

Blueing, the process of heating iron, 
and some other metals, until they 
assume a blue colour 

Blue John, fluor spar, called so by 
Derbyshire miners 

Blue ochre is a mineral colour of rare 
occurrence, found with iron pyrites 
in Cornwall, and also in North 
America, and is a subphosphate of 
iron. What Indian red is to the 
colour red, and the Oxford ochre 
to yellow, this is to other blue co- 
lours. They class in likeness of 
character: hence it is admirable 
rather for the modesty and solidity, 
than for the brilliancy of its colour 

Blue pigments, found in common, are 
Prussian blue, mountain blue, Bre- 
men blue, iron blue, cobalt blue, 
smalt, charcoal blue, ultramarine, 
indigo, litmus, and blue cake 

Blue tint, in colouring, is made of 
ultramarine and white, mixed to a 
lightish azure. It is a pleasant 
working colour, and with it should 
be blended the gradations in a pic- 
ture. It follows the yellows, and 
with them it makes the greens ; 
and with the red it produces the 
purples. No colour is so proper 
for blending down or softening the 
lights into keeping. In pictures of 
less value, Antwerp blue may be 
substituted for ultramarine 

Blue verditer is a blue oxide of cop- 
per, or precipitate of the nitrate of 
copper by lime, and is of a beauti- 
ful light-blue colour. It is little 
affected by light ; but time, damp, 
and impure air turn it green, and 
ultimately blacken it, changes 
which ensue even more rapidly in 
oil than in water : it is, therefore, 
by no means an eligible pigment in 


oil, and is principally confined to 
distemper, painting, and the uses 
of the paper-stainer, though it has 
been found to stand well, many 
years, in water-colour drawings and 
in crayon paintings, when preserved 

Blue vitriol, sulphate of copper 

Bluff : a bluff-bowed or bluff -headed 
vessel is one which is full and 
square forward 

Blunk, heavy cotton cloth : the term 
used in Scotland 

Board, a substance of wood contained 
between two parallel planes ; as 
when the baulk is divided into se- 
veral pieces by the pit-saw, the 
pieces are called boards 

Board, in nautical language, the line 
over which a ship runs between 
tack and tack. To board is to en- 
ter a ship 

Boarding -floors are those covered 
with boards : the operation of 
boarding floors should commence 
as soon as the windows are in, and 
the plaster dry 

Boar ding -joists, joists in naked floor- 
ing, to which the boards are fixed 

Boarding-pike, a pike used by sailors 
in boarding an enemy's vessel 

Boasting, in masonry, the paring of a 
stone with a broad chisel and mal- 

Boasting, in sculpture or carving, is 
the rough cutting of a stone to form 
the outline of a statue or ornament 

Boats, small open vessels, impelled on 
the water by rowing or sailing, 
having different uses, dimensions, 
&c., either for river or sea service 

Boat-hook, an iron hook with a sharp 
point, fixed on a pole, at the extre- 

Boatswain, a warrant officer in the 
navy, who has the charge of the 
rigging, and calls the crew to duty 

Bob, the miner's engine-beam 

Bob, of a pendulum, is the metallic 
weight which is attached to the 
lower extremity of a pendulum rod 

Bobst ay -holes, those in the fore-part 
of the knee of the head, for the se- 
curity of the bobstay 




Bob-stays, used to confine the bow- 
sprit down to the stem or the cut- 

Bocatorium, anciently a slaughter- 

' Bodium, a crypt, or subterraneous 

I chapel 

I Body, in physics or natural philosophy, 

I any solid or extended palpable sub- 

Body, or solid, in geometry, has three 
dimensions; length, breadth, and 

I thickness. Bodies are either hard, 

| soft, or elastic 
Body plan, in naval architectural draw- 

| ing, sectional parts showing fore and 

after parts of a vessel 
Boeria, anciently a manor-house or 

large country dwelling 
Bog, soft, marshy, and spongy matter, 
or quagmire. Railroads have been 
made across bogs in Lancashire and 
in America by draining, &c., and in 
the latter by piling as well as drain- 
Bog-iron ore, an iron ore discoverable 

in boggy land 

Boiler, a wrought iron vessel contain- 
ing water, to which heat is applied 
for the generation of steam. Boilers 
are made of various forms, according 
to the nature of their application, 
and are constructed so as to obtain 
the largest heating surface with the 
least cubical content 
Boilers. A boiler for 20-horse power is 
usually 15 feet long and 6 feet wide; 
therefore 90 feet of surface, or4^feet 
to 1 horse power; a boiler for a 
14-horse power 60 feet of surface, 
or 4'3 feet to 1 horse power ; but 
engineers allow 5 feet of surface to 
1 horse power, and Mr. Hicks, of 
Bolton, proportions his boilers at 
the rate of 5 square feet of hori- 
zontal surface of water to each horse 
power : Mr. Watt allows 25 cubic 
feet of space to each horse power 
Boilers. Iron cement is far preferable 
to any other material for making 
iron joints : it has the excellent 
property, that it becomes more 
sound and tight the longer it stands, 
so that cemented joints which at 


first may be a little leaky, soon be- 
come perfectly tight. The follow- 
ing is the best mode of preparing 
this iron cement : take 16 parts of 
iron filings, free from rust ; 3 parts 
powdered sal-ammoniac [muriate 
of ammonia] ; and 2 parts of flower 
of sulphur : mix all together inti- 
mately, and preserve the compound 
in a stoppered vessel, kept in a dry 
place, until it is wanted for use. 
Then take 1 part of the mixture, 
add it to 12 parts of clean iron 
filings, and mix this new compound 
with so much water as will bring it 
to the consistence of a paste, hav- 
ing previously added to the water 
a few drops of sulphuric acid. In- 
stead of filings of hammered iron, 
filings, turnings, or borings of cast 
iron may be used ; but it must be 
remarked, that a cement made en- 
tirely of cast iron is not so tena- 
cious and firm as if of wrought 
iron; it sooner crumbles and breaks 
away. It is better to add a certain 
quantity, at least one-third, of the 
latter to the former. 

There is but little ground to fear 
for the soundness of a well-riveted 
iron boiler; for in time the action 
of rust and deposit will stop almost 
any crevices. In order, however, to 
take all precaution, it is to be re- 
commended that some clammy 
substance, such as horse-dung, bran, 
coarse meal, or potatoes, should be 
boiled in the vessel before it is used. 
A very small quantity also of the 
same kind of substance may be put 
into the boiler whenfirst set to work : 
this will find its way into the cre- 
vices by the pressure within, and, 
gradually hardening, will soon ren- 
der the vessel perfectly sound. 
Boilers. Copper is more tough and 
less liable to crack than iron, and 
is a most excellent material for 
high-pressure boilers : it has, how- 
ever, a less cohesive power; and 
therefore a greater thickness of me- 
tal is necessary to produce an equal 
strength : but since copper boilers 
never fly in pieces in case of explo- 




sion, it is not necessary to be too 
scrupulous in regard to this point. 
Even when the metal is thin, espe- 
cially if the diameter is not great, 
the use of copper removes all dan- 
ger of destructive explosion, since 
at most only a simple tearing asun- 
der of the metal will ensue 
Boiling, or ebullition, the agitation of 
fluids, arising from the action of 
fire, &c. 

Bole, an argillaceous mineral, having 
a conchoidal fracture, an internal 
lustre, and a shining streak 
Bollards, large posts set in the ground 
at each side of the docks, to lash 
and secure hawsers for docking and 
undocking ships 

Bollard timbers, in a ship, two timbers 
within the stern, one on each side 
of the bowsprit, to secure its 

Bolognes School, in painting, a Lom- 
bard school, founded by Caracci 

Bolognian stone is derived from sul- 
phate of baryta by calcination and 
sure to the rays of the sun 

Bolster, a piece of timber placed upon 
the upper or lower cheek, worked 
up about half the depth of the 
hawse-holes, and cut away for the 
easement of the cable, and to pre- 
vent its rubbing the cheek; like- 
wise the solid piece of timber that 
is bolted to the ship's side, on which 
the stantients for the linings of the 
anchors are placed; or any other 
small piece fixed under the gunwale, 
to prevent the main sheet from being 
rubbed, &c. 

Bolster, a tool used for punching holes 
and for making bolts 

Bolster of a capital ; the flank of the 
Ionic capital 

Bolt, a cylindrical pin of iron or other 
metal, used for various purposes of 
fastening, planking, &c. 

Bolt auger, an auger of a larger size, 
used by ship-builders 

Bolt rope, the rope to which the edges 
of sails are sewed, to strengthen 

Bolt-screwing machine, a machine for 
screwing bolts, by fixing the bolt- 


head to a revolving chuck, and 
causing the end which it is required 
to screw to enter a set of dies, which 
advance as the bolt revolves 

Bolts, long cylindrical bars of iron or ' 
copper, used to secure or unite the 
different parts of a vessel | 

Bolts, the principal iron-work for fast- < 
ening and securing the ship 

Bolts, large iron pins 

Bomb-vessel, a strong-built vessel car- 
rying heavy metal for bombardment 

Bond, in masonry, is that connection 
of lapping the stones upon one ano- 
ther in the carrying up of the work 
so as to form an inseparable mass 
of building 

Bond, in bricklaying and masonry, is 
the arrangement or placing of bricks, 
&c., so as to form a secure mass 
of building 

Bonders, Bond stones, Binding stones, 
stones which reach a considerable 
distance into, or entirely through, 
a wall, for the purpose of binding 
it together 

Bond stones, are placed in the thick- 
ness of a wall, at right angles to its 
face, to bind securely together 

Bond timber, pieces of timber used to 
bind in brick- work especially. The 
naked flooring being laid, in carry- 
ing up the second story bond tim- 
bers must be introduced opposite 
to all horizontal mouldings, as bases 
and surfaces. It is also customary 
to put a row of bond timber in 
the middle of the story, of greater 
strength than those for the bases 
and surfaces 

Bone-brown and Ivory-brown, pro- 
duced by torrefying or roasting 
bone and ivory, till, by partial 
charring, they become of a brown 
colour throughout 

Boning, in carpentry and masonry, the 
art of making a plane surface by 
the guidance of the eye : joiners 
try up their work by boning with 
two straight-edges, which determine 
whether it be in or out of winding, 
that is to say, whether the surface 
be twisted or a plane 
Bonnet, in navigation, an additional 




piece of canvas attached to the foot 
of a jib, or a schooner's foresail, 
by lacings, taken off in bad weather 

Bonnets, the cast-iron plates which 
cover the openings in the valve- 
chambers of a pump : the openings 
are made so that ready access can 
be had when the valves need re- 

Boom, in ship-building, a long pole 
run out from different places in the 
ship, to extend the bottoms of par- 
ticular sails, as jib-boom, flying- 
boom, studding-sails-boom, &c. 

Boomkin, in ship-building, a beam of 
timber projecting from each bow 
of a ship, to extend the clue or 
lower corner of the foresail to wind- 

Booth, a stall or standing in a fair or 

Boot-topping, scraping off the grease, 
or other matter, which may be on 
a vessel's bottom, and daubing it 
over with tallow 

Borax, in chemistry, a salt in appear- 
ance like crystals of alum ; an ar- 
tificial salt used for soldering metals 

Borcer, an instrument of iron, steel- 
pointed, to bore holes in large rocks, 
in order to blow them up with gun- 

Bord, anciently a cottage 

Bore : in hydrography, a sudden and 
abrupt influx of the tide into a 
river or narrow strait 

Boreas, the north wind 

Borer, a boring instrument, with a 
piece of steel at the end, called a 

Boring, the art of perforating or mak- 
ing a hole through any solid body; 
as boring the earth for water; bor- 
ing water-pipes, either wood, iron, 
zinc, or lead ; boring cannon, &c. 

Boring. Modern steam engines depend 
on the improved method of boring 
their cylinders. The cylinder to be 
bored is firmly fixed with its axis 
parallel to the direction in which the 
borer is to move : the cutting ap- 
paratus moves along a bar of iron ac- 
curately turned to a cylindrical form 

Boring-bar, a bar of a small horizontal 

boring machine : it is used for bor- 
ing the brasses of plummer-blocks, 
by means of a cutter fixed in it 

Boring -collar, in turning, a machine 
having a plate with conical holes of 
different diameters : the plate is 
moveable upon a centre, which is 
equidistant from the centres or 
axes of the conical holes ; the axes 
are placed in the circumference of 
a circle. The use of the boring- 
collar is to support the end of a 
long body that is to be turned hol- 
low, and which would otherwise be 
too long to be supported by a chuck 

Boring lathe, a lathe used for boring 
wheels or short cylinders. The 
wheel or cylinder is fixed on a large 
chuck, screwed to the mandril of a 

Boring machine, a machine for turn- 
ing the inside of a cylinder 

Boron, in chemistry, is an olive-green 
powder, which, heated out of the 
air, becomes harder, and darker in 
colour: it burns brilliantly when 
heated in air or oxygen, forming 
boracic acid 

Boss, a sculptured keystone or carved 
piece of wood, or moulded plaster, 
placed at intervals of ribs or groins 
in vaulted and flat roofs of Gothic 

Boss, a short trough for holding mor- 
tar when tiling a roof: it is hung 
to the laths 

Bossage, projecting stones laid rough 
in building, to be afterwards cut 
into mouldings or ornaments 

Botany Bay oak, resembling in colour 
full red mahogany, is used as veneer 
for the backs of brushes, turnery, &c. 

Bottle-glass, a composition of sand 
and lime, clay, and alkaline ashes of 
any kind 

Bottom - captain, a superintendent 
over the miners in the bottoms 

Bottom heat, artificial temperature, 
produced in hot-houses 

Bottom-lift, in mining, the deepest or 
bottom tier of pumps 

Bottom-rail, in joinery, the lowest 
rail of a door 

Bottoms, in mining, the deepest work- 

57 c 5 




ing parts of a mine, wrought either 

tant is an arch, or buttress, serving 

by sloping, driving, or otherwise 

to sustain a vault, and which is it- 

breaking the lode 

self sustained by some strong wall 

Bottoms in fork. In Cornwall, when 

or massive pile 

all the bottoms are unwatered, they 

Bova, anciently a wine-cellar 

say, 'the bottoms are in fork;' 

Bovey coal, wood-coal found at Bovey, 

and to draw out the 

water from 

in Devonshire 

them, or any dippa, or any other 
particular part of a mine, is said to 

Bow,the roundpart of the ship forward 
Bow, anciently an arch or gateway 

be 'forking the water 

;' and when 

Bow compass, for drawing arches of 

accomplished, such dippa, &c., is 

very large aisles; it consists of a 

' in fork.' Likewise when an en- 

beam of wood or brass with three 

gine has drawn out all the water, 

long screws that bend a lath of 

they say, ' the engine is in fork ' 

wood or steel to any arch 

. The 

Bottony; in heraldry, a cross-bottony 

term also denotes small compasses 

is terminated at each end in three 

employed in describing arcs too 

buds, or knots, or buttons 

small to be accurately drawn by 

Boudoir, a small retiring-room 

the common compasses 

Bouget, in heraldry, the 


Bower, anciently a small enriched 

tion of a vessel for carrying water 

chamber for ladies; a private room, 

Boulders, fragments of 

rocks trans- 

or parlour, in ancient castles and 

ported by water, and found on the 



Bower, a working anchor, the cable of 

Boulder walls, walls built of the above 

which is bent and veered through 

Boultine, in architecture, a convex 

the hawse-hole 

moulding whose periphery is a 

Bower, in navigation, two anchors 

quarter of a circle, next below the 

thus named from their being car- 

plinth in theDoricandTuscan orders 

ried at the bow 

Bounds, in mining, signifies the right 

Bower cables, for ships. 

to tin ore over a given 


Table showing the different lands 

Bourse, a public edifice 

for the as- 

of best bower cables at present em- 

semblage of merchants to consult 

ployed in the British navy, with the 

on matters of business 

or money 

corresponding iron cables, and the 

Boutant; in architecture, 

an arc-bou- 

proof-strain for each : 

Best bower hempen 

Diameter and 

cables, 100 fathoms. 


weight of the bolt 



of the iron cable 





strain by 

substituted for 

for the 

Rates of Ships. 



in each. 


the preceding. 



cwt. qr. Ib. 

tons. cwt. qr. 


First-rate, large . 


114 2 7 


: , v ,; 



105 2 17 


small . 


96 2 27 


2-J inches. 


Second-rate . . 


96 2 27 



218 cwt. 


Third, large . . 


96 2 27 

2736 J 

small . 


8g 12 

2520 \ 

( 2 inches. 

1 __ 

Fourth, CO guns . 


80 22 



\ 186 cwt. 2qrs. 


58 do. . 


66 21 


f l|inch. 


50 do. . 


62 1 14 


1 170 cwt. 2 qrs. 


Fifth, 48 do. . 


58 2 6 



1 .,. , 

46 do. 1 
42 do. J 


56 1 


1 If inch. 
J145 cwt. 3 qrs. 


Sixth, 28 do. . 


38 21 



r 1| inch. 
\ 87 cwt. 2 qrs. 


Ship, sloop . . 


33 10 


f 1 inch. 


Brig, large . . . 


33 10 


1 74 cwt. 3 qrs. 


Ditto, small . . 


21 2 15 


( IJinch. 
I 6 1 cwt. 1 or. 






From the preceding Table the im- 
mense advantage of iron cables will 
be distinctly seen, and particularly 
when it is considered that a hempen 
cable, on a rocky bottom, is de- 
stroyed in a few months, while the 
other will sustain no perceptible 
Boweric, in the East Indies, a well 

descended by steps 
Bow-grace, a frame of old rope, or 
junk, placed round the bows and 
sides of a vessel, to prevent the ice 
from injuring her 

Bow-line, in navigation, a rope leading 
forward from the leach of a square 
sail, to keep the leach well out, when 
sailing close-hauled 
Bowls of silver were used as drinking- 
glasses are now, before the intro- 
duction of glass for such purposes ; 
they were of small sizes, in 'nests' 
fitting one within another. Of the 
larger sized bowl, the most distin- 
guished are the mazer and the 
wassail. Mazer is a term applied 
to large goblets, of every kind of 
material; but the best authors 
agree that its derivation is from 
maeser, which, in Dutch, means 
maple ; and therefore that a mazer 
bowl is one formed of maple wood 
Bow-saw, a saw used for cutting the 

thin edges of wood into curves 
Bowse, to pull upon a tackle 
Bowsprit, in ship-building, a large 
boom or mast which projects for- 
ward over the stem to carry sail 
Bowtel, the shaft of a clustered pillar, 
or a shaft attached to the jambs of 
a door or window 

Box, for mitring, a trough for cutting 
mitres : it has three sides, and is 
open at the ends, with cuts in the 
vertical sides at angles of 45 with 

Box-drain, an underground drain built 
of brick and stone, and of a rectan- 
gular section 

Box of a rib-saw, two thin iron plates 
fixed to a handle, in one of which 
plates an opening is made for the 
reception of a wedge, by which it 
is fixed to the saw 


Box-haul, to veer a ship in a manner 

when it is impossible to tack 
Box the compass, to repeat thirty- 
two points of the compass in order 
Boxing-off, throwing the head sails 
a-back, to force the ship's head ra- 
pidly off the wind 

Boxings of a window, the cases oppo- 
site each other on each side of a 
window, into which the shutters 
are folded 

Box wood is of a yellow colour, in- 
clining to orange ; is a sound and 
useful wood, measuring from 2 to 
6 feet long, and 2^ to 12 inches in 
diameter : it is much used by wood 
engravers ; for clarionets, flutes ; for 
carpenters' rules, drawing-scales, 
&c. Much of it comes from Box 
Hill, in Surrey, and from several 
districts in Gloucestershire, also 
from other parts of Europe 
Boziga, anciently a house or dwelling 
Brace, a piece of slanting timber, used 
in truss partitions, or in framed 
roofs, in order to form a triangle, 
and thereby rendering the frame 
immoveable : when a brace is used 
by way of support to a rafter, it is 
called a strut : braces in partitions 
and span roofs are always, or should 
be, disposed in pairs, and placed in 
opposite directions 

Brace, an instrument into which a 
vernier is fixed ; also part of the 
Brace, a rope by which a yard is turned 


Braces, that security for the rudder 
which is fixed to the stern-post and 
to the bottom of a ship 
Bracket plummer-block, a support for 
a shaft to revolve in, formed so that 
it can be fixed vertically to the 
frame of a machine, or to a wall 
Brackets, ornaments : the hair bracket 
in ship-building is the boundary 
of the aft-part of the figure of the 
head, the lower part of which ends 
with the fore-part of the upper 
cheek. The console bracket is a 
light piece of ornament at the fore- 
part of the quarter-gallery, some- 
times called a canting-hose 




Brackets, the cheeks of the carriage 
of a mortar; a cramping-iron to 
stay timher-work ; also stays set 
under a shelf, to support it 

Bracket -stairs. " The same method 
must be observed, with regard to 
taking the dimensions and laying 
down the plan and section, as in 
dogling-stairs. In all stairs what- 
ever, after having ascertained the 
number of steps, take a rod the 
height of the story, from the surface 
of the lower floor to the surface of 
the upper floor ; divide the rod into 
as many equal parts as there are to 
be risers ; then, if you have a level 
surface to work upon below the 
stairs, try each one of the risers as 
you go on : this will prevent any 

Brad, a small nail with a projecting 
head on one edge 

Brad-awl, the smallest boring tool 
usedby a carpenter; its handle is the 
frustrum of a cone tapering down- 
wards ; the steel part is also coni- 
cal, but tapering upwards, and the 
cutting edge is the meeting of two 
basils, ground equally from each 

Brails, in navigation, ropes by which 
the foot or lower corners of fore 
and aft sails are hauled up 

Brake,ihe apparatus used for retarding 
the motion of a wheel by friction 
upon its periphery 

Brake, the handle of a ship's pump 

Brake, a machine used in dressing flax 

Brake-wheel, the wheel acted upon by 
a brake 

Bramah's hydrostatic press consists in 
the application of water to engines, 
so as to cause them to act with im- 
mense force ; in others,to communi- 
cate the motion and powers of one 
part of a machine to some other 
part of the same machine 

This press was constructed in 
Woolwich dockyard for testing 
iron cables, and the strain is pro- 
duced by hydrostatic pressure : its 
amount is estimated by a system 
of levers balanced on knife edges, 
which act quite independently of 


the strain upon the machine, 
and exhibit sensibly a change of 
pressure of |th of a ton, even 
when the total strain amounts to 
100 tons. 

This proving machine was con- 
structed by Messrs. Bramah, of 
Pimlico, and is doubtless one of 
the most perfect of the kind which 
has been executed. It consists 
of two cast-iron sides, cast in 
lengths of 9| feet each, with pro- 
per flanches for abutting against 
each other, and for fixing the whole 
to sleepers resting on a secure stone 
foundation. The whole length of 
the frame is 104| feet, equal to th 
the length of a cable for a first-rate ; 
so that the cables are tested in that 
number of detached lengths, which 
are afterwards united by shackle- 
bolts. The press is securely bolted 
down at one end of the frame, 
and the cylinder is open at both 
ends. The solid piston is 5 inches 
in diameter in front and 10| inches 
behind, so that the surface of press- 
ure is the difference of the two, viz. 

'2ll 2 2l] 2 \ 
2 ~T j x '7854 =65i inches. 

The system of levers hung on 
knife edges is attached to the other 
end of the frame, and the cable is 
attached by bolt-links to this and 
to the end of the piston-rod. The 
levers being properly balanced, and 
the cable attached to a short arm 
rising above the axis, this draws the 
other arm downwards; and at a dis- 
tance equal to twelve times the short 
arm, is a descending pin and ball, 
acting in a cup placed on the upper 
part of the arm of the second lever, 
and this again acts on a third. The 
first two levers are under the floor, 
and pass ultimately into an adjacent 
room,where a scale carryingweights 
is conveniently placed, andthewhole 
combination is such that every pound 
in the scale is the measure of a ton 
strain : the whole acts with such 
precision that |-th of a pound, more 
or less, in the scale, very sensibly 




affects the balance. At the same 
place is situated a scale, acted upon 
by the water pressure from the 
charge-pipe of the press, and the 
valve in this pipe is of such dimen- 
sions that, together with the lever 
by which it acts, the power is again 
such that a pound should balance 
a ton ; but the friction is here so 
great that it requires several pounds 
to make a sensible change in the 
apparent balance, and for this rea- 
son this scale is never used. The 
forcing-pumps are in another adja- 
cent room, and are worked by han- 
dles, after the manner of a fire en- 
gine. At first, six pistons are acting, 
and the operation proceeds quickly; 
but as the pressure and strains in- 
crease, the barrels are successively 
shut off, till at length the whole 
power of the men is employed on 
one pair of pumps only, and on this 
the action is continued till the proof- 
strain is brought on the cable. A 
communication is then opened be- 
tween the cistern and cylinder, and 
every thing is again restored to equi- 

Branch, in mining, a leader, string, 
or rib of ore, that runs in a lode ; 
or if a lode is divided into several 
strings, they are called branches, 
whether they contain ore or not : 
likewise strings of ore which run 
transversely into the lode are called 
branches; and so are all veins that 
are small, dead or alive, i. e. whe- 
ther they contain ore or not 

Branched -work, carved and sculp- 
tured leaves and branches in mo- 
numents and friezes 

Branches, anciently the ribs of groined 

Brandishing or Brattishing, a term 
used for carved work, as a crest, 
battlement, or other parapet ' 

Brandrith, a fence or rail round the 
opening of a well 

Brass, a factitious metal, made of 
copper and zinc 

Brass, in the middle ages, a plate of 
metal inserted or affixed to a flat 


Brasses, se2)ulchral,monMmenia\ plates 
of brass or mixed metal, anciently 
called latten, inlaid on large slabs 
of stone, which usually form part 
of the pavement of a church, and 
represent in their outline, or by 
lines engraved upon them, the 
figure of the deceased 

Brattishing, anciently, carved open 

Bray, anciently a bank or earthen 

Brazed, in heraldry, three chevrons 
clasping one another 

Brazil wood, the wood of the Cfesal- 
pinia crista, which yields a red dye: 
it is imported principally from Per- 
nambuco : the tree is large, crooked, 
and knotty; and the bark is thick, 
and equals the third or fourth of 
its diameter. Its principal use is 
for dyeing : the best pieces are se- 
lected for violin-bows and turnery 

Braziletto wood is of a ruddy orange 
colour, principally used for dyeing, 
and for turnery and violin-bows 

Brazing, the soldering together of 
edges of iron, copper, brass, &c., 
with an alloy of brass and zinc 
called spelter solder 

Breaching, a strong rope used to se- 
cure the breech of a gun to the 
ship's side 

Breadth is applied to painting when 
the colours and shadows are broad 
and massive, such as the lights and 
shadows of the drapery; and when 
the eye is not checked and dis- 
tracted by numerous little cavities, 
but glides easily over the whole. 
Breadth of colouring is a promi- 
nent character in the painting of 
all great masters 

Break, in shipping. To break bulk, is 
to begin to unload 

Break, a projection or recess from the 
surface or wall of a building 

Break joint, constructively, to dis- 
allow two joints to occur over each 

Breaker, a small cask containing 

Breaking down, in sawing, is dividing 
the baulk into boards or planks 




Breaking joint, in joinery, is not to 
allow two joints to come together 

Breakwater, a human contrivance to 
ward off and diminish the force of 
waves, to protect harbours, stations, 
&c., from the viplence of tempes- 
tuous gales. Some stupendous 
works have been executed for these 
purposes, especially that at Ply- 
mouth, by the great Sir John Rennie 

Breaming, cleaning a ship's bottom 
by burning 

Breast, in mining, the face of coal- 

Breast-fast, a rope used to confine a 
vessel sideways to a wharf or to 
some other vessel 

Breast-hooks, pieces of compass or 
knee-timber, placed withinside a 
ship, to keep the bows together. 
The deck-holes are fayed to the 
timbers, and placed in the direction 
of the decks : the rest are placed 
one between each deck, and as 
many in the hold as are thought 
needful; all of which should be 
placed square with the body of the 
ship, and fayed on the planks. 
Breast-hooks are the chief security 
to keep the ship's bows together ; 
therefore they require to be very- 
strong and well- secured 

Breast-knees, those placed in the 
forward part of a vessel, across the 
stem, to unite the bows on each 

Breast-plate, that in which the end 
of the drill opposite the boring end 
is inserted 

Breast-rail, the upper rail of the bal- 
cony or of the breast-work on the 

Breast-rope, a rope passed round a 
man in chains, while sounding 

Breast-wheel, in mill-work, a form of 
water-wheel in which the water is 
delivered to the float-boards at a 
point somewhat between the bot- 
tom and top. Buckets are seldom 
employed on breast-wheels 

Breast-work, the stantients with rails 
ojti the quarter-deck and forecastle. 
The breast-work fitted on the up- 
per deck of such ships as have no 


quarter-deck serves to distinguish 
the main deck from the quarter-deck 

Breech, the angle of knee-timber, the 
inside of which is called the throat 

Breeze, small ashes and cinders used 
instead of coal for the burning of 

Breort-weall, anciently, a breast-high 

Bressummer, a beam supporting a su- 
perincumbent part of an exterior 
wall, and running longitudinally 
below that part 

Bretachi(B, anciently, wooden towers, 
attached to fortified towns 

Brick. * * * " Let us make brick, 
and burn them thoroughly. And 
they had brick for stone, and slime 
had they for mortar." Gen. xi. 3 

Bricks are a kind of factitious stone, 
composed of argillaceous earth, and 
frequently a certain portion of sand 
and cinders of sea coal (called 
breeze), tempered together with 
water, dried in the sun, and burnt 
in a kiln, or in a heap, or stack, 
called a clamp. For good brick- 
making, the earth should be of the 
purest kind, dug in autumn, and 
exposed during the winter's frost : 
this allows the air to penetrate, 
and divide the earth particles, and 
facilitates the subsequent opera- 
tions of mixing and tempering 

The Romans made bricks of va- 
rious sizes, from 2 feet to 1 foot in 
length, from 7 inches to 9 inches in 
breadth, and from 3| inches to 1^ 
in thickness. Roman bricks found 
in the old Roman wall at Veru- 
lam, compared with modern bricks, 
showed the superiority of the old 
to the new; the Roman bricks 
being lighter and better burnt 
than the modern. 

The brick remains of the period 
of the Roman empire are more en- 
tire than the stone. Bricks were 
found at Toulouse, quite sharp at 
the edges, and not altered by time; 
they measured 14 inches long, 
9 inches broad, and 1 thick. 
These bricks formed the founda- 
tion all around the building. The 




arches were formed of them for 
entrances ; and round, large, water- 
worn pebbles of quartz with mor- 
tar, formed the walls of the circus, 
resting on the brick arches. 

Mr. Layard, in his work on Ni- 
neveh, says ' ' The soil, an alluvial 
deposit, was rich and tenacious : the 
builders moistened it with water, 
and adding a little chopped straw, 
that it might be more firmly bound 
together, they formed it into squares, 
which, when dried by the heat of 
the sun, served them as bricks. In 
that climate, the process required 
but two or three days. Such were 
the earliest building materials, and 
as they are used to this day, almost 
exclusively, in the same country. 

" The Assyrians appear to have 
made much less use of bricks baked 
in the furnace than the Babylonians; 
no masses of brick- work, such as are 
every where found in Babylonia 
Proper, existing to the north of that 
province. Common clay moistened 
with water, and mixed with a little 
stubble, formed, as it does to this 
day, the mortar used in buildings ; 
but, however simple the materials, 
they have successfully resisted the 
ravages of time, and still mark the 
stupendous nature of the Assyrian 

" This mode of brick-making is 
described by Sanchoniathon : The 
people of Tyre invented the art of 
brick-making and of building of 
huts ; afterthem came two brothers : 
one of them, Chrysor or Hyphaes- 
tus, was the first who sailedin boats; 
his brother invented the way of 
making walls with bricks. From 
the generation were born two youths, 
one called Technites and the other 
Genius Autochthon, They disco- 
vered the method of mingling stub- 
ble with the loam of the bricks, and 
drying them in the sun ; they also 
invented tiling." 

Bricks. Some of Palladio's finest ex- 
amples are of brick : the cortile of 
the Carita at Venice is an instance. 
The interiors of the Redentore and 

63 ~~' 

St. Giorgio, in the same city, have 
but a coat of plaster on 'them ; the 
beautiful Palazzo Thiene at Vicenza, 
at least that part which was exe- 
cuted, is left with its rock-worked 
basement in brick-work chipped out. 
Form alone fastens on the mind in 
works of art : the rest is meretri- 
cious, if used as a substitute to su- 
persede this grand desideratum 

Brick axe, used for axing off the 
soffits of bricks to the saw-cut- 
tings, and the sides to the lines 
drawn: as the bricks are always 
rubbed smooth after axing, the 
more truly they are axed, the less 
labour there will be in rubbing 

Brick groins, the intersecting or meet- 
ing of two circles upon their dia- 
gonal elevations drawn upon the 
different sides of a square, whose 
principal strength lies in the united 
force of elevation divided by geo- 
metrical proportions to one certain 

Bricklaying, the art by which bricks 
are joined and cemented, so as to 
adhere a sone body. This art, in 
London, includes the business of 
walling, tiling, and paving with 
bricks or tiles 

Brick-nogging, brick-work carried up 
and filled in between timber fram- 

Brick trimmer, a brick arch abutting 
upon the wooden trimmer under 
the slab of a fire-place, to prevent 
the communication of fire 

Brick-trowel, a tool used for taking up 
mortar and spreading it on the top 
of a wall, to cement together the 
bricks, &c. 

Bridge, a constructed platform, sup- 
ported at intervals, or at remote 
points, for the purpose of a road- 
way over a strait, an inlet or arm 
of the sea, a river, or other stream 
of water, a canal, a valley, or other 
depression, or over another road: 
it is distinguished from a cause- 
way, or embanked or other con- 
tinuously supported road- way, and 
from a raft, by being so borne at 
intervals or at remote points. 




Constructions of the nature and 
general form and arrangement of 
bridges, such as aqueducts and 
viaducts ; the former, being to lead 
or carry streams of \vater or canals, 
and the latter, to carry roads or 
railways upon the same, or nearly 
the same level, over depressions, 
are in practice considered as bridges, 
although they are not such in the 
commonly received sense of the 
term. Taken, however, in the 
sense which the most plausible ety- 
mology that has been suggested of 
the term would require, the word 
bridge being formed by prefixing 
the constructive be to ridge, a 
bridge is an elevated construction 
upon, or over a depression, and be- 
tween depressed points. 

There are bridges built of the 
materials, stone, brick, iron, timber, 
wire, and on the principles of sus- 
pension; for the explanation of 
which, see the word Suspension. 

The bridge across the Zab, at 
Lizari, is of basket-work. Stakes 
are firmly fastened together with 
twigs, forming a long hurdle, reach- 
ing from one side of the river to 
the other. The two ends are laid 
upon beams, resting upon piers on 
the opposite banks. Both the 
beams and the basket-work are 
kept in their places by heavy stones 
heaped upon them. Animals, as 
well as men, are able to cross over 
this frail structure, which swings 
to and fro, and seems ready to give 
way at every step. These bridges 
are of frequent occurrence in the 
Tiejari mountains. 

Bridges. The principal object to be 
observed in forming the plan of a 
bridge, is to give a suitable and 
convenient aperture to the arches, 
so as to afford a free vent to the 
waters of sudden floods or inunda- 
tions, and to secure the solidity and 
duration of the edifice by a skilful 
construction. The solidity of a 
bridge depends almost entirely 
on the manner in which its foun- 
dations are laid. When these are 


once properly arranged, the upper 
part may be erected either with 
simplicity or elegance, without im- 
pairing in any degree the durability 
of the structure. Experience has 
proved, that many bridges either 
decay, or are swept away by sud- 
den floods, by reason of the de- 
fective mode of fixing their founda- 
tions, while very few suffer from an 
unskilful construction of the piles 
or arches. This latter defect, how- 
ever, is easy of correction, nor is it 
difficult to prevent the consequences 
that might be expected from it. 

In the projection of a bridge, 
five principal points are necessary 
to be considered, first, the choice 
of its position or locality; secondly, 
the vent, or egress that must be al- 
lowed to the river; thirdly, the 
form of the arches ; fourthly, the 
size of the arches; fifthly, the 
breadth of the bridge. 

Bridge-board, or notch-board, a board 
on which the ends of the steps of 
wooden stairs are fastened 

Bridged gutters are made with boards 
supported by bearers, and covered 
above with lead 

Bridge-stone, a stone laid from the 
pavement to the entrance-door of 
a house, over a sunk area, and sup- 
ported by an arch 

Bridging -floors, floors in which bridg- 
ing joists are used 

Bridging-joists are the smallest beams 
in naked floorings, for supporting 
the boarding for walking upon 

Bridging -pieces, pieces placed between 
two opposite beams, to prevent 
their nearer approach, as rafters, 
braces, struts, &c. 

Bridle, the spans of rope attached to 
the leaches of square sails, to which 
the bow-lines are made fast 

Bridle-cable, in navigation. When 
a vessel is moored by laying down 
a cable upon the ground, with an 
anchor at each end, then another 
cable attached to the middle of the 
ground cable is called bridle-cable 

Bridle-part, the foremost part, used 
for stowing the anchors 




Brig, a square-rigged vessel with two 

Brine-pump, the pump in a steam- 
ship, used occasionally for drawing 
off a sufficient quantity of water, to 
prevent the salt from depositing in 
the boiler 

Brittleness, in iron, is a want of tena- 
city or strength, so as to be easily 
broken by pressure or impact: 
when iron is made too hot, so as 
to be nearly in a state of fusion, 
or so hard as to resist the action 
of the file, this is called the dispo- 
sition of cast iron 

Broach, an old English term for a 
spire ; still in use in some parts of 
the country to denote a spire spring- 
ing from the tower without any 
intermediate parapet 

Broach-to, to fall off so much, when 
going free, as to bring the wind 
round on the other quarter, and 
take the sails a-back 

Broadside, the whole side of a vessel 

Broken back, the state of a vessel 
when she is so loosened as to droop 
at each end 

Bromine, in chemistry, is found com- 
bined with silver in a few ores, also 
in sea-water and salt-springs ; as 
bromide of potassium, sodium, or 

Brontern, in Greek architecture, brazen 
vessels placed under the floor of a 
theatre, with stones in them, to 
imitate thunder 

Bronze, a compound metal, made of 
from 6 to 12 parts of tin and 100 
parts of copper 

Brood, in mining, any heterogeneous 
mixture among tin or copper ore, 
as Mundick, Black Jack, &c. 

Browning, a process by which the 
surfaces of articles of iron acquire 
a shining brown lustre : the mate- 
rial used to produce this is the 
chloride of antimony 

Brown ink. Various compounds were 
used in sketching by Claude, Rem- 
brandt, and many of the old mas- 
ters, the principal of which were 
solutions of bistre and sepia 

Brown ochre, Spruce ochre, or Ochre 


de Rue, a kind of dark-coloured yel- 
low ochre : it is much employed, and 
affords useful and permanent tints. 
This and all natural ochres require 
grinding and washing over, to se- 
parate them from extraneous sub- 
stances ; and they acquire depth 
and redness by burning 

Brown-pink, a fine glazing colour 
having but little strength of body. 
In the flesh, it should never join or 
mix with the lights, because this 
colour and white antipathize and 
mix of a warm dirty hue; for which 
reason their joinings should be 
blended with a cold middle tint 

Brown-post, a name given by some 
builders to a beam laid across a 

Brown spar, a magnesian carbonate 
of lime, tinged by oxide of iron and 

Bruiser, a concave tool used in grind- 
ing the specula of telescopes 

Brunswick green, a pigment composed 
of carbonate of copper with chalk 
or lime 

Brush-wheels are used in light ma- 
chinery, to turn each other by 
means of bristles or brushes fixed 
to their circumference 

Buata, anciently an arch or chamber; 
a crypt 

Bucca, anciently an almonry 

Bucentaur, the name of the once ce- 
lebrated galley of Venice, used by 
the Doge on Ascension-day, to ce- 
lebrate the wedding of the Adriatic, 
by dropping a ring into that sea 

Buckers, in mining, bruisers of the ore 

Buckets, in water-wheels, a series 
of cavities placed on the circumfer- 
ence of the wheel, and into which 
the water is delivered, to set the 
wheel in motion. By the revolu- 
tion of the wheel the buckets are 
alternately placed so as to receive 
the water, and inverted so as to 
discharge it ; the loaded side al- 
ways descending 

Bucking, in mining, a term applied to 
a method of breaking the poor foul 
copper ore smaller by hand, with 
small flat irons, called bucking- 




ing-irons, in order to wash and se- 
parate the pure ore from the use- 
less waste : the same term is used 
in the lead-mines ; but Pettus, in 
his ' Plata Miner,' gives it the sig- 
nification of washing or wet-stamp- 
ing ores 

Bucking-iron, in mining, the tool with 
which the ore is pulverized 

Buckle, in heraldry, a token of surety, 
faith, and service in the bearer 

Buckler, a shield of armour, anciently 
used in war 

Bucklers, in ships, blocks of wood made 
to fit in the hawse-holes, or holes 
in the half -ports, when at sea 

Bucranes, in sculpture, the heads of 
oxen, flayed and lacerated, some- 
times represented on friezes 

Buddie, in mining, a pit dug in the 
earth near the stamping-mill, 7 feet 
long, 3 feet wide, and 2^ feet deep, 
where the stamped tin is curiously 
washed from its impurities by water 
constantly running through the bud- 
die, while a boy, called a buddle- 
boy, is standing in the body of it, 
and working both with a shovel and 
with his feet 

Budget, a pocket used by tilers for 
holding the nails in lathing for tiling 

Buffers, in locomotive engines, rods 
with enlarged ends or striking blocks 
projecting from the ends of the frame 
of a railway carriage, and attached 
to springs, for deadening the shocks 
received from the engines 

Buhl, unburnished gold 

Buhl-work, ornamental furniture, in 
which tortoise-shell is inlaid with 
wood and brass 

Builder, a term applied to buildings in 
civil and naval architecture: in the 
former he is mostly employed under 
the superintendence of an architect 
by contract, or at measure and value ; 
the latter, under the naval architect, 
mostly by contract 

Building, the art which comprises all 
the operations of an architect in 
building with stone, brick, timber, 
iron, cement, &c. 

Buildings. Of the aspects best adapted 
to convenience and health, for the 


different kinds of buildings, Vitru- 
vius writes : " The principles which 
should be attended to in allotting 
to each kind of building an appro- 
priate aspect remain to be explain- 
ed: the winter eating-rooms and 
baths ought to face the winter- 
west, because the use of them re- 
quires that they should be light at 
the time of the sun's setting : be- 
sides which, the western sun, being 
immediately opposite to them, ren- 
ders their temperature mild at the 
close of the day. The sleeping 
apartments and libraries should be 
made to front the east, because the 
morning light is necessary for them; 
and books are better preserved 
when the air and light are received 
from that quarter. When libraries 
have a southern or western aspect, 
they admit those winds, which, at 
the same time that they carry with 
them moths, instil also damp va- 
pours into the books, which, in 
process of time, cause their decay. 
The vernal and autumnal triclinia 
should face the east, because the 
windows being turned from the 
sun's rays, whose heat increases as 
the sun advances towards the west, 
their temperature is cool at the 
hours they are generally used. The 
summer triclinia should front the 
north ; because, having that aspect, 
they will be least exposed to the 
sun, and the temperature of the 
apartments will be grateful, at the 
same time that it is conducive to 
health. No other aspect possesses 
equal advantages; for the sun, dur- 
ing the solstice, would render the 
air of all others sultry. This as- 
pect is necessary for pinacothecae 
and the apartments in which the 
pursuits of embroidery and painting 
are followed, because the colours 
used in works of this kind retain 
their brightness longer when ex- 
posed to an equable and regular 
light." Wilkins's Vit. p. 220. 
Buildings Act, an Act of Parliament 
passed in the 7th and 8th of Vic- 
toria to regulate the construction of 




buildings generally, and appurte- 
nances thereto, and to determine 
their supervisions by district sur- 
veyors and referees 

Building of beams, the joining of two 
or several pieces of timber together 
in one thickness, and of several 
pieces in one length, by means of 
bolts, so as to form a beam of given 
dimensions, which it would be im- 
possible to obtain from a single 
piece of timber 

Bulcuteria, among the Greeks, coun- 
cil-chambers or public halls 

Bulge, that part of a ship which 
bulges out at the floor-heads, to 
assist the ship when taking the 

Bulge-way, a large piece of timber, or 
pieces bolted together, making one 
solid piece, placed under the bulge 
of a ship, to support her launch. 
The support of the bulge-w r ays to 
lie on is called ways, which some- 
times are placed straight and some- 
times cumber : but if they do cum- 
ber, it should be truly circular; 
though sometimes the curve is 
quicker at the lower part, but this 
is liable to strain the sheer of the 
ship. Their extreme distance is 
generally about one -third the 
breadth of the ship, but this must 
depend on the form of the mid-ship 

Bulk, the contents of the hold of a ship 

Bulk-heads, partitions built up in 
several parts of a ship, to form and 
separate the various apartments 

Bullantic, so-called ornamentalcapital 
letters, used in apostolic bulls 

Bullen-nails, such as have round heads 
with short shanks, turned and lac- 
quered, used principally for hang- 
ings of rooms 

Bullet wood, from the West Indies, is 
the produce of a large tree with a 
white sap ; is of a greenish hazel, 
close and hard; used in the coun- 
try for building purposes 

Bullet wood, another species, from 
Berbice, is of a hazel-brown colour, 
adapted to general and eccentric 


Bull's-eye, a small circular aperture for 
the admission of light or air 

Bull's-eye, a small oval block of hard 
wood without sheaves, having a 
groove round the outside, and a 
hole in the middle 

Bulwarks, the wood-work round a 
vessel, above her deck, consisting 
of boards fastened to stanchions 
and timber-heads 

Bumboats, those which lie alongside a 
vessel in port with provisions for sale 

Bumpkins, pieces fitted above the 
main -rail in the head, which ex- 
tend nearly as far forward as the 
fore-part of the knee of the head, 
and are for the use of hauling down 
the fore-tack 

Bunch, or Bunchy: a mine that is 
sometimes rich and at other times 
poor, is said to be bunchy 

Bunch, or Squat, in mining, a quan- 
tity of ore, of small extent, more 
than a stone and not so much as a 
course : a mine is said to be bunchy 
when these are found in place of a 
regular lode 

Bundle-pillar, a column or pier, with 
others of small dimensions attached 
to it 

Bunny, in mining, of tin or copper 
ore ; a sombrero in Alonzo Barba ; 
a pipe of ore ; a great collection 
of ore without any vein coming into 
or going out from it 

Bunt of a sail, the middle part formed 
into a bag or cavity, that it may 
gather more wind 

Buntine, thin woollen stuff, of which 
a ship's colours are made 

Bunt-line cloth, the lining sewed up 
the sail in the direction of the 
bunt-line, to prevent the rope from 
chafing the sail 

Bunt-lines, ropes fastened to cringles 
on the bottoms of the square sails, 
to draw them up to their yards 

Buoy, a cask, or block of wood, fast- 
ened by a rope to an anchor, to 
point out shoals or particular spots 

Burden, in mining, the tops or heads 
of stream-work which lie over the 
stream of tin, and which must be 
first cleansed 




Burdon, a pilgrim's staff 

Bureau, a chamber or office for the 
transaction of state or business af- 

Burges, the Persian word for Towers, 
evidently the same as the Gothic 
burgh; a fortified dwelling or en- 
closed town. Gird or gard is in 
Persian a city or fortress, which 
approximates to garth, an enclosure, 
in the Gothic : hence garden. But 
a castle, comprehending towers and 
walls, is in Persian calaa 

Burgundy pitch, a resin collected 
from the spruce fir 

Burgus, anciently a number of houses 
protected by a fortress 

Burgward, anciently the custody or 
keeping of a castle 

Burg-work, anciently applied to a 
castle or borough 

Burin, an engraver's instrument ; a 

Burners, for gas-light. Coal-gas has 
now been used for the purposes of 
artificial illumination nearly fifty 
years, and the burners sanctioned 
by the companies at the present 
day are of several shapes. 

Carburetted hydrogen of the spe- 
cific gravity '390 (which is about 
the density of gas when arrived at 
the point where it has to be burnt) 
requires two volumes of pure oxy- 
gen for its complete combustion and 
conversion into carbonic acid and 
water. Atmospheric air contains, 
in its pure state, twenty per cent, 
of oxygen, in populous towns 
less ; but twenty per cent, may be 
taken as a fair average : 1 cubic 
foot of carburetted hydrogen then 
requires for its proper combustion 
10 cubic feet of air; if less be ad- 
mitted on to the flame, a quantity 
of free carbon will escape (from its 
not finding a proper volume of oxy- 
gen for conversion into carbonic 
acid), and be deposited in the form 
of dense black smoke. When the 
flame from an Argand burner is 
turned up high, the air which rushes 
through the interior ring becomes 
decomposed before it can reach the 


air on the top of the flame, which 
consequently burns in one undivided 
mass, the gas being in part uncon- 
sumed, the products unconverted, 
and carbon deposited abundantly. 

If an excess of air is admitted, it 
would appear at first to be of no 
consequence, but it will be found 
that the quantity of nitrogen ac- 
companying this excess has a ten- 
dency to extinguish the flame, while 
it takes no part in the elective affi- 
nity constantly going on between 
the several elementary gases, viz. 
hydrogen, oxygen, and the vapour 
of carbon ; and also thatthe quantity 
of atmospheric air passing through 
the flame unchanged, tends to re- 
duce the temperature below that 
necessary for ignition, and therefore 
to diminish the quantity of light. 
For the proper combustion of the 
gas, neither more nor less air than 
the exact quantity required for the 
formation of carbonic acid and water 
can be admitted through the flame 
without being injurious. It is not 
possible practically to regulate the 
supply of air to such a nicety : it is 
preferred therefore to diminish the 
quantity of light by having a slight 
excess of air rather than to pro- 
duce smoke by a deficiency, the 
former being unquestionably the 
least evil. 

Burning-glass, a glass lens, which, 
being exposed directly to the sun, 
refracts the rays which fall upon it 
into a focus 

Burning-house, the furnace in which 
tin ores are calcined, to sublime the 
sulphur from pyrites : the latter 
being thus decomposed, are more 
readily removed by washing 

Burnisher, a tool used for smoothing 
and polishing a rough surface. 
Agates, polished steel, ivory, &c., 
are used for burnishing 

Burnt Carmine is, according to its 
name, the carmine of cochineal par- 
tially charred till it resembles in 
colour the purple of gold, for the 
uses of which in miniature and 
water painting it excels 




Burnt Sienna earth is, as its name 
implies, the terra di sienna burnt, 
and is of an orange-russet colour 

Burnt Umber, a pigment obtained from 
a fossil substance, which when burnt 
assumes a deeper and more russet 
hue : it contains manganese and 
iron, and is very drying in oil, in 
which it is employed as a dryer. 
It is a fine warm brown, and a good 
working strong colour, of great use 
for the hair of the human head, and 
mixes finely with the warm shade 

Burnt Verdigris is an olive-coloured 
oxide of copper deprived of acid. 
It dries well in oil, and is more 
durable, and in other respects an 
improved and more eligible pig- 
ment than in its original state 

Burre-stone, a mill-stone which is al- 
most pure silex : the best kind is 
of a whitish colour 

Burrock, a small weir or dam, where 
wheels are laid in a river for catch- 
ing fish 

Burrow, in mining, the heap or heaps 
of attle, deads, or earth (void of 
ore), which are raised out of a mine, 
and commonlylie aroundthe shafts ; 
any heap or hillock of deads or 

Burr-pump, a bilge-pump worked by 
a bar of wood pulled up and down 
by a rope fastened by the middle 

Bursa, a bag; a purse used in the mid- 
dle ages for the purposes of a little 
college or hall for students 

Bursar, one to whom a stipend is 
paid out of a fund set apart for poor 
students; the treasurer of a college 

Bursary, the treasury of a college 

Bursery, the exchequer of collegiate 
and conventual houses, and for 
paying and receiving monies 

Burthen, the weight or measure of 
capacity of a ship. Multiply the 
length of the keel, the inner mid- 
ship breadth, and the depth from 
the main-deck to the plank joining 
the keelson together ; and the pro- 
duct, divided by 94, gives the ton- 
nage or burthen 

Burton, a manor ; a manor-house 

Burton, in a ship, a small tackle of 


two single blocks, named from the 

Bush, in machinery, a piece of metal 
fitted into the plummer-block of a 
shaft in which the journal turns. 
The guide of a sliding-rod also 
bears the same name 

Bush, a circular piece of iron or other 
metal, let into the sheaves of such 
blocks as have iron pins, to prevent 
their wearing 

Bushel, a dry measure of 8 gallons or 
4 pecks 

Bush-harrow, an implement used in 
harrowing grass lands 

Buskin, a high shoe or boot worn an- 
ciently, in tragedy, on the stage 

Buss, a small sea-vessel used in the 

Bust, in sculpture, the head, neck, 
and breast of a human figure 

Bustum, anciently a tomb 

But, the end of a plank where it 
unites with another 

But-hinges, those employed in the 
hanging of doors, shutters, &c. 

Butmen cheeks, the two solid sides of 
a mortise varying in thickness 

Butments, the supports on which the 
feet of arches stand 

Butterfly-valve, the double valve of 
an air-pump bucket, consisting of 
two clack-valves, having the joints 
opposite and on each side of the 

Butteris, an instrument of steel set 
in a wooden handle, used by far- 
riers for paring the hoof of a horse 

Buttery, a cellar in which butts of 
wine are kept; a place for provisions 

Buttock, the round part of a ship 
abaft, from the wing transom to the 
upper water-line, or lower down 

Buttress, in Gothic architectural struc- 
tures, a pilaster, pier, or masonry 
added to and standing out from the 
exterior of a wall 

Buttress, a piece of strong wall that 
stands on the outside of another 
wall, to support it 

By, said of a vessel when her head is 
lower in the water than her stern ; 
if her stern is lower in the water, 
she is by the stern 




Byard, a piece of leather across the 
breast, used by those who drag the 
sledges in coal-pits 
Byzantine Architecture. About the 
year A. D. 328, Constantine, who 
had previously resided at Rome, 
commenced his new capital in the 
East, which was called after his 
name, and in May, 330, was so- 
lemnly dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary. He adorned it with so 
many stately edifices that it nearly 
equalled the ancient capital itself: 
he here built a cathedral dedicated 
to Santa Sophia or the Eternal Wis- 
dom, and a church to the Apostles. 
This cathedral, having been twice 
destroyed by fire, was finally rebuilt 
about 532 A. D., by Justinian, who 
had invited the celebrated architect 
Anthemius to Constantinople for 
that purpose. It was completed in 
six years from the time of laying 
the first stone. 

The emperor, in his admiration 
of this magnificent edifice, is said to 
have exclaimed, " I have vanquished 
thee, Solomon:" and with justice 
might he glorify himself; for the 
dome of St. Sophia is the largest in 
the world, and the more to be ad- 
mired in its construction from the 
lowness of the curvature. 

This church, after twelve centu- 
ries, remains the same, with the ex- 
ception of the mode of worship to 
which it is devoted. It still retains 
its former name, but the Mahome- 
tans, instead of the Christians, pos- 
sess it. 

This is the earliest Byzantine 
building extant, totally dissimilar 
in arrangement to the Christian 
churches in the empire. 

The plan of the interior is that of 
a Greek cross, the four arms of 
which are of equal length ; the cen- 


GABBLING. The process in the ma- 
nufacture of iron, which in Glou- 
cestershire is called ' scabbling,' or, 


tral part is square, the sides are 
about 115 feet in length. At each 
angle of the square a massive pier 
has been carried, 86 feet in height 
from the pavement, and four semi- 
circular arches stretch across the 
intervals overthe sides ofthe square, 
and rest on the piers. The interior 
angles between the four piers are 
filled up in a concave form. At 
145 feet from the ground is the level 
of the springing of the dome, which 
is 115 feet in diameter ; the form is 
a segment of a circle, and the height 
is equal to one-sixth of its diameter 
at the base. On both the eastern 
and western side of the square is a 
semicircular recess, with domes that 
rest against the main arches, and 
assist in resisting the lateral thrust. 
On the north and south sides of the 
square are vestibules forming a 
square on the plan. Above the vesti- 
bules are galleries appropriated to 
women during the performance of 
worship. The whole church is sur- 
rounded by cloisters, and enclosed 
by walls. 

The total cost of St. Sophia has 
been reckoned at the lowest com- 
putation to have exceeded one mil- 
lion pounds ; as before the building 
was 4 feet out of the ground, its 
cost had amounted to a sum equi- 
valent to 200,000 sterling. 

Besides this cathedral, Justinian 
is said to have built, at Constanti- 
nople, twenty-five churches to the 
honour of Christ, the Virgin, and 
the Saints ; he also built a church 
to St. John at Ephesus, and another 
to the Virgin at Jerusalem: the 
bridges, hospitals, and aqueducts 
erected by this emperor were nu- 
merously distributed throughout the 
Byzanteum artificium, Mosaic-work 


more correctly, ' cabbling,' may be 
thus described. When the cast or 
pig iron has been subjected to the 




influence of a refinery, the product is 
called ' Finery:' it is then carried to 
the forge, and smelted in a furnace 
with charcoal: in a short time, a 
large ball, about 2 cwt., is formed 
by working with an iron bar ; this 
ball is then taken to a large ham- 
mer, and beaten into a flat oval or 
oblong shape, from 2 to 4 inches 
in thickness : this is allowed to 
cool, when ' cabbling' commences, 
and which is simply breaking up 
this flat iron into small pieces. 
Men are especially allocated for 
this operation, and are named 
' cabblers.' The pieces of iron ob- 
tained by cabbling are then heated 
in another furnace almost to fusion, 
hammered down into shape, and 
ultimately drawn out into bar-iron 

Cabin, a room or apartment in a ship 
where any of the officers usually 
reside, and also used in passenger 
vessels for the residence of passen- 

Cabinet pictures, usually denominated 
so, are small valuable paintings from 
the old masters, painted on copper, 
panel, or canvas. Modern subjects, 
if painted small in size, should 
equally be called Cabinet 

Cabinets, in Tudor times, were of 
massive proportions, carved in oak, 
ebony, walnut, and other woods, 
inlaid. Some of them answered 
the double purpose of depositories 
and cupboards for plate, from 
having drawers and recesses, or 
ambries, enclosed by doors; and 
broad shelves between the tiers of 
turned columns were conspicuous 
objects in these apartments 

Cable, a thick stout rope, made of 
hemp, &c., to keep a ship at anchor 

Cable-moulding, ahead ortorus mould- 
ing, cut in imitation of the twisting 
of a rope, much used in the later 
period of the Norman style 

Cabling, a round moulding, frequently 
used in the flutes of columns, pilas- 
ters, &c. 

Caduceus, an emblem or attribute of 
Mercury; a rod entwined by two 
winged serpents 


Caslatura (Greek), a branch of the 
fine arts, under which all sorts of 
ornamental work in metal, except 
actual statues, appear to be included 

Caementicius, built of unhewn stones ; 
large irregular masses laid together 
without mortar, having the inter- 
stices filled in with small chippings 

Caen stone, a peculiar quality of stone 
used for building purposes, prin- 
cipally for Gothic structures ; it is 
taken from quarries in Normandy 

Caisson, a wooden frame or box with 
a flatbottom, made of strong timbers 
firmly connected together; used for 
laying the foundations of a bridge 
in situations where the coffer-dam 
cannot be adopted 

Caisson, a name given to the sunk 
panels of various geometrical forms 
symmetrically disposed in flat or 
vaulted ceilings, or in soffits gene- 

Cal, in Cornish mining, a kind of iron 
Gossan stone found in the bryle and 
backs of lodes, much of the colour 
of old iron ; reckoned a poor brood 
with tin 

Calcar, a small oven or reverberatory 
furnace, in which the first calcina- 
tion of sand and potashes is made 
for turning them into frit, from 
which glass is ultimately made 

Calcareous earth, the same as lime, 
and of which there are various com- 
binations, as marble, limestone, 
marl, gypsum, &c. 

Calcatorium, among the Romans, a 
raised platform of masonry in the 
cellar attached to a vineyard 

Calcination, the process of subjecting 
a body to the action of fire, to drive 
off the volatile parts, whereby it is 
reduced to a condition that it may 
be converted into a powder : thus 
marble is converted into lime by 
driving off the carbonic acid and 
water; and gypsum, alum, borax, 
and other saline bodies are said to 
be calcined when they are deprived 
of their water of crystallization 

Calcium, the metallic basis of lime 

Calcography, to write, engrave, &c. 

Calculating machines are of early in- 




ventiou ; but recently Mr. Babbage 
has completed a calculating ma- 
chine surpassing all previous ones : 
the machine accomplishes the ad- 
ditions of numbers by the move- 
ments of a number of cylinders 
having on the convex surface of 
each the series of numbers 1234 
567890; and the operations 
are of two kinds : by the first the 
additions are made, and by the 
second there is introduced the 1, 
which should be carried to the 
ten's place every time that the sum 
of the two numbers is greater than 
10, &c. 

Caldarium, the hot bath. The vase 
which supplied the hot bath was 
likewise so termed 

Caldarium, according to Vitruvius, the 
thermal chamber in a set of baths 

Calender, a mechanical engine for 
dressing and finishing cloths 

Calends, in Roman antiquity, the first 
day of every month 

Caliber or Caliper compasses; com- 
passes made with bowed or arched 
legs, for the purpose of taking the 
diameter of any round body 

Caliber, an instrument used by car- 
penters, joiners, and bricklayers, to 
see whether their work be well 

Calico, a cloth made from cotton wool, 
like linens ; the origin of the name 
is from Calicut, in India 

Calico printing, the art of applying 
coloured patterns on a white or 
coloured ground of linen or cotton 

Calk, a Cornish term for lime 

Callipers, a species of compasses with 
legs of a circular form, used to take 
the thickness or diameter of work, 
either circular or flat; used also to 
take the interior size of holes 

Callipers, in turning, compasses with 
each of the legs bent into the form 
of a curve, so that when shut the 
points are united ; and the curves, 
being equal and opposite, enclose a 
space. The use of the callipers is 
to try the work in the act of turn- 
ing, in order to ascertain the dia- 
meter orthe diameters of the various 


parts. As the points stand nearer 
together at the greatest required 
diameter than the parts of the legs 
above, the callipers are well adapted 
to the use intended 

Callys ovKillas (Cornish), hard, smart; 
the most common and agreeable 
stratum in our mine country, usually 
called killas 

Caloric, the matter and cause of heat 

Calorific, in chemistry, the quality of 
producing heat 

Calorimeter, an instrument to measure 
the heat given out by a body in 
cooling by the quantity of ice it melts 

Calquing, the process of copying or 
transferring a drawing. It is ef- 
fected by rubbing over the back of 
the original with a fine powder of 
red chalk or black lead; the smeared 
side is then laid on a sheet of paper, 
and the lines of the drawing are traced 
by a blunt-pointed needle, which 
imprints them on the paper under- 
neath. Another method is to hold 
the drawing up to a window with 
a sheet of paper before it: the out- 
lines will appear through, and may 
be pencilled off without damage to 
the original 

Calyon, flint or pebble stone, used in 
building walls, &c. 

Cam, in steam machinery, a plate with 
curved sides, triangular or other- 
wise, fixed upon a revolving shaft, 
for changing the uniform rotatory 
motion into an irregular rectilineal 
motion. It is sometimes used for 
moving the slide-valves 

Camaieu, a term used in painting when 
there is only one colour, the light 
and shades being of gold, or on a 
golden and azure ground. It is chiefly 
used to represent basso-rilievo 

Camber, the convexity of a beam upon 
the upper surface, in order that it 
may not become concave by its own 
weight, or by the binder it may have 
to sustain, in the course of time 

Camber-beams are those used in the 
flats of truncated roofs, and raised 
in the middle with an obtuse angle, 
for discharging the rain-water to- 
wards both sides of the roof 




Camber-slip, a piece of wood, gene- 
rally about half an inch thick, with 
at least one curved edge rising 
about 1 inch in 6 feet, for drawing 
the soffit-lines of straight arches : 
when the other edge is curved, it 
rises only to about one-half of the 
other, viz. about half an inch in 
6 feet, for the purpose of drawing 
the upper side of the arch so as 
to prevent it from becoming hol- 
low by the settling of the bricks. 
The upper edge of the arch is not 
always cambered, some persons pre- 
ferring it to be straight. The brick- 
layer is always provided with a 
camber-slip, which being sufficiently 
long, answers to many different 
widths of openings : when he has 
done drawing his arch, he gives 
the camber-slip to the carpenter, 
in order to form the centre to the 
required curve of the soffit 

Cambering, a sea phrase, used when a 
deck is higher in the middle than 
at the ends 

Camel, the name of a machine used by 
the Dutch for carrying vessels hea- 
vily laden over the sand-banks in 
the Zuyder Zee 

Camera (Greek), an arched or vaulted 
roof, covering or ceiling, formed by 
circular bands or beams of wood, 
over the intervals of which a coating 
of lath and plaster was spread: 
they resembled, in their construc- 
tion, the hooped awnings now 
commonly in use 

Camera-lucida, and Camera-obscura, 
(the light and dark chamber,) the 
names given to two methods, simi- 
lar in principle, of thro wing images 
of external objects upon plane or 
curved surfaces, for the purpose of 
drawing or amusement: in the first 
contrivance there is no chamber; 
but as it was the last invented, and 
as its predecessor had been called 
the ' camera-obscura,' it was termed 
the 'camera-lucida' 

Camerated, a term applied to the roof 
of a church 

Games, the slender rods of metal 
used by glaziers as turned lead; 


they are usually cast in lengths 
which measure 12 or 14 inches 

Caminus, according to Pliny, a smelt- 
ing furnace 

Campance or Campanula, or Guttae, 
the drops of the Doric architrave 

Campanile, from the Italian, a bell- 
tower, principally used for church 
purposes, but now sometimes for 
domestic edifices 

Camphor wood is imported from China 
and the Indies in logs and planks 
of large size, and used in England 
for cabinet-work and turnery 

Campus Martius, a district outside 
the walls of ancient Rome, between 
the Quirinal and Pincian Mounts 
and the Tiber, dedicated to Mars : 
there public exercises w r ere per- 
formed, and the consuls and other 
magistrates elected : it was adorned 
with statues, columns, arches, &c., 
and much frequented by the citizens 

Cam wood, the best and hardest of 
the red dye-woods : it is brought 
from Africa, and used in ornamental 
and eccentric turnery 

Canal, an artificial water-course for 
connecting rivers or lakes ; a navi- 
gable communication 

Canalis, in Latin, a water-pipe or 
gutter ; used in architecture for any 
channel, such as the flutings of co- 
lumns; the channel between the 
volutes of an Ionic column 

Canary wood, from South America, 
is a sound, light, orange-coloured 
wood, used for cabinet-work, mus- 
ketry, and turnery 

Cancelli, among the Romans, iron 
gratings and trellis-work ; in mo- 
dern buildings, latticed windows 
made with cross-bars of wood, iron, 
lead, &c. 

Candela, a candle, made either of 
wax or tallow ; used generally by 
the Romans before the invention 
of lamps 

Candelabrum, originally a candle- 
stick, but afterwards used to sup- 
port lamps 

Candlemas., the popular name for the 
feast of the Purification of the 
Virgin Mary, February 2, derived 




from the lights which were then 
distributed and carried about in 

Candlestick of gold (The) was made 
by Moses for the service of the 
Temple, and consisted wholly of 
pure gold : it had seven branches, 
upon the extremities of which were 
seven golden lamps, which were 
fed with pure olive oil, and lighted 
every evening by the priest on 
duty : it was used in the holy 
place, and served to illumine the 
altar of incense and the table of 
shew-bread, which stood in the 
same chamber 

Candlesticks. The magnificence of 
these articles was at first displayed 
in chapels and in domestic apart- 
ments, as banquets in early times 
were given by daylight. We find 
them, however, of very costly de- 
scriptions. In Henry the Eighth's 
temporary banqueting - room, at 
Greenwich, "the candlestykes were 
of antyke worke, which bare little 
torchetts of white waxe : these 
candlestykes were polished lyke 

Cangica wood, from South America, is 
of a light and yellow-brown colour, 
used for cabinet-work and turnery 

Can-hooks, strings with flat hooks at 
each end, used for hoisting bar- 
rels or light casks 

Canopy, a covering or hood, the en- 
riched projecting head to a niche 
or tabernacle. The tablet or drip- 
stone, whether straight or circular, 
over the heads of doors or windows, 
if enriched, is so called 

Canopy, in Gothic architecture, an 
ornamental projection over doors, 
windows, &c.;acoveringoverniches, 
tombs, &c. 

Cant, a term used among carpenters 
to express the cutting off the angle 
of a square 

Cantalivcr, a kind of bracket to sup- 
port eaves, cornices, balconies, &c. 

Canted, applied to a pillar or turret 
when the plan is of a polygonal 

Canterii, beams of wood in the frame- 

work of a roof, extending from the 
ridge to the eaves, corresponding 
to the rafters of a modern roof. 
The word canterii was also applied 
to two inclining reeds fixed in the 
ground some distance asunder and 
meeting at the top, for the support 
of vines 

Cantharus, a fountain or cistern in 
the atrium or court-yard before 
ancient churches, at which persons 
washed before they entered the 
sacred buildings 

Canthus, in Greek and Latin, the 
tire of a wheel ; a hoop of iron or 
bronze fastened on to the felloe, to 
preserve the wood from abrasion 

Cantilevers are horizontal rows of 
timbers, projecting at right angles 
from the naked part of a w r all, for 
sustaining the eaves or other mould- 

Cant -moulding, abevelled surface, nei- 
ther perpendicular to the horizon 
nor to the vertical surface to which 
it may be attached 

Cantoned, in architecture, is when the 
corner of a building is adorned 
with a pilaster, an angular column, 
rustic quoins, or any thing that pro- 
jects beyond the wall 

Cant-pieces, in ships, pieces of timber 
fastened to the angles of fishes and 
side-trees, to supply any part that 
may prove rotten 

Cant -timbers, in ship-building, those 
timbers or ribs of the ship which 
are situated afore or abaft, or at the 
two ends, where the ship grows 
narrower below 

Cant-timber abaft, the chock upon 
w r hich the spanker-boom rests when 
the sail is not set 

Cantuar. The signature of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, is thus abbre- 
viated, the Christian name being 
usually prefixed 

Canvas, the cloth of which the sails 
of ships are made 

Caoutchouc, a substance produced by 
the sephonia elastica, the ficus elas- 
tica, and the urceola elastica, and 
many other American and Asiatic 
trees. It is often termed Indian 




rubber, from its use in removing 
pencil traces from paper. There are 
various chemical properties which 
render caoutchouc valuable in the 
arts, but elasticity and impervious- 
ness to water are those for which 
it is most prized. It is worked into 
a great variety of useful things for 
dress and for domestic purposes 

Cap, a thick, strong block of wood, 
with two holesthroughit,one square 
and the other round, used in ship- 
building to confine together the 
head of a mast and the lower part 
of that next above it 

Capacity, the same in sense as content 
or volume in pure mathematics. 
In physics it generally signifies the 
power of holding or retaining: thus 
we speak of the capacity of a body 
for heat, &c. 

Capel, in mining, a stone composed of 
quartz, schorl, andhornblende, usu- 
ally occurring in one or both walls 
of a lode, and more frequently ac- 
companying tin than copper ores 

Capillary attraction and repulsion. 
These names have been given to the 
properties of matter which cause 
the ascent above or descent below 
the level of the surrounding fluid 
which takes place when a tube of 
small diameter is dipped into water, 
mercury, &c. 

Capital, in architecture, the head or 
uppermost part of a column or pi- 
laster. The capitals of the columns 
constitute the principal and most 
obvious indicial mark of the re- 
spective orders. For those of each 
of the three classes or orders a cer- 
tain character conformable with the 
rest of the order is to be observed; 
but that attended to, further re- 
striction is unnecessary. Between 
several examples, all decidedly re- 
ferrible to one and the same order, 
very great special differences occur, 
and there might easily be a very 
great many more. Although the 
capital itself is indispensable, it is 
so only aesthetically, and not out of 
positive necessity. The necessity is 
only artistic : decoration of the kind 


there must be,butthe express mode 
of it is one of those matters which 
should be left to design, to which 
it properly belongs. Capitals are 
just as legitimate subjects for the 
exercise of taste and invention as 
any thing else in decorative design. 
The capital is only an ornamental 
head to the column, and therefore 
admits of being as freely designed 
as any other piece of ornament, on 
the conditions of itsbeing accordant 
in character with the rest of the 
order, and of forming an agreeable 
transition from the shaft of the co- 
lumn to the architrave 

Capitolium, a temple or citadel at 
Rome, on the Tarpeian rock : it was 
finished by Tarquinius Superbus, 
and consecrated by the consul M. 
Horatius, was burnt in the time 
of Marius, and rebuilt by Sylla, 
destroyed a second and third time 
in the troubles under Vitellius and 
Vespasian, and lastly raised again 
by Domitian. Its name was de- 
rived from the discovery of the 
head of Tolius, during the excava- 
tion of the earth for the founda- 
tion. Q. Catulus consecrated it to 
Jupiter Capitolinus, and covered 
it with gilded brass tiles. The 
steep ascent of the rock was 
mounted by 100 steps on the side 
of the forum. In the temple were 
statues of gold and silver, vessels 
of those metals and of crystal, and 
3000 brass tables on which the 
Roman laws were engraved 

Caple (in Cornwall) stone is something 
like limestone, but will not burn. 
The walls of most lodes are of this 
kind, and therefore it is common 
to call a lode by the name of its 
caple : those veins which abound 
with it are termed caples or caple- 

Capreoli, the pieces of timber on a 
roof which serve to uphold the 
axes or principals. A fork inclined 
so as to afford support to any thing 
was formerly called a Capreolus 

Capsa or Capsula, a box for holding 
books among the Romans : these 




boxes were usually made of beech 
wood, and were cylindrical in form 

Capsize, to overturn 

Capstan,in naval architecture, a strong 
massive piece of timber let down 
through the decks of a ship, and 
resting its foot or axis, which is 
shod with iron, in an iron socket, 
called a saucer, fixed on a wooden 
block or standard, called the step, 
resting on the beams 

Captain, in mining, an experienced 
miner; one who directs and over- 
sees the workmen and business of 
a mine 

Caracol, a term sometimes used for a 
staircase in a helix or spiral form 

Caradoc formation, the uppermost of 
the two great divisions of the lower 
Silurian strata of Murchison, seen 
principally in Shropshire, Worces- 
tershire, Somersetshire, &c., and on 
the eastern borders of Wales 

Caravanserai, a building in the East, 
expressed in our version of the 
Scripture by the term Inn; in 
Turkey it is understood to be a 
place of accommodation for strangers 
and travellers : they are built at 
proper distances through the roads 
of the Turkish dominions, and afford 
the indigent and weary traveller an 
asylum from the inclemency of the 

Carbon, a non- metallic elementary 
solid body, which is widely diffused 
throughout nature. The purest and 
at the same time the rarest form in 
which it occurs is that of the dia- 
mond ; the more common states in 
which it is met with are those of 
anthracite, graphite, and coal : an- 
other form is that of charcoal 

Carbonate, a salt composed of car- 
bonic acid and a base. The chief 
varieties are described under their 
alkaline, earthy, and metallic bases 

Carburet, a compound of carbon with 
nitrogen, metals, &c. 

Carcass (The} of a building is the 
naked walls and the rough timber- 
work of the flooring and quarter 
partitions before the building is 
plastered or the floors laid 


Carcass-roofing, that which supports 
the covering by a grated frame of 

Career, a prison or gaol. The Roman 
prisons were divided into three 
stories, one above the other, each 
of which w r as appropriated to dis- 
tinct purposes 

Card -malting machine, an arrange- 
ment of wires used in the cotton 
manufacture, for disentangling the 
fibres of cotton preparatory to spin- 

Cardo, a pivot and socket, an appa- 
ratus by means of which the doors 
of the ancients were fixed in their 
places, and made to revolve in 
opening and shutting 

Careening, the operation of heaving 
a ship down on one side by the 
application of a strong purchase 
to her masts, which are properly 
supported for the occasion, to 
prevent their breaking with so 
great a strain, and by which means 
one side of the bottom, being 
elevated above the surface of the 
water, it may be cleansed or re- 

Carina, according to Cicero, the keel 
or lowest piece of timber in the 
frame -work of a ship 

Car/m<7S,shortpieces of timber ranging 
fore and aft from one deck-beam to 
another, into which their ends are 
mortised : they are used to sustain 
and fortify the smaller beams of the 

Carlisle Tables, so called from the more 
recent mode of making calculations 
of the value of annuities on lives, 
based on the average duration of 
human life, as taken at Carlisle, in 
Cumberland. The value of a life 
annuity depends upon the manner 
in which it is presumed a large 
number of persons,similarly situated 
with the buyer, would die off suc- 
cessively. Various tables of these 
decrements of life, as they are 
called, have been constructed from 
observations made among different 
classes of lives. Some make the 
mortality greater than others ; and, 




of course, tables which give a large 
mortality give the value of the an- 
nuity smaller than those which 
suppose men to live longer. Those 
who huy annuities would therefore 
be glad to be rated according to 
tables of high mortality, or low 
expectation of life ; while those 
who sell them would prefer receiv- 
ing the price indicated by tables 
which give a lower rate of morta- 
lity. Hence arise bargains or sti- 
pulations according to either the 
Northampton or Carlisle tabulated 
rating of the duration of life. In 
assurances the reverse is the case : 
the shorter the time which a man 
is supposed to live, the more must 
he pay the office, that the latter 
may at his death have accumulated 
wherewithal to pay the amount. 
The Northampton tables, formed 
by Dr. Price, from observations of 
burials at Northampton, as com- 
pared with all other tables of au- 
thority, give too high a mortality 
at all the younger and middle ages 
of life, and, consequently, too low 
a value of the annuity. The Car- 
lisle tables, formed by Mr. Milne, 
give much less mortality than most 
of the old tables, and therefore a 
higher value of the annuities : they 
have been proved to represent 
the actual state of life among the 
middle classes 

Carmine (colour), a name originally 
given only to fine specimens of the 
tinctures of kermes and cochineal, 
and denoting generally at present 
any pigment which resembles them 
in beauty, richness of colour, and 
fineness of texture : hence we hear 
of blue and other coloured car- 
mines, though the term is princi- 
pally confined to the crimson and 
scarlet colours produced from 
cochineal by the agency of tin 

Cam, in Cornish mining, a rock; a 
heap of rocks ; a high rock 

Carnagioni (of the Italians), a colour 
which differs from terra puzzuoli 
in its hue ; in which respect, other 
variations and denominations arc 


produced by dressing and com- 

Carol, a small closet or enclosure to 
sit and read in 

Carpenter's square; the stock and 
blade are formed, in one piece, of 
plate-iron, and the instrument is 
thus constructed: one leg is 18 
inches in length, numbered from 
the exterior angle ; the bottom of 
the figures are adjacent to the in- 
terior edge of the square, and con- 
sequently their tops to the exterior 
edge : the other leg is 12 inches in 
length, and numbered from the ex- 
tremity towards the angle ; the 
figures are read from the internal 
angle, as in the other side ; and 
each of the legs is about an inch 
broad. It is not only used as a 
square, but also as a level, and as a 
rule : its application as a square 
and as a rule is so easy as not to 
require any example ; but its use 
as a level, in taking angles, may be 
thus illustrated : suppose it were 
required to take the angle which 
the heel of a rafter makes with the 
back, apply the end of the short 
leg of the square to the heel-point 
of the rafter, and the edge of the 
square level across the plate ; ex- 
tend a line from the ridge to the 
"heel-point, and where this line cuts 
the perpendicular leg of the square, 
mark the inches : this will show 
how far it deviates from the square 
in 12 inches 

Carpenters' tools : the principal tools 
used in the rougher operations of 
carpentry are the axe, the adze, the 
chisel, the saw, the mortise and 
tenon-gauge, the square,the plumb- 
rule, the level, the auger, the crow, 
and the draw-bore-pin, or hook-pin, 
for draw-boring 

Carpentry is the art of combining 
pieces of timber for the support of 
any considerable weight or pres- 

The theory of carpentry is 
founded on two distinct branches 
of mechanical science : the one in- 
forms us how strains are propagated 




through a system of framing; the 
other, how to proportion the re- 
sistance of its parts, so that all may 
he sufficiently strong to resist the 
strains to which they are exposed. 
The one determines the stability 
of position, the other the stability 
of resistance. Each of these may 
be considered in the most simple 
manner the subject admits of, with 
the addition of rules and practical 

Timber is wrought into various 
forms according to jthe principles 
of geometry ; and these forms are 
to be preserved in their original 
shape only by adjusting the stress 
and strain according to the laws of 
mechanics. Hence the import- 
ance of studying both these sciences 
is evident, and particularly the 
latter; for unless the stress and 
strain be accurately adjusted, the 
most careful attention to geometri- 
cal rules, and the most skilful work- 
manship, will he exerted in vain. 
If, for instance, the centre of an 
arch were to be drawn and worked 
ever so truly to the curve required, 
what would it avail if the centre 
changed its form with every course 
of stone laid upon it ? And it must 
be remarked, that this is not an 
imaginary case, but one that has 
frequently happened ; and not only 
to men ignorant of mechanics, but 
to some of the most celebrated en- 
gineers that France ever produced. 

The engineers of our own coun- 
try have been more successful, 
having succeeded in gradually in- 
troducing a better principle of con- 
structing centres than our neigh- 
bours. The greatest defect of the 
English centres is now an excess 
of strength, which, on principles of 
economy, it would be desirable to 
avoid in erections for temporary 

Carpentry, in civil architecture, is the 
art of employing timber in the con- 
struction of buildings. 

The first operation of dividing a 
piece of timber into scantlings, or 


boards, by means of the pit-saw, 
belongs to sawing, and is previous 
to any thing done in carpentry. 

The tools employed by the car- 
penter are a ripping- saw, a hand- 
saw, an axe, an adze, a socket- 
chisel, a firmer chisel, a ripping- 
chisel, an auger, a gimlet, a hammer, 
a mallet, a pair of pincers, and some- 
times planes ; but as these are not 
necessarily used, they are described 
under the head of joinery, in which 
they are absolutely necessary 

Carrara marble, a species of white 
marble : it is distinguished from 
the Parian or statuary marble by 
being harder and less bright. It 
takes its name from Carrara, in 

Carrel, a pew, closet, or desk, with a 
seat placed under a window, where 
the monks were engaged in copying 

Carriage of a stair, the timber which 
supports the steps 

Carrick-bend, a kind of knot. Car- 
rick-bitts are the windlass-bitts 

Carrier, the piece of iron which is 
fixed by a set-screw on the end of 
a shaft or spindle to be turned in 
a lathe, to carry it round by the 
action of the driver of the centre 

Carry away, a sea term, to break a 
spar or part a rope 

Cartoon, a distemper-coloured draw- 
ing, made on paper, linen, parch- 
ment, &c., of the exact pattern of 
a design intended to be executed 
either in tapestry, mosaics, or on 
glass : such are Raphael's divine 
pictures in Hampton Court Palace 

Cartoon, in painting, a design drawn 
on strong paper, sometimes after- 
wards calqued through, and trans- 
ferred on the fresh plaster of a 
wall, to be painted in fresco 

Cartouch, the same as modillion, ex- 
cept that it is exclusively used to 
signify the blocks or modillions on 
the eaves of a house 

Cartouche, an ornament representing 
a scroll of paper 

Carucru, or Chica, a new pigment, 




of a soft powdery texture and rich 
marrone colour, first brought from 
South America by Lieut. Mawe 

Carving and inlaying of woods had 
become pretty general at the latter 
end of the sixteenth century : " at 
Hard wick, in Derbyshire ( 1 5 7 0) , the 
wood-work, in several of the prin- 
cipal apartments, is oak, inlaid with 
ebony ornaments on the panels and 
stiles. The doors and shutters of 
' Mary Queen of Scot's room,' as it 
is called, are framed in panels of 
light wood, inlaid with profiles of 
the Caesars, and other enrichments ; 
the stiles, of darker coloured oak. 
In the state-room, the walls are 
divided, at about half the height, 
by a stringing, the upper part filled 
with landscapes, figures, and ani- 
mals, relieved in plaster^ and 
painted in their proper colours on 
white ground ; and the lower divi- 
sion hung with tapestry. The 
chimney front is entirely occupied 
by a large armorial compartment, re- 
lieved in plaster and emblazoned" 

Caryates or Caryatides (Greek), figures 
used instead of columns, employed 
in architecture to represent the 
portraiture of the defeated Persians 
after the subjugation of the Carya- 
ta. The male figures are denomi- 
nated Persians, Telamones. or Atlan- 
tides : the female, Caryans or Cary- 

Caryatides, anthropostylar pillars or 
human figures (usually female ones) 
employed instead of columns to sup- 
port an entablature. Such figures 
ought always to be perfectly free 
from all attitudinizing, and to ap- 
pear to support their burden with- 
out any effort. Some very matter- 
of-fact critics object to caryatides 
as being at the best only beautiful 
absurdities ; as if statues so applied 
were particularly liable to be mis- 
taken for living persons subjected 
to a more severe punishment than 
that of being posted up in a niche, 
or on the top of a building 

Casa, according to Vitruvius, a cottage ; 
a small country-house 


Cased tin, in Cornish mining, that 
which is re-framed by the gentlest 
current of water, and prevented 
from running off the frame by turf 
placed at'the bottom 

Case-hardening. The hardness and 
polish of steel may be united, in a 
certain degree, with the firmness 
and cheapness of malleable iron, by 
what is called case-hardening, an 
operation much practised, and of 
considerable use 

Casement, a frame enclosing part of 
the glazing of a window, with 
hinges to open and shut ; also an 
early English name for a deep 
hollow moulding 

Casement, the same as ' scotia,' the 
name of a hollowed moulding 

Casements, sashes or glass frames 
opening on hinges and revolving 
upon one of the vertical edges 

Cases, in Cornwall, very small fissures 
in the strata of the earth, through 
which small streams of water flow 
when they are opened by the work- 
ing underground, greatly to the 
hindrance of the workmen 

Casing/ of timber-work, the plastering 
a house all over on the outside with 
mortar and then striking it wet by 
a ruler with the corner of a trowel, 
or the like instrument, to make it 
resemble the joints of freestone, 
by which means the whole house 
appears as if built thereof 

Cassel earth, or Castle earth, an 
ochreous pigment of a brown co- 
lour, more inclined to the russet 

Cassia Fistula is a native vegetable 
pigment, though it is more com- 
monly used as a medicinal drug 

Cast, to pay a vessel's head off, in 
getting under way, on the tack she 
is to sail upon 

Cast after cast, in Cornwall, is throw- 
ing up of tin stuff, &c., from one 
stage of boards to another, each 
cast about 5 or 6 feet high 

Castella, square towers in the cele- 
brated Roman wall of Severus, which 
was raised to separate England from 




Castellated, built in imitation of an 
ancient castle 

Castellum, the receptacle in which the 
water was collected arid heated for 
the public baths of the Romans ; a 

Casting, among sculptors, the taking 
casts of impressions of figures, busts, 
medals, leaves, &c. 

Casting of draperies : by this term is 
implied the distribution of the folds, 
and draperies are said to be well 
cast when the folds are distributed 
in such a manner as to appear 
rather the result of mere chance 
than of art, study, or labour. In 
that manner or style of painting, 
which is called the grand, the folds 
of the draperies should be great, 
and as few as possible, because 
their rich simplicity is more sus- 
ceptible of great lights; but it is 
an error to design draperies too 
heavy and cumbersome, for they 
ought to be suitable to the figures, 
with a combination of ease and 
grandeur. Order, contrast, and a 
variety of stuffs and folds, consti- 
tute the elegance of draperies; and 
diversity of colours in these stuffs 
contributes extremely to the har- 
mony of the whole in historic com- 

Casting or Warping, in joinery, is the 
bending of the surfaces of a piece 
of wood from their original posi- 
tion, either by the weight of the 
wood or by an unequal exposure to 
the weather, or by the unequal tex- 
ture of the wood 

Cast-iron framing, for mill-work, pos- 
sesses great superiority over that 
of timber, for constructing the 
framing. It is not only much 
more durable, but, from the uni- 
formity of its texture, may be con- 
verted into any shape, so as to give 
it great advantage in arranging the 
materials with respect to strength, 
and proportioning it to the stress 
it has to sustain 

Cast-iron shoes for roofs. A prac- 
tice has been recently introduced 
into the construction of roofs 


having the beams of wood, of pro- 
tecting their extremities from the 
damp and consequent decay to 
which they are liable, by resting 
immediately in contact with the 
brick or stone work of the walls of 
the building. This is effected by 
what the workmen call cast-iron 
shoes, which are attached to the 
ends of the tie-beams by means of 
bolts, nuts, &c. 

The iron shoe itself, of course, 
takes various forms, according to 
circumstances and the situation 
where it is introduced, and the 
particular views of the architect 
who employs it. 

In cases where, from the nature 
of the work carried on, every part 
is exposed to great heat and mois- 
ture, the defence afforded by such 
an attachment is of great import- 
ance ; the wood, unless thus pro- 
tected, being of course very liable 
to decay in those parts where damp 
and moisture might accumulate 

Castle, a fortified and strong mansion, 
situated and constructed and ar- 
ranged for the purpose of protect- 
ing its inmates against the assaults 
of enemies ; in modern use, domes- 
tic residences of the nobility and 
gentry, without the necessity of 
being garrisoned by armed men 

Cat, the tackle used to hoist the an- 
chor up to the cat-head 

Catacombs, subterraneous vaults or 
excavations used as burying-places 

Catamaran, a name given both in the 
East and West Indies to some kinds 
of rafts, which are used in short 
navigations along the sea-shore 

Cataract, a contrivance applied to 
Cornish engines for regulating the 
number of strokes per minute : it 
consists of a small pump fixed on a 
cistern ; the piston is raised at each 
stroke of the engine by a tappet on 
the plug-rod, and the water rises 
into the cylinder of the pump ; it 
is then forced through a cock by 
means of counterweights attached 
to a cross-head on the pump piston- 
rod: when the water has been forced 




back into the cistern, a series of 
levers, acting on a rising rod, loosen 
catches which allow weights to act, 
by means of levers, to open or shut 
the steam, equilibrium, and exhaust 

Cataractes, a cataract, cascade, or sud- 
den fall of water from a higher to 
a lower level; according to Pliny, 
a sluice, flood-gate, or lock in a 

Catch, a contrivance in machinery, 
acting on the principle of a latch 

Cafenary, in the higher geometry, a 
mechanical curve which a chain or 
rope forms itself into by its own 
weight, when hung freely between 
two points of suspension, whether 
these points be in the same hori- 
zontal plane or not 

Catgut, in turnery, the string which 
connects the fly and the mandril 

Cat-harpin, an iron leg used to con- 
fine the upper part of the rigging 
to the mast 

Cat 'head, in naval architecture, a large 
square piece of timber, one end of 
which is fastened upon the fore- 
castle and the other end projects 
without the bow, so as to keep the 
anchor clear of the ship when it is 
being drawn up by a tackle 

Cathedra, according to Horace, a chair 
without arms; according to Juvenal, 
a chair with a long deep seat 

Cathedral, the principal church of a 
diocese, in which the bishop's throne 
is placed 

Cathedral (the very ancient) of Usum- 
bar and other Armenian churches 
in Georgia have an arcade sur- 

rounding the outside of the build- 
ing, of which the arches are in the 
flattened Gothic style: the same 
form prevails in the windows, doors, 
&c., in the body of the church. 
These structures are of an earlier 
date than any Gothic architecture 
in Italy 

Cathedrals. Very few of the Gothic 
cathedrals on the Continent have 
the tower or spire springing from 
the centre of the cross, and resting 
on four pillars, tobalance the thrusts 
of the ranges of arches centering 
there; nor have those of Stras- 
burgh, Ulm, Vienna, Orleans, or 
Antwerp. "The distribution of light 
in a Gothic cathedral is admirably 
adapted to the grandeur of the edi- 
fice, and produces that effect which 
a painter aims at in his picture. At 
the entrance at the west, the win- 
dow being placed high, there is a 
low-toned light on the lower part 
of the pillars, and a shadow on the 
pavement, which, as we walk up the 
nave, graduates into light from the 
choir. The east window, always 
the broadest and the highest, pours 
in a greater body of light than is to 
be found in any other kind of build- 
ing. The altar, rather in shadow, 
surrounded by this strong light, 
gives additional effect by contrast. 
The light from the transept win- 
dows is softened down by painted 
glass. The small windows, placed 
high along the aisles, enlighten their 
roofs, but the lower part of the 
pillars and floor remain in shadow." 

Cathedral churches of Great Britain : 


Aberdeen, Old . . . 
Andrew (St.) . . . 
Asaph (St.) .... 


Secular Canons 


temp. Alex. I. 



Canterbury .... 
Carlisle . . . . . 
Chichester .... 










Coventry .... 
David's (St.) . . . 
Dublin, Cathedral of 1 
the Holy Trinity J 
Dumblain .... 


Secular Canons 





















Glasgow .... 




Gloucester .... 
Hereford .... 
Lindisfarne .... 


Secular Canons 




Manchester .... 


9 Hen. V. 


Oxford . . 




Paul's (St.) .... 
Peterborough . . . 


Wm. Conq. 


Rochester .... 




Salisbury .... 
Wells .... 





Whitehorn .... 
Winchester .... 
Worcester .... 
York . 




Catherine-wheel, in architecture, an 
ornament that occurs in the upper 
part of the north and south tran- 
septs of ancient cathedrals 

Cathetus. The eye of the volute is 
so termed because its position is 
determined, in an Ionic or voluted 
capital, by a line let down from the 
point in which the volute generates 

CaVs-paw, a hitch made in a rope 

Cauliculus, the volute or twist under 
the flower in the Corinthian capital 

Caulking, in naval architecture, the 
art of driving a quantity of oakum, 
i. e. old ropes untwisted and soft- 
ened, into the seams of the planks, 
to keep out the water 

Gaunter and Counting, in Cornish 


mining, Contra : when two lodes 
run across, the one, with respect 
to the other, is called a counter or 
contra lode 

Cautions in Architectural Construc- 


In attaching any new work to a 
building, every allowance must be 
made for the sinking of the footings 
under pressure, and for the settle- 
ment of the masonry into itself. 
Thus, while it is necessary that a 
vertical groove, or indent, be made 
in the old work, to receive a cor- 
responding piece of the new, it is 
still more essential that a freedom 




for the downward motion of the 
latter should be secured: otherwise, 
if it be tightly toothed and bonded 
into the old work, the result illus- 
trated in the annexed sketch may 
be anticipated. 


The same caution required in 
the latter case must be here equally 
observed. The backing (composed 
of small material and much mor- 
tar) will settle" more than the face; 
and the latter will consequently 

bulge. This is easily remedied by 
computing, and allowing for, the 
difference of settlement ; and by a 
due regard to the occasional bond- 
ing of the ashlar, so as to make 
the wall one substance, instead of 
two differently conditioned. The 
preceding sketch illustrates the 
consequence of weight pressing 
upon unbonded ashlar and upon 
yielding rubble. 



Inverted arches must be used 
cautiously. Here is an instance, 

in which the points A and A were 
prevented by the inverted arch 
from sinking with the points B B, 
which latter sunk the more from 
the pressure of the arch c in the 
direction of the dotted lines. It 
is not uncommon for the young 
architect to affect precautionary 
science, without a due considera- 
tion of the peculiar circumstances 
of his case. 


Always endeavour, if possible, to 
get your water-closet cess-pit out- 
side the building, so that it may 
be approached for cleansing with- 
out disturbing the interior. Be 
careful in the efficient use of dip- 
draps to prevent the ascent of rats 
from the outer sewer into the 
drains which are under the floors 
of the house. Rats are destructive 
in their operations, and if they die 
in the drain, prove, for a length 
of time, an unbearable nuisance. 
Drains may serve every purpose of 
carrying off soil and water; but 
the slightest opening in their upper 
part will allow the escape of effluvia 
into the space under the ground 
flooring, and thence into the rooms, 
unless that space be thoroughly 
ventilated with grated openings, 
allowing a thorough draught, or, 
at least, a free ingress of fresh air, 
and equal egress of foul. In the 
application of covered dry areas 




round the excavated basements 
of buildings, on no account omit 
their entire ventilation. If this be 
not attended to, the main walling, 
which they are intended to preserve 
from damp, may remain even more 
continually moist than if in imme- 
diate connection with the natural 
ground. Moisture frequently rises 
up the walling from below its 
foundation, and, exuding from the 
face of the masonry, remains con- 
fined, unless it evaporate and es- 
cape. Without means to this end, 
a covered area will be merely a re- 
ceptacle for damp, and may keep 
the masonry continually wet, even 
when the ground outside is per- 
fectly dry. Be especially cautious 
that the water from the rain -pipes of 
the roofs and flats be not conducted 
by them into the foundations. 


It will save much subsequent 
trouble and disturbance of masonry, 
to be assured as to the size and 
character of the stoves, grates, 
ranges, &c., which the proprietor 
will employ. In the kitchen and 
cooking-rooms, especially, precau- 
tionary care should be taken in 
suiting the openings to the intended 
apparatus. Do not forget to be 
prepared for a smoke-jack, &c. 


In constructing these, do not 
omit the holes, &c., necessary for 
under-floor ventilation. 


Be careful that the bottom, on 
which fine paving is laid, be dry 
and free from staining material. 
Common lime mortar is often in- 
jurious to pavements. Portland 
paving is especially liable to be 
disfigured by it. 


In putting wrought stone-work 
together, iron is to be avoided as 
the certain cause of its subsequent 
destruction. The stone cornices, 
architraves, and dressings of many 
a noble mansion have been brought 


into premature ruin by the con- 
traction and expansion of iron 
under the effects of cold and heat. 
But there are careless contractors 
who will allow their Corinthian 
capitals and fluted shafts to be 
ruined, even before the entablature 
surmounts them; and the young 
architect will not, therefore, omit 
to insert a clause in his specifica- 
tion, (and to be peremptory in its 
enforcement,) that all cut stone- 
work be securely preserved, during 
the progress of the building, with 
wood casing. It is surprising how 
grossly indifferent each class of 
artificers is to the work of the 
others. It is still more surprising 
to observe how frequently they 
seem indifferent to the preserva- 
tion of their own. 


Get rid of the masons and plas- 
terers and plumbers before your 
slaters begin. The injury done to 
slating by the afterwork of chim- 
ney -tops, &c., is much to be dreaded. 
The cementitious ' stopping ' to a 
roof will not be efficiently done 
without close supervision : the 
ridge, hip, and valley courses will 
not be properly formed of large cut 
slates, nor will every slate have 
its two nails, unless the architect 
see to it. 


Clear may be your specification 
in forbidding salt sand, but, if your 
work be carried on in the vicinity 
of any estuary, the chances are 
(unless you be deemed cruelly 
strict) that the surface of your in- 
ternal walls will vary with the 
weather, from damp to dry, like a 
sea-weed, and throw out salt in 


It is the office of walls to carry 
beams, &c. ; and that of beams to 
stay the walls from falling out- 
wards or inwards : but it is the 
duty of architects to see that the 




wood-work which supplants ma- 
sonry does not weaken the latter ; 
i. e. that the ends of timbers in- 
serted into walls may not, by com- 
pression or decay, leave the su- 
perincumbent masonry to loosen 
downwards. Thus, the beam A, 
though entering only a portion of 


the wall, presses upon the thorough- 
stone e, which throws the weight 
upon the whole wall, and has, by 
means of an iron plate c, a hold to 
secure its perpendicularity. The 
cover-stone c presses on the surface 
of the timber to confirm its secu- 
rity: but should the timber rot, 
the cover-stone will not sink, be- 
cause sustained by the side-stones 
dd. To prevent rot, the backing 
and side-stones are left free of the 
timber, so that air 
may traverse round 
it. The habit of plac- 
ing the ends of beams 
on a template, as G, 
is bad. The only jus- <* 

tification of the employment of 
wood, so built into the walls, is 
when it forms a continuous plate, 
that it may act as a bond to pre- 
serve the perfect horizontal level of 
joists, which, however, should ex- 

tend a little beyond the plate, so as 
to have a bearing also on the solid 
of the wall. Careful inspection 
will then so manage the construc- 
tion of the wall in this part, as to 
leave it but little weakened by the 
air-hollows required for the plate 


and joists; unless, indeed, it be 
very thin, as only one brick, for 
instance, when no law of common 
sense can justify the use of continu- 



ous bond. Where joists uninter- 
ruptedly cross a thin wall, which 
is to support another story of ma- 
sonry, let there only be one plate, 
thin, and on its edge, in the centre 
of the w r all, so that at least a brick 
on edge may be placed on each 
side of it, to fill up the intervals 
between the joists, and give solid 
support to the superincumbent ma- 
sonry. On no account let the 
upper part of the wall be separated 
from the lower by a mere layer of 
perishable wood, or supported by a 
range of joists on their edge. It 
has often been seen that iron hoop- 
ing should be more used than it is 
as the internal bonding of walls. 
At the same time, it must be re- 
membered, that bond timbering is 
necessary, at intervals, to receive 
the nails of the battening. When, 
however, the wall is thin, it may 
be imperative to "avoid its use, em- 
ploying old oak bats for that pur- 
pose. In short, let it be the care 
of the young architect, so to con- 
trive the union of his masonry and 
carpentry, as that the entire re- 
moval of the latter may leave the 
former secure in its own strength. 
In the use of lintels especially, he 
should be cautious. They are use- 
ful as bonds to unite the tops of 




piers, and as means for the fixing 
of the joinery ; but they ought 
never to be trusted to as a lasting 
support of masonry, that support 
being always really afforded by the 
relieving segment arch above the 
lintel. A bressummer may be 
termed a large lintel ; and by its 
adoption here, at least, the support 
of the masonry is truly intended. 
The use of the bressummer, in shop- 
front openings, is an evil necessity 
to which an architect must often 
submit ; and all that he can do, is 
to make the best of a bad job, by 
wrought-iron trussing, which will 
at least give adequate strength, 
though it may not insure perma- 
nent durability. If time spare it, 
fire may destroy it ; and the latter 
evil is not to be met even by iron, 
which, if wrought, will bend, if 
cast, will crack, with heat. Let 
the arch, then, or some modifica- 
tion of it, be always used if pos- 

Partitions of wood should not be 
left to the sagacity of the carpenter. 
Under all circumstances where they 
have to support themselves over 
voids, or to bear, or participate in 
the bearing of, a pressure from 
above, they should be considered 
by the architect in his specifica- 
tion, and carefully studied in 
making the working drawings. It 

is not enough merely to say, that 
" they are to be trussed so as to pre- 
vent any injury to ceilings by their 
own pressure ;" marginal sketches 


should be made, showing the dis- 
position of the skeleton framing, 
with whatever iron-work is neces- 
sary to its security. See, for in- 
stance, what a carpenter may do, 
unless well directed: a roof c, 
bearing partly on the partition A, 
when it should have borne only on 
the walls ; and, instead of distress- 
ing the partition, should have 
rather held it suspended : the par- 
tition A bearing down with its own 
weight, and that of the roof, on 
the floor B, instead of being so 
truss-framed in its length as to 
leave the floor unconscious of its 
existence. No ignorance in the 
young architect is presumed as to 
the manner of doing these things ; 
he is merely admonished not to 
imagine that they are so obvious as 
to be done without his guidance. 

In the framing of roofs, give a 
maximum strength to the purlins : 
the undulating surface of a weakly- 
purlined roof will soon proclaim its 
defect in this particular. The po- 

sition of the principals should not 
be observable from without. 


For permanent and uniform 
strength, there is no floor so good 
as one composed of simple joists, 
stiffened by cross bonding : but, in 
very large rooms, there is more 
economy in the compound floor of 
binders and joists, or of joists, 
binders, and girders. There may 
be particular reasons for girders, 
&c. ; as, when the weight of the 
floor has to be thrown upon 
piers, and not on a continuous 
wall of uniform strength : but 
the usual motive to the use of the 
compound floor, in rooms which 




exceed 18 or 20 feet in width, is a 
legitimate economy of materials. 
It is only necessary to caution the 
young practitioner on the necessity 
of considering, that girders have to 
perform the duty of cross-walls; 
that they should be trussed to 
prevent their ' sagging' even with 
their own weight ; that their scant- 
ling should allow for the weakening 
effect of the cuttings made into 
their substance to receive the tim- 
bers they support ; that their trusses 
should be wholly of iron (and not 
partially of oak) ; and, especially, 
that the end of each girder, in- 
stead of being notched on perish- 
able templates of wood, and closely 
surrounded with mortar and ma- 
sonry, should be housed in a cavity 
with an iron holding -plate; or 
inserted into a cast-iron boxing, 
notched into a thorough - stone, 
leaving a space (however small) 
for the air to circulate about it, 

and prevent rot. The failure of 
a girder sometimes involves the 
failure of all the rest of the floor ; 
and, though all timbers inserted 
in masonry should have a more 
careful regard to their preservation 
from decay than it is usual to be- 
stow, it will be readily admitted, 
that too much care cannot be given 
to those leading bearing timbers, 
without the permanent duration of 
which the durability of the large 
remainder is of no avail. 

The same remarks, applying to 
the extremities of girders, apply 
also to tie-beams. 


To procure a good ceiling in 
single-joist floors it is necessary 


there should be ceiling joists cross- 
ing below the others : and it is a 
question whether the ceiling joists, 
under double-framed floors, instead 
of being chase-mortised into the 
binders, should not be in unbroken 
lengths nailed under the binders. 
"Where the ceiling joists (as under 
roofs) are likely to be trodden 
upon, they must be well secured. 


Always consider whether the 
occupants of any particular room 
will be annoyed by noises from the 
rooms below or above. Sound 
boarding and pugging considerably 
increase the weight of the floor, the 
scantling of whose timbers should, 
therefore, be thought upon. Water- 
closet partitions should be well 


The space behind the skirtings 
is often a thoroughfare 
for mice, which also 
contrive to travel from 
floor to floor in the 
hollows of the quarter- 
partitions, and become 
in several ways a great 
nuisance. Plaster or 
wood stopping is not 
always so efficacious as 
the use of broken glass 
in those secret passages which they 
are prone to frequent. 


The liability of gutters and cis- 
terns to become choked with snow, 
or filled up with leaves, &c., renders 
it advisable to protect them with a 
boarded covering, which may pre- 
serve the under current of water 
from receiving what may speedily 
produce a chokage or overflow. 


On this most important subject 
the young architect should not 
move a step without carefully con- 
sulting the experienced knowledge 
of the engineer. Tredgold's ' Prac- 




tical Essay on the Strength of Cast 
Iron' should be well studied, 
whenever necessity compels the 
support of heavy and loaded su- 
perstructures by iron columns and 
beams. A careful computation of 
the weight of the mere building, 
added to that of its possible bur- 
then, with allowance for theoretical 
fallacy, and a due estimate of the 
increased strength of the hollow 
pillar, as compared with a solid 
one having the same amount of 
metal, must be made, examined, 
and re-examined, before the speci- 
fication be issued. 

Cavadium, one of the courts of a 
Roman house, most commonly sur- 
rounded by a covered passage, 
having the middle area exposed to 
the air 

Cavcedia. There are five kinds of 
cavaedia, which, from their mode 
of construction, are severally deno- 
minated Tuscan, Corinthian, tetra- 
style, displuviatum, and testudi- 
natum. They are termed Tuscan 
when the beams which are thrown 
across the court have timbers and 
gutters extending diagonally from 
the angles made by the walls of the 
court to those made by the junction 
of the beams, and the rafters of the 
eaves are made to incline every 
way towards the centre of the com- 
pluvium. The timbers and com- 
pluvia of Corinthian cavaedia have 
a disposition, in all respects, similar; 
but beams are made to project from 
the walls, and are supported upon 
columns arranged around the court 

Cavazion, in architecture, the hollow 
trench made for laying the founda- 
tion of a building; according to 
Vitruvius, it ought to be one-sixth 
part of the height of the whole 

Cavetto, a hollow moulding whose 
profile is a quadrant of a circle ; 
principally used in cornices 

Cedar. Cedar wood was known and 
used in the earliest times, as in the 
construction of Solomon's Temple: 


great varieties are produced in the 
eastern and western parts of the 
world : it is used in ship-build- 
ing, cabinet-work, pencil-making, 
and for various other purposes 

Ceiling, the upper side of an apart- 
ment, opposite to the floor, gene- 
rally finished with plastered work. 
Ceilings are set in two different 
ways: the best is where the setting- 
coat is composed of plaster and 
putty, commonly called ' gauge.' 
Common ceilings have plaster, but 
no hair: the latter is the same as 
the finishing coat in walls set for 

Ceiling, the under covering of a roof, 
under the surface of the vaulting in 
vaulted rooms and buildings. Ceil- 
ings in buildings of any dimensions 
at either story are the upper or over- 
head surfaces of the rooms respect- 

Ceilings. When ceilings are covered, 
the height of the cove should be 
regulated by the total height of the 
room. In proportioning the height 
of a room to its superficial dimen- 
sions, the best proportion for the 
cove is one-quarter of the whole 

Celerity is the velocity or swiftness 
of a body in motion; or that affec- 
tion of a body in motion by which 
it can pass over a certain space in 
a certain time 

Cell, an enclosed space within the 
walls of an ancient temple; a term 
applied also to monkish sleeping- 
rooms in religious establishments 

Cella, the body or principal part of a 
temple, anciently written cela. 
It is thought to be derived from 
celandus,to be concealed or shut 
out from public view ; because in 
early temples the cella could only 
be entered by privileged persons 

Cellarino, that part of the capital in 
the Roman, Doric, and Tuscan 
orders which is below the annulets 
under the ovolo 

Cementation is the process of con- 
verting iron into steel, which is 
done by stratifying bars of iron in 




charcoal, igniting it, and letting 
them continue in a kiln in that state 
for five or six days : the carhon of 
the charcoal is thus absorbed by 
the iron, and the latter converted 
into steel 

Cements, natural. When the propor- 
tion of clay in calcareous minerals 
exceeds 27 to 30 per cent., it is 
seldom that they can be converted 
into lime by calcination ; but they 
then furnish a kind of natural ce- 
ment, which may be employed in 
the same manner as plaster of 
Paris, by pulverizing it, and knead- 
ing it with a certain quantity of 

There are some natural cements 
which do not set in water for many 
days, and some which harden in 
less than a quarter of an hour : 
these last are the only ones which 
have been made use of at present. 
Though very useful in circum- 
stances where a quick solidification 
is indispensable, they are far from 
affording, in ordinary cases, the 
advantages of hydraulic mortars or 
cements of good quality. In fact, 
they merely adhere to the stone, 
owing to the roughness of its sur- 
face, and the entanglement result- 
ing from it; and, however dexterous 
or experienced the workman may 
be who makes use of them, he will 
be unable to connect the different 
parts of his masonry in one conti- 
nuous bond by means of them. 
This statement must be understood 
to apply only to cements which 
harden while in contact with bricks 
under water, because the adhesion 
of such as dry in the open air is 
well known to be much greater 
than what would be caused merely 
by asperities of the surface. It is 
not uncommon to see from twenty 
to thirty bricks stuck to one an- 
other by Roman cement, and pro- 
jecting at right angles from the 
side of a wall, as a proof of the 
excellence of the composition; and 
an instance has been mentioned in 
which thirty-three bricks were suc- 


cessfully supported in this manner. 
Now, if we assume the weight of a 
brick and its corresponding joint 
of cement to be 6 tbs., and their 
thickness, when the bricks were 
joined one to another in the man- 
ner above alluded to (in which the 
longest dimension of the brick was 
placed vertically), to be 2 inches, 
then the cohesive force necessary 
to unite the first brick to the wall, 
with sufficient firmness to bear the 
strain occasioned by the weight of 
the remaining thirty -two supported 
by it, must have been nearly 91 fts. 
per square inch, or equivalent to a 
direct load of 3640 tbs. upon its 
whole surface of about 40 square 

That which is in England very 
improperly termed Roman cement 
is nothing more than a natural ce- 
ment, resulting from a slight calci- 
nation of a calcareous mineral, 
containing about 31 per cent, of 
ochreous clay, and a few hundredths 
of carbonate of magnesia and man- 
ganese. A very great consumption 
of this cement takes place in Lon- 
don; but its use will infallibly be- 
come restricted, in proportion as 
the mortars of eminently hydraulic 
lime shall become better known, 
and, in consequence, better appre- 

Very recently, natural cements 
have been found in Russia and in 
France. They may be composed at 
once by properly calcining mix- 
tures made in the average propor- 
tions of 66 parts of ochreous clay 
to 100 parts of chalk. It is fair, 
however, to admit, that no artificial 
product has yet been proved to 
equal the English cement in point 
of hardness. 

The pure calcareous substances, 
when imperfectly calcined, be- 
come converted into sub -carbon- 
ates, possessed of certain proper- 
ties. These properties are to afford 
a powder, which, when kneaded 
with water in the same way as 
plaster of Paris, acquires in it, at 




first, a consistency more or less 
firm, but which does not continue 
its progress at the same rate. 

The argillaceous limestones, and 
the artificial mixtures of pure lime 
and clay in the proportions requi- 
site to constitute hydraulic lime by 
the ordinary calcination, become 
natural or artificial cements when 
they have been subjected merely 
to a simple incandescence, kept up 
for some hours, or even for some 
minutes. This result, which has 
often occurred in the course of 
first experiments in burning the 
artificial hydraulic limestones, has 
been equally observed in Russia by 
Colonel Raucourt; and M. Lacor- 
daire, Engineer of Roads, has not 
only fully verified it with respect to 
the different argillaceous limestones 
of the neighbourhood of Pouilly, but 
has also made a useful and happy 
application of it in the works which 
have been erected at the junction of 
the Burgundy canal ; both in trans- 
forming these limestones into na- 
tural cements, and in turning to 
account the large quantity of half- 
burnt lime which is found in the 
upper layers of the kilns, when the 
intensity and duration of the heat 
is so regulated as not to exceed the 
limit proper for the lower strata of 
the charge. 

The history of these new cements 
will not be complete until authentic 
and multiplied experiments shall 
have established their power to 
resist the effects of air and frost, 
and the degree of adhesion with 
which they unite to the building- 

Cenotaphium, a cenotaph, an empty 
or honorary tomb, erected by the 
Greeks as a memorial of a person 
whose body was buried elsewhere, 
or not found for burial 

Censitores, surveyors of the Roman 

Centaur, poetically, and in ancient 
mythology, a being represented as 
half man, half horse ; the Sagitta- 
rius of the Zodiac 


Centering, temporary supports, prin- 
cipally of timber, placed and affixed 
under vaults and arches to sustain 
them while they are in course of 
building. Much ingenuity is dis- 
played in the centering for bridges 
and tunnels 

Centigrade, the division into grades 
or degrees by hundredth parts ; 
called alto centesimals 

Central forces, the powers which 
cause a moving body to tend to- 
wards or recede from the centre of 
motion. When a body is made 
to revolve in a circle round some 
fixed point, it will have a continued 
tendency to fly off in a straight line 
at a tangent in the circle, which 
tendency is called the centrifugal 
force ; and the opposing power by 
which the body is retained in the 
circular path is called the centri- 
petal force 

Centre, any timber frame, or set of 
frames, for supporting the arch- 
stones of a bridge during the con- 
struction of an arch. 

The qualities of a good centre 
consist in its being a sufficient sup- 
port for the weight or pressure of 
the arch-stones, without any sen- 
sible change of form taking place 
throughout the whole progress of 
the work, from the springing of 
the arch to the fixing of the key- 
stone : it should be capable of being 
easily and safely removed, and de- 
signed so that it may be erected at 
a comparatively small expense. 

In navigable rivers, where a cer- 
tain space must be left for the pas- 
sage of vessels, and in deep and 
rapid rivers, where it is difficult to 
establish intermediate supports, 
and where much is to be appre- 
hended from sudden floods, the 
frames should span the whole width 
of the archway, or be framed so as 
to leave a considerable portion of 
the archway unoccupied. In such 
cases, a considerable degree of art 
is required to make the centre an 
effectual support for the arch- 
stones, particularly when the arch 




is large. But in narrow rivers, and 
in those where the above-mentioned 
inconveniences do not interfere 
with the work, the framing may be 
constructed upon horizontal tie- 
beams, supported in several places 
by piles, or frames fixed in the bed 
of the river ; and the construction 
is comparatively easy. 

In large arches, when the arch- 
stones are laid to a considerable 
height, they often force the centre 
out of form, by causing it to rise 
at the crown ; and it is sometimes 
necessary to load the centre at the 
crown to prevent such rising ; but 
this is a very imperfect remedy. 
Notwithstanding the subject has 
been considered by several very 
eminent men, their works are not 
much calculated to instruct the 
carpenter how to avoid this diffi- 
culty : indeed, their object seems 
to have been exclusively to calcu- 
late the strength of a centre al- 
ready designed, instead of showing 
the principles on which it ought to 
be contrived ; and even in calcu- 
lating the strength, they are very 
imperfect guides, because they have 
not attempted to find what forces 
would derange a centre, but only 
the force that might be supported 
without fracture. 

Centre, in a general sense, denotes a 
point equally remote from the ex- 
tremes of a line, surface, or solid : 
the word signifies a point 

Centre-bit, in joinery, an instrument 
with a projecting conical point 
nearly in the middle, called the 
centre of the bit : on the narrow 
vertical surface, the one most re- 
mote from the centre, is a tooth 
with a cutting edge. The under 
edge of the bit on the other side of 
the centre has a projecting edge 
inclined forward. The horizontal 
section of this bit upwards is a 
rectangle. The axis of the small 
cone in the centre is in the same 
straight line as that of the stock ; 
the cutting edge of the tooth is 
more prominent than the projecting 


edge on the other side of the cen- 
tre, and the vertex of the conic 
centre is still more prominent than 
the cutting edge of the tooth. 

The use of the centre-bit is to 
form a cylindric excavation, having 
the upper point of the axis of the 
intended hole given on the surface 
of the wood. The centre of the bit 
is first fixed in this point ; then, by 
placing the axis of the stock and 
bit in the axis of the hole intended 
to be bored, with the head of the 
stock against the breast, and by 
turning the stock swiftly round by 
means of the handle, the hollow 
cone made by the centre will cause 
the point of the tooth to move in 
the circumference of a circle, and 
cut the cylindric surface progres- 
sively as it is turned round, while 
the projecting edge upon the other 
side of the centre will cut out the 
cone in a spiral-formed shaving. 
Centre-bits are of various sizes, for 
bores of different diameters. 

Centre-chuck, a chuck which can be 
screwed on the mandril of a lathe, 
and has a hardened steel core or 
centre fixed in it; also a projecting 
arm or driver 

Centre-drill, a small drill used for 
making a short hole in the ends of 
a shaft about to be turned, for the 
entrance of the lathe centres 

Centre of attraction of a body is that 
point into which, if all its matter 
were collected, its action upon any 
remote particle would still be the 
same as it is while the body re- 
tains its own proper form ; or it is 
that point to which bodies tend by 
their own gravity, or about which 
a planet revolves as a centre, being 
attracted or impelled towards it by 
the action of gravity. The common 
centre of attraction of two or more 
bodies is used to denote that point 
in which, if a particle of matter 
were placed, the action of each 
body upon it would be equal, and 
where it will remain in equilibrium, 
having no tendency to move one 
way rather than another 




Centre of a circle, that point in a 
circle which is equally distant from 
every point of the circumference, 
being that from which the circle is 

Centre of a conic section, that point 
which bisects any diameter, or that 
point in which all the diameters 
intersect each other. This point 
in an ellipse is within the figure, in 
the hyperbola without, and in the 
parabola it is at an infinite dis- 

Centre of conversion, a mechanical 
term, the signification of which may 
be thus conceived: if a stick be 
laid on stagnant water, and drawn 
by a thread fastened to it, so that 
the thread makes always the same 
angle with it, the stick will be 
found to turn about a certain point; 
which point is called the ' centre 
of conversion ' 

Centre of a curve of the higher kind, 
is the point where two diameters 
concur; and when all the diameters 
concur in the same point, it is 
called the general centre 

Centre of a dial, that point where 
the gnomon or style, placed par- 
allel to the axis of the earth, inter- 
sects the plane of the dial 

Centre of an equilibrium is the same 
with respect to bodies immersed in 
a fluid as the centre of gravity is 
to bodies in free space, or it is a 
certain point on which, if a body, 
or system of bodies, be suspended, 
they will rest in any position 

Centre of friction is that point in the 
base of a body on which it revolves, 
in which, if the whole surface of 
the base and the mass of the body 
were collected and made to revolve 
about the centre of the base of the 
given body, the angular velocity 
destroyed by its friction would be 
equal to the angular velocity de- 
stroyed in the given body by its 
friction in the same time 

Centre of gravity of any body, or sys- 
tem of bodies, is that point upon 
which the body or system of bodies 
acted upon only by the force of 


gravity will balance itself in all 
positions ; or it is a point on which, 
when supported, the body or sys- 
tem will be supported, however it 
may be situated in other respects. 
Hence it follows, that if a line or 
plane passing through the centre 
of gravity be supported, the body 
or system will also be supported ; 
and conversely, if a body or system 
balance itself upon a line or plane, 
in all positions, the centre of gravity 
is in that line or plane. In a simi- 
lar manner it will appear, that if a 
body rest in equilibrio when sus- 
pended from any point v the centre 
of gravity of that body or system 
is in the perpendicular let fall from 
the centre of suspension; and on 
these principles depends the me- 
chanical method of finding the cen- 
tre of gravity of bodies 

Centre of gyration, that point in a 
body revolving on an axis, into 
which, if the matter of the whole 
body were collected, the same an- 
gular velocity would be generated 
by the same moving force 

Centre of motion of a body is a fixed 
point about which the body is 
moved ; and the axis of motion is 
the fixed axis about which it moves 

Centre of oscillation, the point in 
which the whole of the matter 
must be collected, in order that the 
time of oscillation may be the same 
as when it is distributed 

Centre of percussion, that point of a 
revolving body which would strike 
an obstacle with the same force as 
if the whole of the matter were 
collected in it 

Centre of position, in mechanics, de- 
notes a point of any body, or system 
of bodies, so selected that we may 
properly estimate the situation and 
motion of the body or system by 
those points 

Centre of pressure, or meta centre of 
a fluid against a plane, is that point 
against which a force being applied, 
equal and contrary to the whole 
pressure, it will sustain it, so as 
that the body pressed on will not 




incline to either side. This is the 
same as the centre of percussion, 
supposing the axis of motion to be 
at the intersection of this plane 
with the surface of the fluid ; and 
the centre of pressure upon a plane 
parallel to the horizon, or upon any 
plane where the pressure is uniform, 
is the same as the centre of gravity 
of that plane 

Centre of spontaneous rotation, that 
point which remains at rest the in- 
stant a body is struck, or about 
which the body begins to revolve. 
If a body of any size or form, after 
rotatory or gyratory motions, be 
left entirely to itself, it will always 
have three principal axes of rota- 
tion; that is, all the rotary motions 
by which it is effected may be con- 
stantly reduced to three, which are 
performed round three axes per- 
pendicular to each other, passing 
through the centre of gravity, and 
always preserving the same position 
in absolute space, while the centre 
of gravity is at rest, or moves uni- 
formly forward in a right line 

Centre phonic, in acoustics, the place 
where the speaker stands in making 
polysyllabical and articulate echoes 

Centre phonocamptic, the place or 
object which returns the voice 

Centre-punch, a small piece of steel 
with a hardened point at one 

Centres, in turnery, are the two cones 
with their axes horizontally posited 
for sustaining the body while it is 

Centre-velic or Velic-point, the centre 
of gravity of an equivalent sail, or 
that single sail whose position and 
magnitude are such as cause it to 
be acted upon by the wind when 
the vessel is sailing, so that the 
motion shall be the same as that 
which takes place while the sails 
have their usual positions 

Centrifugal force is that force by 
which a body revolving about a 
centre, or about another body, has 
a tendency to recede from it 

Centrifugal pump,\ine for raising 


water by centrifugal force combined 
with the pressure of the atmo- 

Centripetal force is that force by 
which a body is perpetually urged 
onwards to a centre, and thereby 
made to revolve in a curve instead 
of a right line 

Cerium, a metal discovered in 1803 
by Berzelius, and named after the 
planet Ceres. It is brittle, white, 
and volatile in a very intense heat : 
it is not acted upon by nitric acid, 
but is dissolved in aqua regia, nitro- 
hydrochloric acid 

Chain, in surveying, is a lineal mea- 
sure, consisting of a certain number 
of iron links, usually 100, serving 
to take the dimensions of fields, &c.: 
at every tenth link is usually fas- 
tened a small brass plate, with a 
figure engraved upon it, or else cut 
into different shapes, to show how 
many links it is from one end of 
the chain 

Chains, strong links or plates of iron, 
the lower ends of which are bolted 
through a ship's side to the tim- 

Chain-plates, plates of iron bolted to 
the side of a ship, to which the 
chains and dead-eyes of the lower 
rigging are connected 

Chain-pump, an hydraulic machine for 
raising water. It is made of dif- 
ferent lengths, and consists of two 
collateral square barrels and an 
endless chain of pistons of the 
same form, fixed at proper dis- 

Chain-timber, in brick-building, a tim- 
ber of large dimensions placed in 
the middle of the height of a story, 
for imparting strength 

Chairs. Anciently, in most apart- 
ments we find "two great chayers :" 
these were arm-chairs, with stuffed 
backs and sides, entirely covered, 
and similar to the lounging-chairs 
of the present day. Others are de- 
scribed as ' Flemish chairs/ ' scrolled 
chairs,' and ' turned chairs,' wrought 
in ebony, walnut, cherry-tree, c., 
with high backs, either stuffed in 




one long upright panel, or filled 
with wicker-work, &c. 

Chalcedony, a precious stone, in colour 
like a carbuncle; by some translated 
from the Scriptures as ' emerald' 

Chalcidicum, among the Romans, a 
large, low, and deep porch, covered 
with its own roof, supported on pi- 
lasters, and appended to the en- 
trance-front of a building, where it 
protected the principal doorway, 
and formed a grand entrance to the 
whole edifice 

Chalcidria, chambers attached to a 
basilica ; they were built at one end 
when the situation would admit 
of it 

Chalice, the cup used for the wine at 
the celebration of the Eucharist 

Chalk, in geology, forms the higher 
part of the series or group termed 
cretaceous: it is composed of nearly 
44 parts of carbonic acid and 56 
parts of lime 

Chambers, according to Palladio, are 
made either arched or with a flat 
ceiling : if in the last way, the height 
from the floor to the joists above 
ought to be equal to their breadth; 
and the chambers of the second 
story must be a sixth part less than 
them in height 

Chamfer. An edge or arris, taken off 
equally on the two sides which form 
it, leaves what is called a chamfer, 
or a chamfered edge. If the arris 
be taken off more on one side than 
the other, it is said to be splayed 
or bevelled 

Chamfering, the process of cutting the 
edge or the end of any thing bevel 
or aslope 

Champ, the flat surface of a wall 

Champe, the field or ground on which 
carving is raised 

Champ de Mars : in French history, 
the public assemblies of the Franks 
are said to have been held in an 
open field, and in the month of 
March ; whence the name 

Chancel, the choir or eastern part of 
a church appropriated to the use of 
those who officiate in the perform- 
ance of the services, and separated 


from the nave and other portions 
in which the congregation assemble, 
sometimes by a screen 

Channel, in hydrography, the deepest 
part of a river, harbour, or strait, 
which is most convenient for the 
track of shipping; also an arm of 
the sea running between an island 
and the main, or continent, as the 
British Channel, &c. 

Channels, broad pieces of plank bolted 
edgewise to the outside of a vessel, 
used for spreading the lower rigging 

Chant, Chanting. The word ' chant' 
is derived from the Latin Cantus, 
which signifies singing ; a song, a 
tune, or melody, the sound of a 
trumpet, crowing of a cock (whence 
this bird is called 'chanticleer'): 
it also signifies the frequent repe- 
tition of the same thing. The word 
chant is not confined to merely a 
melody consisting of several notes; 
it may consist of one only : in this 
case it is called, in church music, 
' intonation,' although in Gregorian 
music the word intonation has a 
somewhat different signification. 
(See Gregorian Chant.} Hence 
chanting is reciting in a musical 
tone, and is peculiarly adapted to 
a dignified utterance of the sublime 
language of the Liturgy. Chant- 
ing or intoning on a monotone, or 
single sound, is the simplest and 
easist method of reading and re- 
sponding the various prayers, ex- 
hortations, litanies, suffrages, Kyrie 
eliesons, Allelujahs, Gloria Patri, 
and the Amens, and is eminently 
more dignified and solemn than 
when there is neither elevation nor 
depression of the voice at any one 
termination. In chanting the 
greater and lesser Canticles, the 
Te Deum, Jubilate, Benedicite, 
Benedictus, Athanasian Creed, Ve- 
nite exultemus, Magnificat, Can- 
tate Domino, Nunc dimittis, Deus 
misereatur,as also the prose Psalms, 
the chant may consist of more 
than one tone, although it is prefer- 
able to use a small number. The 
method of chanting the Psalter in 




the English church is different from 
that adopted on the Continent, where 
it appears to be governed by no 
rule ; whereas the Gregorian chant 
is governed entirely by rule 

Chant late, in building, a piece of wood 
fastened nearthe ends of the rafters, 
and projecting beyond the wall, to 
support two or three rows of tiles, 
so placed to hinder the rain-water 
from trickling down the sides of 
the walls 

Chantry, an ecclesiastical benefice or 
endowment to provide for the chant- 
ing of masses 

Chapel, a small building attached an- 
ciently to various parts of large 
churches or cathedrals, and sepa- 
rately dedicated; also a detached 
building for divine sendee : in Eng- 
land, chapels are sometimes called 
chapels of ease, built for the accom- 
modation of an increasing popu- 

j Chapetting, wearing a ship round, when 
taken aback, without bracing the 

Chapiter, the capital of a column 

Chaplet, in architecture, a small orna- 
ment carved into round beads, &c. 

Chaps, the two planes or flat parts of 
a vice or pair of tongs or pliers, for 
holding any thing fast, and which 
are generally roughed with teeth 

Chapter-house, an establishment for 
Deans and Prebendaries of cathe- 
drals and collegiate churches ; the 
apartment or hall in which the 
monks and canons of a monastic 
establishment conduct their affairs 
connected with ecclesiastical regu- 

Char or Chare, to hew, to work 
charred stone ; hewn stone 

Character, in a picture, is giving to the 
different objects their appropriate 
and distinguishing appearance 

Charcoal consists mainly of carbon 
procured from the decomposition 
of wood by burning. This ope- 
ration is generally conducted in 
pits made in the ground, and in 
iron cylinders. Wood is essentially 
composed of carbon, oxygen, and 


hydrogen. Charcoal has the same 
properties : it is black, lighter than 
water, and full of pores, occasioned 
by the expulsion of the bodies vola- 

Charge, in electricity, is the accumu- 
lation of the electric matter on one 
surface of an electric, as a pane of 
glass, Leyden phial, &c., whilst an 
equal quantity passes off from the 
opposite surface 

Charge, in mining: any quantity of ore 
put at one time into a furnace to 
fuse is called a ' charge ;' letting it 
out is called ' tapping' 

Chargers, large dishes, sometimes de- 
scribed as ' flat pieces ' 

Cheeks, the shears or bed of the lathe 
as made with two pieces for con- 
ducting the puppets 

Cheeks, the projection on each side 
of a mast, upon which the trestle- 
trees rest ; the sides of the sheet 
of a block 

Cheerly, quickly ; with a will 

Chemistry. The science of chemistry 
has for its object the study of the 
nature and properties of the dif- 
ferent substances of which the 
earth, the waters, the air, and their 
inhabitants, (namely, plants and 
animals,) are composed. In a 
word, it embraces the study of 
every thing under heaven accessible 
to man. In its highest branches 
it aims at discovering the laws or 
rules which regulate the formation 
of chemical compounds generally ; 
and in its useful applications it has 
been already exceedingly service- 
able in directing and improving 
the various arts of common life, as 
. agriculture, the working of metals, 
dyeing, and many other pursuits. 
It serves also to guide the medical 
man in the preparation of his re- 
medies, and also occasionally in 
distinguishing between diseases 
which are in other respects much 
alike. There is, indeed, scarcely a 
situation in life in which a know- 
ledge of chemistry may not prove 
directly useful. It is a science the 
study of which, from its simplest 




beginnings to its highest attempts, 
is rendered delightful by the con- 
stant succession of new and inter- 
esting things brought before the 
eye and the mind. 

Cherry-tree, a hard, close-grained 
wood, of a pale red-brown colour : 
when stained with lime, and oiled 
and varnished, it resembles maho- 
gany, and is used for furniture, &c. 

Chess-trees, pieces of oak fitted to the 
sides of a vessel, abaft the fore- 
chains, with a sheave in them, to 
board the main-tack to ; not much 

Chest, a piece of furniture for the re- 
ception of all kinds of goods, parti- 
cularly household conveniences, de- 
posited therein for security, and for 
plate ; placed also in churches, for 
the keeping of the holy vessels, vest- 
ments, &c.: the seaman's chest con- 
tains all the personalities of a sailor. 
Coffers and chests were the 
general repositories for articles of 
every kind ; writings, apparel, food, 
and even fuel, were kept within 
them. Many of these chests, which 
were raised on feet to protect them 
from damp and vermin, were beau- 
tifully ornamented with carving 
and other sumptuous enrichments. 
Large trunks, in which clothes, 
hangings, &c., were packed for 
removal, were called ' Trussing 
Chests :' they were substantially 
made, and bound in every direction 
with iron straps, wrought into fan- 
ciful forms, and secured by locks 
of artful and curious contrivance. 
Two " standard chests " were de- 
livered to the laundress of King 
Henry VIII. ; "the one to keep the 
cleane stuff, and the other to keep 
the stuff that had been occupied." 
" In ivory coffers," says Grameo, "I 
have stuffed my crowns ; in cypress 
chests, my arras, counter-points, 
&c." Cypress wood was selected 
for its rare properties of neither 
rotting nor becoming worm-eaten. 

Chestnut wood is very durable, and 
was formerly much used in house 
carpentry and furniture 


Cheval defrise, a square or octagonal 
beam of wood, from 6 to 9 feet in 
length, and pierced by iron rods or 
wooden pickets 6 feet long, which 
are pointed at each end, and shod 
with iron : the pickets are placed 
6 inches asunder, and pass through 
two opposite faces of the beam, in 
directions alternately at right angles 
to each other, the cheval resting on 
the ground at the lower extremity 
of the pickets 

Chevet, the termination of a church 
behind the high altar, when of a 
semicircular or polygonal form 

Chevron, a moulding of a zig-zag cha- 
racter, of the Norman style parti- 
cularly, but sometimes to be found 
with the pointed arch 

Chiaro-oscuro, a drawing made in two 
colours, black and white ; also the 
art of advantageously distributing 
the lights and shadows which ought 
to appear in a picture, as well for 
the repose and satisfaction of the 
eye as for the effect of the whole 

Chiliad, an assemblage of several 
things ranged by thousands; applied 
also to tables of logarithms, which 
were at first divided into thou- 

Chiliaedron, a solid figure of a thou- 
sand faces 

Chiliagon, in geometry, a regular 
plane figure of a thousand sides 
and angles 

Chimes, a set of bells tuned to the 
modern musical scale, and struck 
by hammers acted on by a pinned 
cylinder, or barrel, which revolves 
by means of clock-work : also ap- 
plied to the music or tune p 
duced by mechanical means from 
the bells in a steeple, tower, or 
common clock 

Chimney, in locomotive engines. The 
chimney is regulated in size for 
each engine so as to act in union 
with the blast-pipe, to produce a 
proper blast on the fire. This is 
done by each exhaust of steam 
from the cylinders creating a partial 
vacuum in the chimney ; hence a 




rush of air takes place through the 
fire and tubes to fill this vacuum ; 
and these successive rushes of air 
' blow the fire.' This vacuum ranges 
from 2 to 8 inches of a water-gauge. 
The mild blast produces the least 
vacuum and the least consumption 
of fuel 

Chimney-pieces. The Egyptians, the 
Greeks, and the Romans, to whom 
architecture is so much indebted in 
other respects, living in warm cli- 
mates, where fires in the apart- 
ments were seldom necessary, have 
thrown but little light on this branch 
of the science. Palladio only men- 
tions two which stood in the mid- 
dle of the rooms, and consisted of 
columns, supporting architraves, 
whereon were placed the pyramids 
or funnels through which the smoke 
was conveyed. Scamozzi mentions 
only three in his time, placed simi- 
larly. In England, Inigo Jones 
designed some very elaborate chim- 
ney-pieces. The size of the chim- 
ney must depend upon the dimen- 
sions of the room wherein it is 
placed : the chimney should always 
be situated so as to be immediately 
seen by those who enter : the mid- 
dle of the side partition wall is the 
best place in halls, saloons, and 
other rooms of passage to which 
the principal entrances are com- 
monly in the middle of the front or 
of the back wall ; but in drawing- 
rooms, dressing-rooms, &c., the 
middle of the back wall is the best 
situation ; the chimney being then 
farthest removed from the doors of 

Chinese architecture, & style peculiar to 
China, where the material employed 
is principally wood. It is a style 
not congenial to English taste or 
climate : its monstrosity may be 
seen at Brighton 

Chinese Yellow (colour), a very bright 
sulphuret of arsenic, brought from 

Chime, to thrust oakum into seams 
with a small iron 

Chisel, a tool with the lower part in 


the form of a wedge, for cutting 
iron plate or bar, and with the 
upper part flat, to receive the blows 
of a hammer, in order to force the 
cutting edge through the substance 
of the iron 

Chisel, an instrument used by car- 
penters. The large chisels used by 
millwrights for heavy work are ge- 
nerally composed of iron and steel 
welded together. Chisels are also 
employed in turning, and they are 
driven more or less by blows : those 
used by the joiner are similar ; but 
those used by cabinet-makers are 
straight across the end 

Chisels in general. A chisel is an 
edge tool for cutting wood, either 
by leaning on it or by striking it 
with a mallet. The lower part of the 
chisel is the frustrum of a cuneus 
or wedge ; the cutting edge is al- 
ways on and generally at right 
angles to the side. The basil is 
ground entirely from one side. 
The two sides taper in a small de- 
gree upwards, but the two narrow 
surfaces taper downwards in a 
greater degree. The upper part of 
the iron has a shoulder, which is a 
plane surface at right angles to the 
middle line of the chisel. From 
this plane surface rises a prong in 
the form of a square pyramid, the 
middle line of which is the same as 
the middle line of the cuneus or 
wedge : the prong is inserted and 
fixed in a socket of a piece of wood 
of the same form : this piece of 
wood is called the handle, and is 
generally the frustrum of an octa- 
gonal pyramid, the middle line of 
which is the same as that of the 
chisel : the tapering sides of the 
handle diminish downwards, and 
terminate upwards in an octagonal 
dome. The use of the shoulder is 
for preventing the prong from split- 
ting the handle while being struck 
with the mallet. The chisel is 
made stronger from the cutting 
edge to the shoulder, as it is some- 
times used as a lever, the prop 
being at or very near the middle, 




the power at the handle, and the 
resistance at the cutting-edge. 
Some chisels are made with iron 
on one side and steel on the other, 
and others consist entirely of 
steel. There are several kinds of 
chisels, as the mortise-chisel, the 
ripping-chisel, and the socket- 

Chisel, the firmer, is formed in the 
lower part similar to the socket- 
chisel; but each of the edges above 
the prismoidal part falls into an 
equal concavity, and diminishes 
upwards until the substance of the 
metal between the concave narrow 
surfaces becomes equal in thickness 
to the substance of that between 
the other two sides, produced in a 
straight line, and meeting a protu- 
berance projecting equally on each 
side. The firmer chisel is used by 
carpenters and joiners in cutting 
away the superfluous wood by thin 
chips : the best are made of cast 
steel. When there is a great deal 
of superfluous wood to be cut away, 
sometimes a stronger chisel, consist- 
ing of an iron back and steel face, 
is first used, by driving it into the 
wood with a mallet ; and then a 
slighter one, consisting entirely of 
steel sharpened to a very fine edge, 
is used in the finish. The first 
used is called a firmer, and the last 
a paring chisel, in the application 
of which only the shoulder or hand 
is employed in forcing it into the 

Chisel, the mortise, is made exceed- 
ingly strong, for cutting out a 
rectangular prismatic cavity across 
the fibres, quite through or very 
deep in a piece of wood, for the 
purpose of inserting a rectangular 
pin of the same form on the end of 
another piece, and thereby uniting 
the two. The cavity is called a 
mortise, and the pin inserted, a 
tenon ; and the chisel used for cut- 
ting out the cavity is, therefore, 
called a mortise-chisel. As the 
thickness of this chisel from the 
face to the back is great, in order 


to withstand the percussive force 
of the mallet, and as the angle 
which the basil makes with the 
face is about 25, the slant dimen- 
sion of the basil is very great. This 
chisel is only used by percussive 
force given by the mallet 

Chisel, the ripping, is only an old 
socket-chisel used in cutting holes 
in walls for inserting plugs, and for 
separating wood that has been 
nailed together, &c. ' 

Chisel, the socket, is used for cutting 
excavations : the lower part is a 
prismoid, the sides of \vhich taper 
in a small degree upwards, and the 
edges considerably downwards: one 
side consists of steel, and the other 
of iron. The under end is ground 
into the form of a wedge, forming 
the basil on the iron side, and the 
cutting edge on the lower end of 
the steel face. From the upper end 
of the prismoidal part rises the 
frustrum of a hollow cone, increasing 
in diameter upwards : the cavity or 
socket contains a handle of wood 
of the same conic form: the axis 
of the handle, the hollow cone, and 
the middle line of the frustrum, are 
all in the same straight line. The 
socket-chisel, which is commonly 
about 1 or H inch broad, is chiefly 
used in cutting mortises, and may 
be said to be the same as the mor- 
tise-chisel employed in joinery 

Chisel, in turnery, a flat tool, skewed 
in a small degree at the end, and 
bevelled from each side, so as to 
make the cutting edge in the mid- 
dle of its thickness 

Chock, in navigation, a wedge used to 
secure any thing with, or for any 
thing to rest upon. The long-boat 
rests upon two large chocks when 
it is stowed 

Chocolate lead, a pigment prepared 
by calcinating oxide of lead with 
about a third of that of copper, 
and reducing the compound to a 
uniform tint by levigation 

Choke. An adit is said to be choked 
when any earth or stone falls in 
and prevents the current of water 




through it : the place or part so 
filled is called ' the choke ' 

Chopping block, a block of wood used 
for reducing bricks to their intended 
form by axing them : it is made of 
any chance piece that can be ob- 
tained, and commonly from 6 to 8 
inches square, supported generally 
upon two 14-inch brick piers, if two 
men are to work at it ; but if four 
men, the chopping-block must be 
lengthened and supported by three 
piers, and so on, according to the 
number : it is about 2 feet 3 inches 
in height 

Choragic monuments, in Grecian story, 
monuments in honour of those 
who had gained a prize as choragus, 
or leader of the play and choruses 

Choragic monument (the) of Lysicra- 
tes, known as the Lantern of De- 
mosthenes, was built in the lllth 
Olympiad, and is still entire : it is 
considered the most exquisite and 
perfect specimen of the orders 

Choragic monument of Thrasycles, &c., 
now the church of our Lady of the 
Grotto. It is built against the rock 
of the Acropolis : above it stand 
two columns, on which tripods have 
been placed, and on each side of 
it the rock has been chiseled away 
in such form as evidently shows 
that similar buildings had been 
erected contiguous to it 

Chord, in geometry, is the right line 
joining the extremities of any arc 
of a circle 

Chorobates (Greek), an instrument 
for determining the slope of an 
aqueduct, and the levels of the 
country through which it was to 
pass. It differed but slightly from 
a common carpenter's level, which 
consists of a straight rule support- 
ing a perpendicular piece, against 
which hangs a plumb-line 

Chorography, the art of making a map 
of a particular country or province, 
or of teaching geography 

Chromatics, a division of the science 
of optics, by which the properties 
of the colours of light and of na- 
tural bodies are illustrated 


Chromascope, or optical chromatics : 
there are three species of optical 
effects of colours, that of refrac- 
tion of prisms and lenses, that of 
the transmission of light through 
transparent media, and that of the 
reflection of specula, &c. 

Chromate of mercury is improperly 
classed as a red with vermillion ; 
for though it is of a bright ochreous 
red colour in powder, it is, when 
ground, of a bright orange ochre 
hue, and affords, with white, very 
pure orange-coloured tints 

Chromatics, the science of the rela- 
tions of light, shade, and colours 

Chrome greens are compound pig- 
ments of which chrome yellow is 
the principal colouring substance 

Chrome orange is a beautiful orange 
pigment, and one of the most 
durable and least exceptionable 
chrornates of lead, but not of iron 

Chrome yellow is a pigment of modern 
introduction into general use, and 
of which there are many varieties, 
mostly chromates of lead, in which 
the latter metalmore or less abounds. 
They are distinguished by the pure- 
ness, beauty, and brilliancy of their 
colours, which qualities are great 
temptations to their use in the 
hands of the painter; they are, 
however, far from unexceptionable 

Chromium, a very rare metal, found 
either in the form of chrbmate of 
lead or chromate of iron 

Chronometer, a time-keeper, used for 
determining the longitude at sea, 
and for other purposes where great 
accuracy is required 

Chronometrical governor, an improved 
regulator for rendering the mean 
velocity of an engine uniform. The 
mechanism is as follows : a spindle 
placed vertically has a pulley fixed 
upon the top, to receive motion from 
the crank-shaft ; below the pulley 
two bevel- wheels of equal diameters 
are placed face to face ; the upper 
wheel is fixed to the spindle, and 
the lower one is free to turn upon 
it, and has an arm or crank attached 




to its under side, to act as a driver 
for the pendulous ball : between the 
two wheels, and communicating 
with them, is a third wheel, fixed 
upon a spindle placed horizontally, 
and connected at one end to the 
vertical spindle, so as to turn round 
it; the other end is supported by a 
carriage resting upon a plate, and 
is connected to a spring or counter- 
weight on one side, and on the 
other side to the throttle-valve; 
the ball being suspended from a 
spherical bearing near the top of 
the rod. The spring is adjusted 
so that when the velocity of the 
engine is as required, the upper and 
lower wheels revolve at the same 
speed : when the velocity increases, 
the centrifugal force causes the ball 
to rise, and retards the motion of 
the lower wheel; then the inter- 
mediate wheel distends the spring, 
and moves forward upon the lower 
wheel as a rack, and closes the 
throttle-valve : when the velocity 
diminishes, the ball falls, and the 
lower wheel requires less power, so 
that the spring pulls back the inter- 
mediate wheel and opens the valve. 
The above is a modification of Mr. 
James Wood's governor, and is pa- 
tented by Mr. C. W. Siemans 
j Chrysolite, a precious stone, probably 
the tenth on the high priest's pec- 
toral, bearing the name of Zebulon : 
it is transparent, the colour of gold, 
with a mixture of green, which dis- 
plays a fine lustre 

Chuck, a piece of wood or metal fixed 
on the end of the mandril for keep- 
ing fast the body to be turned 

Church Music. By this term is com- 
monly understood all music set to 
words of a sacred character: hence 
we have not only the language of 
Scripture set to music in the shape 
of anthems, &c., but also metrical 
versions and paraphrases thereof, 
used and considered by many as 
church music. Indeed it too often 
happens that these are adapted to 
secular melodies melodies not ori- 
ginally intended to be applied to 


words of a sacred character, and yet 
the music is then termed sacred, 
probably from an idea that there is 
no such thing as sacred and profane 
music. But this is a great error, 
and arises solely from ignorance of 
the existence of sacred music, we 
mean especially church music. Ex- 
amine any of the ancient authorized 
liturgical books, and there will be 
found an order of music that can- 
not be mistaken for profane, which 
is not only sacred in its character, 
but eminently grand, dignified, 
noble, and sublime ; in short, it is 
for church purposes so superior to 
all other music, that it alone can 
properly be called church music. 

Church music is the music of the 
holy offices, is that music in which 
the whole church, priests andpeople, 
can participate. It is easy to exe- 
cute, being simple and plain (plain 
chant). It can be sung by every 
one, and is always most majestic 
when sung by all; hence it is also 
called the full chant (cantus ple- 
nus). For a long period, and until 
very lately, scarcely a remnant of 
church music was to be found, eveu 
in those places where we had a 
right to expect to find it : the plain 
chant was banished entirely in some 
places, and mutilated in others, so 
that it could scarcely be discerned; 
but it is now being restored, and 
we hear the priest intoning his part 
in the offices of morning and evening 
prayer, and the people singing, in 
response, the ancient authorized 
melodies of the church ; we hear 
the Psalter chanted to fine old (so 
called) Gregorian tones ; we hear 
the Litany chanted to its own proper 
music, that of the church : we also 
hear the soul-stirring music in the 
Communion office, the Gloria in ex- 
celsis, the Credo, and Sanctus ; the 
latter moreover in its proper place. 
We can have also, if so disposed, 
the church music for the matri- 
monial, baptismal, and burial offices, 
as well as an immense variety of 
tunes for the metrical psalms, of a 




true church character, unlike any 
other kind of music, and which is 
truly church music, inasmuch as it 
is the church's peculiar property, 
and would he totally misused in 
any other place. Our definition of 
church music is, music which is 
adapted for the services and pur- 
poses of the church, and unfit for 
any other place or purpose. 

Church music, such as is here 
shortly defined, is unisonous ; and 
harmonized music is not fit for 
congregational purposes; it is pro- 
per only in those parts of divine 
worship which may be called extra- 
liturgical, such as the anthem. 
Singing harmonized chants, canti- 
cles, Te Deum, &c., is thrusting out 
the congregation, that is, the chief 
part of the church present. The 
harmonies should be left entirely 
to the discretion of an intelligent 
organist, to be executed on the 
organ alone. Harmonized music 
requires accomplished and well- 
informed musicians for its perform- 
ance, and can be sung only by the 
few. The anthem, in cathedral 
worship, is edifying only when it is 
performed by the choir-men in a 
masterly manner, not only with 
correct musical execution, but with 
care and attention, to develop all 
the piety, sublimity, grandeur, dig- 
nity, and whatever else the music 
is capable of. 

Before the latter half of the 15th 
century, the liturgy was chanted in 
unison ; and it is from this period 
we can trace the gradual departure 
from the rigid church style of music, 
in the compositions of Josquin de 
Pres especially. In the early part 
of the 16th century, we find that 
Adrian Willaert, who was made sing- 
ing-master at St. Mark's, Venice, 
was the first who harmonized the 
psalm melodies for two or more 
choirs; then followed the motet, or 
harmonized antiphon, which before 
had been chanted in unison, as it 
is done at this day in the Romish 
chapels in England, where there 


are not accomplished singing men 
to perform the motet. During this 
century, the use of harmony had 
not only driven the people away 
from their part in the performance 
of the service, but also corrupted 
the music itself so much, that it 
was only saved from being wholly 
forbidden by the grave and devo- 
tional motets and other compo- 
sitions of the renowned Palestrina, 
whose works were imitated with 
great success by the disciples of his 
school, and this in a very eminent 
degree by the English church mu- 
sicians. The harmonies used by 
Tallis, Morley, Gibbons, and the 
rest of the masters of church music 
of this age, are truly sublime 

Church ornament consists principally 
of the painted and stained glass 
windows of the emblem of the 
Trinity, of the passion of our Lord, 
of the evangelists, sacred mono- 
grams, statues of the holy apostles, 
of the holy evangelists, and of the 
saints commemorated by the church 

Church in rotundo, that whose plan 
is a perfect circle, in imitation of the 

Chymol, a hinge, anciently called a 

Ciborwm, an arch supported by four 
pillars placed over the high altar 

Cilery, in architecture, the drapery or 
leavage that is wrought upon the 
heads of pillars 

Cimellare, the vestry or room where 
plate, vestments, and other rich 
things belonging to the church are 

Cincture, a ring, list, or fillet at the 
top and bottom of a column, serving 
to divide the shaft from the capi- 
tal and its base 

Cinder-frame, in locomotive engines, 
a wire-work frame placed in front 
of the tubes, to arrest the ascent of 
large pieces of ignited coke 

Cinque-foil, an ornamental foliation or 
feathering, used in the arches of 
the lights and tracery of windows, 
panellings, &c. 

Cinque Ports, the sea-port towns of 




Dover, Sandwich, Hastings, Hythe, 
and Romney, to which three others 
were afterwards added, viz. Win- 
chelsea, Rye, and Seaford. These 
towns possess peculiar privileges, 
and are under the government of a 
Lord Warden 

Cipher, a secret mode of writing 

Cippus (Latin), a low column, some- 
times round, but more frequently 
rectangular, used as a sepulchral 

Circinus, a pair of compasses. Those 
used by statuaries, architects, ma- 
sons, carpenters, &c., were often 
represented on their tombs 

Circinus, according to Vitruvius, a pair 
of compasses employed by archi- 
tects, carpenters, &c., for describing 
circles, measuring distances, and 
taking the thickness of solids 

Circle, a plain figure contained by 
one line, which is called the cir- 
cumference, and is such that all 
straight lines drawn from a certain 
point within the figure to the cir- 
cumference are equalto one another, 
and this point is called the centre 
of the circle 

The circumference of a circle is 
known to be about 3'14159 times 
its diameter, or, in other words, 
the ratio of the circumference to 
the diameter is represented by 
3*14159: for this number writers 
generally put the Greek letter TT 

Circular saw. Circular saws, revolv- 
ing upon an axis, have the advantage 
that they act continually in the 
same direction, and no force is lost 
by a backward stroke: they are 
also susceptible of much greater ve- 
locity than the reciprocating saws, 
an advantage which enables them 
to cut more smoothly : used prin- 
cipally for cutting mahogany for 
veneering, and for other woods cut 
into thin layers 

Circus, an area used by the Romans 
for chariot-races and horse-races, 
and for other public sports 

Cissoid of Diocles, in the higher geo- 
metry, a curve line of the second 


Cistern. There were cisterns through- 
out Palestine, in cities and in pri- 
vate houses. As the cities were 
mostly built on mountains, and the 
rains fall in Judea at two seasons 
only (spring and autumn), people 
were obliged to keep water in ves- 
sels. There are cisterns of very large 
dimensions at this day in Palestine. 
Near Bethlehem are the cisterns or 
pools of Solomon: they are three 
in number, situated in the sloping 
hollow of a mountain, one above 
another, so that the waters of the 
uppermost descend into the second, 
and those of the second descend 
into the third. The breadth is nearly 
the same in all, between 80 and 90 
paces, but the length varies : the 
first is about 160 paces long; the 
second, 200; the third, 220. These 
pools formerly supplied the town 
of Bethlehem and the city of Jeru- 
salem with water. Wells and cis- 
terns, fountains and springs, are sel- 
dom correctly described in Scripture 

Cistern, in the steam engine, the ves- 
sel which surrounds the condenser, 
and contains the injection water 

Cisterna, an artificial tank or reser- 
voir, sunk in the ground and covered 
in with a roof, for the purpose of 
collecting and preserving good water 
for the use of a household. Near 
the baths of Titus are nine subter- 
raneous cisterns, 17i feet wide, 12 
feet high, and above 137 feet long 

Citrine, or the colour of the citron, 
is the first of the tertiary class of 
colours, or ultimate compounds of 
the primary triad, yellow, red, and 
blue, in which yellow is the archeus 
or predominating colour, and blue 
the extreme subordinate ; for ci- 
trine being an immediate compound 
of the secondaries, orange and 
green, of both which yellow is a 
constituent, the latter colour is of 
double occurrence therein, while 
the other two primaries enter singly 
into the composition of citrine ; its 
mean or middle hue comprehending 
eight blue, five red, and six yellow, 
of equal intensities 




Citrine lake is a durable and better 
drying species of brown pink, pre- 
pared from the quercitron bark 

Clack, the valve of a pump piston ; 
| the can-lead, in Derbyshire 

Clacks, in locomotive engines, the 
complete valves of the pumps where 
the ball-valve is enclosed in a frame 
or cage, to limit its rise, and guide 
its fall into the steam-tight seat of 
the orifice of the pipe 

Clack-box, in locomotive engines, the 
box fitted on to the boiler where 
a ball-clack is placed, to close the 
orifice of the feed-pipe, and pre- 
vent steam or hot water reaching 
the pumps. The ball of the clack 
is raised from its seat by the stroke 
of the pump-plunger forcing the 
water against it, and which water 
then passes into the boiler, while 
the instant fall of the ball prevents 
egress from the boiler 

Clack-door, a square iron plate screwed 
on to the side of a bottom-pump, 
or small bore for convenience of 
changing the clack or valve 

Clack-seats, in locomotive engines, 
two recesses in each pump, for the 
clacks to fit into 

Clack-valve, in the steam engine, a 
flat valve in the cold-water pump, 
with a hinge joint 

Clamp, a kiln built above the ground, 
for the purpose of burning bricks in 

Clamp, a piece of wood fixed to the 
end of a board by mortise and tenon, 
or by groove and tongue, so that 
the fibres of the one piece, thus 
fixed, traverse those of the board, 
and by this means prevent it from 
casting : the piece at the end is 
called a clamp, and the board is 
said to be clamped 

Clamps, in naval architecture, thick 
planks in a ship's side, which sup- 
port the ends of the beams 

Clamping, in joinery: when a piece 
of board is fitted with the grain to 
the end of another piece of board 
across the grain, the first board is 
said to be clamped 

Clamp-nails, used to fasten on clamps 
in the building of ships 


Classic orders, in architecture : of 
these there are but three, the 
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian : two 
others, the Tuscan and Composite, 
are often improperly classed with 
them, and the whole denominated 
' the five orders of architecture.' For 
the proportions of the respective 
orders, see the Synopsis, p. 26 

Cleading,in locomotive engines,is usu- 
ally made of narrow strips of tim- 
ber, neatly fitted round the boiler 
and fire-box, to prevent the radi- 
ation of the heat. Externally, this 
is sometimes covered with zinc, and 
a coating of dry hair felt is com- 
monly placed between the boiler 
andthetimber, for the same purpose 

Clearing the deads, a term for clearing 
a shaft or drift, &c. 

Cleat, a piece of wood used in different 
parts of a vessel to belay ropes to 

Cleavage, in geology, is an indicator of 
peculiar fossility in certain rocks, 
which is independent of, and meets 
at a considerable angle, the surfaces 
of lamination or deposition. Clay 
slate furnishes the best examples 
of this phenomenon 

Cleithral, a covered Greek temple 

Cleithros, an enclosed place; a temple 
whose roof covers or encloses it 

Clerestory, an upper story or row of 
windows in a Gothic church, rising 
clear above the adjoining parts of 
the building 

Clew, the lower corner of square-sails, 
and the after corner of a fore-and- 
aft sail 

Clew-garnet, a rope for hauling up the 
clew of a fore-sail or main-sail in a 
square-rigged vessel 

Clew-line, a rope for hauling up the 
clew of a square-sail : the clew- 
garnite is the clew-line of a course 

Clicket, a latch-key; the latch of a door 

Clinch, in navigation, the great ring 
connected with the mooring-chains 

Clinch, a half -hitch stopped to its 
own part 

Clinker-bar, in steam engines, the bar 
fixed across the top of the ash-pit 
for supporting the rods used for 
clearing the fire bars 



Clinkers, bricks which, by the vio- 
lence of the fire, are run together 
and glazed over 
Clinkers, hard bricks imported from 


Cloaca, a common sewer. The term 
cloaca is generally used in reference 
to those spacious subterraneous 
vaults, either of stone or brick, 
through which the foul waters of 
the city, as well as all the streams 
brought to Rome by the aqueducts, 
finally discharged themselves into 
the Tiber 

Cloaca, according to Livy, a large 
subterraneous canal, constructed of 
masonry or brick- work, for the pur- 
pose of carrying off the rain-water 
from the streets of a town, and 
the impurities from private houses, 
which were thus discharged into 
some neighbouring river 
Cloacarium, the sewers' rate; a tax 
which was levied in Rome for the 
expenses of cleansing and repairing 
the sewers 

Cloister, a covered ambulatory, form- 
ing part of a monastic or collegiate 
establishment. Cloisters are always 
attached to a college cathedral, 
and arranged round three or four 
sides of a quadrangular area, with 
large windows, not often glazed, 
looking into the quadrangle 
Close-hauled, a term applied to a vessel 
sailing with her yards braced up 
so as to get as much as possible to 

Closer, a brick-back inserted where 
the distance will not permit of a 
brick in length 
Closet, a small chamber or private 

Clove-hitch, two half-hitches round a 

spar or other rope 

Clove-hook, an iron clasp, in two parts, 
moving upon the same pivot and 
overlapping one another, used for 
bending chain-sheets to the clews 
of sails 
Clubbing, drifting down a current with 

an anchor out 

Club-haul, to bring a vessel's head 
round on the other tack, by letting 


go the lee anchor, and cutting or 
slipping the cable 

Clue-garnets, in navigation, tackles 
fixed to the clews or lower corners 
of the fore and main sail, to clew 
them up to the yards. (See Cleiv- 

Clustered column, a pier which con- 
sists of several columns or shafts 
clustered together 

Clutch, an apparatus for engaging o* 
disengaging two shafts : it consists 
of two pieces of metal formed so 
that when placed together, project- 
ing pieces on one (which is made to 
slide to andfro on the shaft, but turn 
with it) fit into recesses in the other, 
which is fixed on the driving shaft, 
so that the first being pulled back, 
its shaft will remain at rest 

Coaking, in ship -building, uniting 
pieces of spar by means of tabular 
projections, formed by cutting away 
the solid of one piece into a hollow, 
so as to make a projection in the 
other in such a manner that they 
may correctly fit, the buts pre- 
venting the pieces from drawing 

Coal belongs to the third series of 
the Wernerian principle, viz., car- 
boniferous rocks, coal measures, 
carboniferous limestone, and old 
red sandstone ; it is admitted to be 
of vegetable origin, and comprises 
1. Lignites, aspeciesof mineral char- 
coal or intermediate gradation from 
wood to coal ; 2. Ordinary bitu- 
minous coal, of numerous varieties; 
3. Anthracite, found generally in 
connection with the lowest portion 
of the third series, and sometimes 
in the primary rocks themselves. 
Coal, then, appears to have been 
formed of large vegetable masses 
of considerable extent, in strata 
varying from a few inches to many 
feet in depth, the strata alter- 
nating with rocks wonderfully uni- 
form, and which consist, in most 
cases, of the following : sandstone, 
slate clay or shale, fire-clay, iron- 
stone, limestone, &c. Rocks are 
found participating of both clay 




and sandstone texture, greatly pre- 
dominating. The coal beds are 
indiscriminately accompanied by 
rocks either of sandstone or shale, 
which often rest upon fire-clay. It 
is in the shale accompanying the 
coal that the fossil impressions are 
so numerous; for they are seldom 
found in the sandstones, or in the 
shales considerably distant from the 
coal beds. The organic remains of 
coal formation consist of many 
shells of fresh-water origin. The 
fossils, with land plants, occur in 
great abundance and variety, be- 
longing to extinct species, but 
bearing considerable analogy to 
those now growing only in tropical 
climates. These plants are mostly 
succulent, and are of enormous 

Coal-gas. Carburetted hydrogen, coal- 
gas, when freed from the obnoxious 
foreign gas, may be propelled in 
streams out of small apertures, 
which, when lighted, form jets of 
flame, and are called gas-lights 

Coal-tar, tar made from bituminous 

Coamings, in ships, raised work round 
the hatches, to prevent water from 
getting down into the hold 

Coat. Mast-coat is a piece of canvas 
tarred or painted, placed round a 
mast or bowsprit where it enters 
the deck 

Coat, in building, a stratum or thick- 
ness of plaster-work 

Cob (Cornish), to break or bruise : 
a cobber, a bruiser of tin. Cobbed 
ore is spoiled which is broken out of 
the solid large stones with sledges, 
and not put to water, being the 
best ore : the same as bing ore in 
the lead mines 

Cobalt. The ancient name for this 
mineral is not known. Theophrastus 
mentions its use for staining glass. 
No cobalt has been discovered in 
any of the remains of ancient paint- 
ing. It makes a colour, according 
to Vitruvius, between scarlet and 

Cobalt, in chemistry, a metal, when 

pure, of a white colour, inclining 
to bluish or steel gray : at the com- 
mon temperature its specific gravity 
is more than 8-5 

Cobalt-blue is the name now appro- 
priated to the modern improved 
blue prepared with metallic cobalt, 
or its oxides, although it properly 
belongs to a class of pigments in- 
cluding Saxon blue, Dutch ultra- 
marine, Thenard's blue, royal blue, 
Hungary blue, smalt, Zaffoe or 
enamel blue, and Dumont's blue. 
These differ principally in their 
degrees of purity, from the nature 
of the earths with which they are 

Cobalt-green. There are two pig- 
ments of this denomination, the 
one a compound of cobalt-blue and 
chromic yellow, which partakes of 
the qualities of those pigments, and 
may be formed on the palette 

Coboose, the place where the victuals 
are cooked on board of merchant 
and passenger ships 

Cob wall, a wall built of unburnt clay 
mixed with straw 

Cochineal is extremely rich in the 
finest red colouring matter, and has 
been long employed in scarlet dye- 
ing, and in the manufacture of 

Cochlea, a term used by the ancients 
to denote something of a spiral 
form ; a spiral pump for raising 
water, &c. 

Cock, or stop-cock, a kind of valve 
contrived for the purpose of per- 
mitting or arresting at pleasure the 
flow of a liquid through a pipe 

Cock-boat, a small boat used on rivers 

Cock-pit, that part of a ship which is 
appropriated to the use of the sur- 
geon, being the place where the 
wounded are dressed; it is near 
the hatchway, and under the lower 

Cockle, the skiorl.of the Swedes and 
the school of the Germans : a 
laminated mineral substance of a 
blackish brown colour, like tin 

Cocoa wood, the heart of which is sel- 
dom sound, is much used in turnery 

105 E 5 




Coctilis, according to Pliny, a brick 
hardened by burning 

Cod-line, an eighteen-thread line 

Co-efficients, in algebra, are numbers 
or letters prefixed to other letters 
or unknown quantities, into which 
they are supposed to be multiplied ; 
and therefore with such letters, or 
the quantities represented by them, 
making a product, or co-efficient 

Cwlum, according to Vitruvius, a 
soffit or cieling 

Cambium, anciently a monastery of 
monks or friars 

C6fer, in Cornish mining, a small 
wooden trough which receives the 
tin cleansed from its impurities or 

Coffee-tree, a wood of a light greenish 
brown, close-grained, and small in 
stature, sometimes used by cabinet- 

Coffer, a deep panel in a ceiling ; also 
applied to a casket for keeping 
jewels, and sometimes to a chest 

Coffer-dam, a hollow space formed 
by a double range of piles, with 
clay rammed in between, for the 
purpose of constructing an en- 
trance lock to a canal, dock, or 
basin, or for the piers of a bridge 

Coffin, in Cornish mining, old work- 
ings which were all worked open 
to grass, without any shafts, by 
digging and casting up the tin 
stuff from one stall of boards to 

Coffin, a wooden case in which a 
dead body is placed, sometimes en- 
cased in lead: anciently, stone 
coffins were used for interment 

Cog, the wooden tooth of a large 

Cog-teeth are formed of a different ma- 
terial from the body of the wheel : 
a timber tooth on a cog-wheel is 
one made of wood, when the teeth 
stand perpendically to the plane of 
the wheel 

Cog-wheel, an iron wheel with wooden 
teeth or cogs 

Cohesion of fluids. M. Monge and 
others assert that the phenomena 


of capillary tubes are referable to 
the cohesive attraction of the su- 
perficial particles only of the fluids 
employed, and that the surface must 
consequently be formed into curves 
of the nature of linteariae, which 
are supposed to be the results of a 
uniform tension of a surface resist- 
ing the pressure of a fluid, either 
uniform or varying according to a 
given law 

Cohesion, the attraction which takes 
place between the particles of bo- 
dies, denoting that force by which 
the particles firmly cohere 

Cohesion and resistance of fluids, as 
examined by the force of torsion. 
Pressure does not augment the 
friction ; on the contrary, the re- 
sistance is greater when the im- 
mersion is only partial. Greasing 
wood does not lessen the friction : 
the friction of oil is 17^ times as 
great as that of water. A part of 
the friction is proportional to the 
velocity: the constant part is al- 
most insensible. Thus a circle *195 
metre in diameter, turning in water 
with a velocity equal to '14 m. in 1", 
meets a resistance equivalent to a 
weight of 1 gramme acting on a 
lever of '143 m. The portion pro- 
portional to the velocity is equiva- 
lent to -042 gr. for a surface equal 
to twice such a circle moving in its 
own direction with a velocity of 
01 m. 

Cohesive strength of materials. The 
force of cohesion may be defined 
to be that force by which the fibres 
or particles of a body resist separa- 
tion, and is proportioned to the 
number of fibres in the body, or in 
the area of its section. 

Coiling, a serpentine winding of ropes, 
by which they occupy a small space, 
and are not liable to be entangled 
amongst one another in working 
the sails of a ship 

Coin or quoin, the angle of a building; 
used also for the machicolation of a 

Coke, charred pitcoal 

Coke. The most valuable of the se- 




condary products of a gas estab- 
lishment is coke. The best kind 
is obtained from coal when car- 
bonized in large masses, in ovens 
constructed on purpose. In a gas 
manufactory , the production of coke 
being of minor importance to the 
formation of good gas, it is gene- 
rally of an inferior quality to that 
made in coke ovens, where it is the 
primary, and indeed sole object for 
which the coal is carbonized. But 
gas-coke is excellent for many pur- 
poses in the arts and manufactures, 
producing as clear a fire as that of 
the first quality, though it is neither 
so lasting nor so free from slag : for 
domestic use, however, it is unob- 
jectionable, and maybe burnt both 
in the drawing-room and kitchen 
with economy and comfort. 

The distinguishing characters of 
good coke are, first, a clean, granu- 
lar fracture in any direction, with 
a pearly lustre, inclining to that 
exhibited by cast iron. Secondly, 
density, or close proximity of its 
particles, which adhere together in 
masses, and specific gravity of I'lO, 
or rather higher. Thirdly, when 
exposed to a white heat, it consumes 
entirely away , without leaving either 
slag or ashes. 

It is invariably the case that the 
quality of the coke is inversely as 
that of the gas. The manufacturer 
must not expect to produce both of 
the best quality. The process by 
which the best gas is made gene- 
rally leaves the coke light, spongy, 
and friable, although an increase of 
quantity is gained ; for the simple 
reason, that the degree of heat and 
other circumstances required to 
form perfect coke must be entirely 
changed when gas of a high specific 
gravity is to be obtained. Thus 
large masses of coal exposed to a 
red heat in close vessels are acted 
upon by slow degrees, the external 
portions preventing heatfrom pene- 
trating into the interior until most 
of the bituminous portions are given 
off in condensable vapour, or as 


charcoal and free hydrogen; the 
after-products being light carbu- 
retted hydrogen, carbonic oxide 
and carbonic acid gases. The re- 
sidue is a carbon of a dense granular 
Coke, as prepared for use in locomo- 
tive and other steam engines, may 
be regarded as purified coal, or coal 
from which the extraneous matters 
not conducive to combustion have 
been expelled by the application of 
heat. It appears from experiments 
that the heating power of every 
description of fuel, whether coal, 
coke, wood, lignite, turf, or peat, 
is proportional to the quantity of 
carbon it contains, and that from 
83 to 86 per cent, of this element 
enters into the composition of any 
given weight of Newcastle, Durham, 
or Lancashire coal, the other in- 
gredients being hydrogen, azote, 
oxygen, and ashes. The exact pro- 
cess which takes place in the con- 
version of coal into coke is not yet 
thoroughly understood, although 
the result can be readily estimated, 
and is found to depend, to a con- 
siderable extent, upon the manner 
in which the process is performed. 
Thus, by coking in close ovens, 
Welsh coal loses about 30 per cent, 
of its weight ; but if the coking be 
effectedin uncovered heaps of coarse 
lumps, as it often is in the Welsh 
coal and iron districts (where abun- 
dance is allowed, as the excuse for 
extravagance and waste), the loss 
of weight is from 50 to 55 per cent. 
While the weight is thus diminished 
by coking in close ovens, the bulk 
is increased from 22 to 23 per cent. 
The rapid and complete combustion 
of the carbon 'which takes place in 
the burning of coke has the effect 
of preventing, to a considerable ex- 
tent, the emission of that palpable 
smoke which arises from the com- 
bustion of coal, and for this pro- 
perty coke was resorted to for use 
in locomotive engines, when the 
non-emission of smoke was imposed 
as one of the conditions upon which 




railway companies were empowered 
by Act of Parliament. The prac- 
tical advantages since found to be 
derived from the burning of coke 
instead of coal are, its greater power 
in evaporating water and producing 
steam, and the less rapid destruction 
of the boiler which ensues from its 

Colarin, the little frieze of the capital 
of the Tuscan and Doric column, 
placed between the astragal and the 

Cold chisel, a piece of steel flattened 
and sharpened at one end, which is 
properly tempered, so that it may 
be used for cutting metal 

Cold-harbour, an inn ; a shelter from 
the cold ; a protection on the way- 
side for travellers benighted or be- 

Coldshort z'ron,iron in an impure state 

Cold-water well and reservoir. To 
effect the condensation of steam, 
the water is very commonly raised, 
by means of the cold-water pump, 
from a reservoir or well. This ab- 
sorbs from the engine some portion 
of its pow r er. Indeed, when the 
wells are deep, the quantity of 
power thus expended is so great, 
that the condensing system can 
no longer be judiciously applied. 
This may be known by the follow- 
ing investigation : 

Rule. Multiply the weight of 
water, in pounds,by the feetthrough 
which it passes in a minute, and 
divide the product by 33,000 ; the 

quotient will exhibit, friction ex- 
cluded, the horses' power expended. 

Example. To condense 103 ; 
Weight of cold water lOtbs. 
per gallon, at 62 of tem- 

Engine, nominal power. . 4 horses. 
Water, per horse power . . 4 gals. 
Lift of do., or height 

raised, 230 feet per minute. 
4 x 40 x 230 

HenCC 33,000- =Hh. power. 

Cold-water pump, the pump for sup- 
plying the water for condensation 

Collar, in ships, an eye in the end or 
bight of a shroud or stay, to go 
over the mast-head 

Collar, in turnery, a ring inserted in 
the puppet for holding the end of 
the mandril next the chuck, in or- 
der to make the spindle run freely 
and exactly 

Collar, a plate of metal screwed down 
upon the stuffing-box of a steam 
engine, with a hole to allow the 
piston-rod to pass through 

Collar of a shaft, the timber and 
boarding used to secure the upper- 
most part of a shaft in loose rub- 
ble from falling in 

Collar-beam, a beam framed across 
and between two principal rafters 

Collegiate Churches of Great Britain 
(list of). The Colleges generally 
omitted in the Books amount to 
130 in number, scattered mostly 
over England alone, and are con- 
sequently not here included. 


Abergwilly .... 



Attilbury .... 
Axminster .... 
Barnard Castle . . 
Battlefield . . . . 



Bishop Auckland . . 


Bolton, within thel 
Castle of) . . J 



Secular Canons 









Edw. III. 

Hen. IV. 

temp. Athels, 

Rich. III. 





Richard II. 



















Bosehara .... 

Henry I. 





Bothwell .... 



Bradgrove .... 

Secular Canons 

Richard II. 


Brecknock .... 

Henry VIII. 


Bridgnorth .... 

Wm. Rufus 


Brorayard .... 

temp. H. III. 





Carnworth .... 



Chester-le-Street . . 




Chumleigh .... 

temp. Ed. I. 


Clovelley .... 


Richard II. 


Constantin .... 


Corstorpliin . . 



Cotherstoke. . <* . 














James V. 


Darlington .... 


Dirleton . 






Dumbarton . . 



Dunbar . . ..*,.. 



Dunglass . . <* i. 



Eton '"'' 

Henry VI. 


Fotheringay . . . 





Jas. II. Scot. 


Glasency . . *' . 




Gnoushall .... 

Henry I. 


Graystoke .... 



Guthry .... 



Hamilton .... 



Hastings .... 

Henry I. 



Secular Canons 



Heytesbury .... 



Higham Ferrers . . 


Henry V. 


Holyhead .... 





Inetolingburgh . . 


Edward III. 

N ortham ptonshir e 




Irtlingburgh . .. ' 

Richard II. 


Kilmaurs . . V ? 



Kilmund. . . *,-.. 



Kirkheugh . . ^ "-. 


Lanchester . . . ; . 







jj crcfordsliirc 

Llancadane . . ..'. ;.-- 




Llandewi Brevi ..;-' ;.- 



Ludlow . . . < . 


Maidstone .... 

Secular Canons 



Edward III. 


Maybole .... 




COL ( 








Merewell .... 

Secular Canons 






Richard II. 


Middleham .... 




Newark . 







North Cadbury . . 


Henry V. 


Northwell .... 


temp. H.I V. 




Norton sub Cross . . 

Edward III. 


Noseley ..... 

temp. Ed. I. 



Wm. Conq. 


Penkridge .... 





Richard II. 


Ponsbury .... 


Restrairig .... 






Rotherham .... 




Rushworth .... 













Shottesbrooke . . . 






Edward II. 

N ottinghamshire 

South Mailing . . . 


Southwell .... 






Staindrop .... 




Stansted le Thele . . 








Stratford on Avon 

Edward III. 


St. Buriens .... 


St. David's .... 




St. Elizabeth . . . 




St. Giles 



St. Martin's le Grand 




St. Mary . . . . 




St. Mary .... 


King Steph. 


St. Mary's .... 


St. Mary Magdalen . 



St. Mary Ottery . . 




St. Michael, Crooked 1 
lane . . . . J 




St. Stephen's . . . 




St. Salvator .... 




Secular Canons 



Tamworth .... 


Tattershall .... 


Henry VI. 





Thornton upon Humber 




Tonison . 

Edward III. 



Secular Canons 



Totenhall .... 

Wm. Conq. 







Towcester .... 
Tullibardine . . . 


Secular Canons 


Henry VI. 
Edward III. 


N ottin gham shire 

Wallingford. . . . 
Warwick .... 
Westbury .... 
"Winburn .... 
Windsor, (St. George's 
Chapel) .... 
Wingfield .... 
Wingham .... 
Wenslow .... 
Wolverhampton . . 


} Do. 


Edward I. 


Wra. Rufus 
Richard II. 




W 7 ykeham .... 




Collision,***, mechanics. Whenever two 
bodies act on each other so as to 
change the direction of their rela- 
tive motions, by means of any forces 
which preserve their activity un- 
diminished at equal distances on 
every side, the relative velocities 
with which the bodies approach to 
or recede from each other will al- 
ways be equal at equal distances 

Colluviarium, anciently a well or open- 
ing formed at intervals in the chan- 
nel of an aqueduct for procuring a 
free current of air along its course, 
and to facilitate the operation of 
clearing away foul deposits left by 
the waters 

Cologne earth is a native pigment, 
similar to the Vandyke brown in 
its uses and properties as a colour 

Colonnade, arange of columns, whether 
attached or insulated, and support- 
ing an entablature 

Colosseum, a name given to the theatre 
of Vespasian, either from its mag- 
nitude or from its colossal statue 
of Nero ; also the name of a fine 
building in the Regent's Park 

Colossus, a statue of gigantic dimen- 
sions, or very much beyond the 
proportions of nature 

Colour. The term colour being used 
synonymously for pigment is the 
cause of much ambiguity, particu- 


larly when speaking of colours as 
sensible or in the abstract ; it would 
be well, therefore, if the term pig- 
ment were alone used to denote 
the material colours of the palette 

Colouring, in painting, the art of dis- 
posing the tints, so as to produce 
either an imitation of the natural 
colours of the objects represented, 
or force and brightness of effect 

Colouring, though a subject greatly 
inferior to many others which the 
painter must study, is yet of suffi- 
cient importance to employ a con- 
siderable share of his attention; and 
to excel in it, he must be well ac- 
quainted with that part of optics 
which has the nature of light and 
colours for its object. Light, how- 
ever simple and uncompounded it 
may appear, is nevertheless made 
up, as it were, of several distinct 
substances; and the number and 
quantity of component parts have 
been happily discovered by the 

Colours (symbolic), in antiquity, the 
middle ages, and modern times. 

The history of symbolic colours 
is but little known. Colours had 
the same signification amongst all 
nations of the remotest antiquity : 
this conformity indicates a common 
origin, which extends to the earliest 




state of humanity, and develops its 
highest energies in the religion of 
Persia: the dualism of light arid 
darkness presents, in effect, the two 
types of colours which become the 
symbols of two principles, benevo- 
lence and malevolence. The an- 
cients admitted but two primitive 
colours, white and black, whence 
all others are derived. 

The language of colours, inti- 
mately connected with religion, 
passed into India, China, Egypt, 
Greece, and Rome, and re-appeared 
in the middle ages; the large win- 
dows of Gothic cathedrals found 
their explanation in the books of the 
Zends, the Vedas, and the paintings 
of the Egyptian temples. 

Among the Egyptians, the pro- 
phets did not allow metal-founders 
or statuaries to represent the gods, 
lest they should deviate from the 

At Rome, the penalty of death 
was incurred by selling or being 
clothed in a purple stuff. At this 
day, in China, any one who wears 
or buys clothes with the prohibited 
design of the dragon or phrenix, 
is subjected to 300 stripes and three 
years' banishment. 

Symbolism explains this severity 
of laws andcustoms: to each colour, 
to each pattern, appertained a re- 
ligious or political idea ; to change 
or to alter it was a crime of apo- 
stacy or of rebellion. 

Indian and Egyptian paintings, and 
those of Greek origin, named Etrus- 
can, are composed of plain tints 
of a brilliant colour, but without 
demi-tints ; the pattern and the 
colour had a necessary signification, 
it was essentially restrictive: per- 
spective, chiaro-oscuro, and demi- 
tints, would have led to confusion. 

Christianity, in recalling these 
forgotten significations, restores a 
new energy to the language of 
colours : the doctrine taught by 
Christ was not therefore new, since 
it borrowed the symbols of ancient 


religions. The Son of God, in lead- 
ing back mankind to the truth, 
came not to change, but to fulfil 
the law; this law was the worship 
of the true God. 

The three languages of colours, 
divine, consecrated, and profane, 
classify, in Europe, the three estates 
of society, the clergy, the nobles, 
and the people. 

The large glass windows of 
Christian churches, like the paint- 
ings of Egypt, have a double sig- 
nification, the apparent and the 
hidden ; the one is for the uniniti- 
ated, and the other applies itself to 
the mystic creeds. The theocratic 
era lasts to the renaissance ; at this 
epoch, symbolic expressions are ex- 
tinct; the divine language of colours 
is forgotten, painting became an 
art, and is no longer a science. 

The aristocratic era commences; 
and symbolism, banished from the 
church, takes refuge at the court : 
disdained by painting, it is found 
again in heraldry. Modern paint- 
ing still preserves its symbolism in 
church pictures : St. John wears a 
green robe, Christ and the Virgin 
are likewise draped in red and blue, 
and God in white. 

Natural philosophy recognizes 
seven colours, which form the solar 
ray, decomposed by the prism; 
namely, violet, indigo, blue, green, 
yellow, orange, and red. Painting 
admits butfive primitives, the first 
and last of which are rejected by 
natural philosophy, white, yellow, 
red, blue, and black. From the 
combination of these five colours 
every hue is produced. 

According to symbolism, two 
principles produce all colours, light 
and darkness. 

Light is represented by white, 
and darkness by black; but light 
does not exist but by fire, the sym- 
bol of which is red : setting out 
from this basis, symbolism admits 
two primitive colours, redandwhite. 
Black was considered as the ne- 
gation of colours, and attributed to 




the spirit of darkness ; red is the 
symbol of divine love ; white, the 
symbol of divine wisdom. From 
these two attributes of God, love 
and wisdom, the creation of the 
universe emanates. 

Secondary colours represent dif- 
ferent combinations of the two prin- 
ciples ; yellow emanates from red 
and white ; it is the symbol of reve- 
lation of the love and of the wis- 
dom of God. 

Blue emanates likewise from red 
and white ; it indicates divine wis- 
dom manifested by life, by the spirit 
or the breath of God (air, azure) ; 
it is the symbol of the spirit of 

Green is formed by the union of 
yellow and blue; it indicates the 
manifestation of love and wisdom 
in action ; it was the symbol of 
charity, and of the regeneration of 
the soul by works. 

Gold and yellow were, in Chris- 
tian symbolism, the emblems of 
faith : St. Peter was represented by 
the illuminators and miniaturists of 
the middle ages with a golden- 
yellow robe, and the rod or the 
key in his hand. 

Christianity restored truth to 
mankind, and re-instated symbolic 
language in its original purity. In 
the transfiguration,the countenance 
of our Lord became resplendent as 
the sun, and his vesture shone like 
the light. Such, in their highest 
energy, are the symbols of divine 
love and wisdom. The angel who 
rolled away the stone from the se- 
pulchre reproduced them in an in- 
ferior order, his face shone like 
lightning, and his robe was white 
as snow. Finally, in the last de- 
gree, appeared the just, in robes 
washed white in the blood of the 
Lamb. The artists of the middle 
ages preserved their precious tra- 
ditions, and gave to Jesus Christ, 
after the resurrection, white or red 

Columbaria, the holes left in walls 
for the insertion of pieces of tini- 


her ; so called from resembling 
the niches of a pigeon-house. The 
niches of a mausoleum, made to 
receive the cineral urns, were like- 
wise termed columbaria 

Columbarium, a place of sepulture 
used for the ashes of the Romans, 
after the custom of burning the 
dead had been introduced among 

Columen, the term applied to the 
upright timbers of a roof, cor- 
responding to the modern king- 

Column, in architecture, a member of 
a cylindrical form, consisting of a 
base, a shaft or body, and a capi- 
tal. It differs from the pilaster, 
which is square on the plan. 
Columns should always stand per- 

Columna (Latin), a pillar or column, 
used in architecture (as described 
in the orders), placed upright for 
support of buildings, principally 
wrought in stone, and made de- 
corative in conformity to the order 
and style of architectural compo- 

Columns, in architecture, according 
to Vitruvius, of the three orders. 
The proportions of Corinthian co- 
lumns are in every respect, except- 
ing their capitals, similar to those 
of Ionic ; although their form is 
more graceful and proportionably 
more delicate, by reason of the 
greater height of the capitals ; for 
Ionic capitals are a third part only 
of the lower diameter of the co- 
lumns, whereas the Corinthian ca- 
pital is equal in height to an entire 
diameter. The peculiar character 
of the capitals, which admits of 
their being higher than those of 
Ionic columns by two-thirds of a 
diameter, gives beauty to them, 
by permitting an increase of the 
height without violating the laws 
of symmetry 

Combustion, the operation of fire upon 
an inflammable substance, by which 
it smokes, flames, and is reduced 
to ashes 




Combustion, Spontaneous. Few or no 
chemical combinations can take 
place without a disturbance in the 
equilibrium of caloric in the sub- 
stances to be so combined; and 
when caloric is thereby evolved in 
sufficient extent and rapidity, and 
when one or all the bodies engaged 
may be freely combustible, ignition 
takes place. When this is unin- 
tentional, or is the result of igno- 
rance or carelessness, it is con- 
venient to call it spontaneous com- 

Thus we frequently hear of 
hayricks, &c., on fire; occasion- 
ally, of carts loaded with quick- 
lime being burned by the rain fall- 
ing upon the lime. There are also 
somewhat apochryphal accounts of 
coal in coal-yards being destroyed 
in like manner. But the most im- 
portant instance of this class, as 
far as regards the preservation of 
Government establishments, is the 
combustion that infallibly and ra- 
pidly ensues when greasy hemp, 
flax, or cotton, is allowed to re- 
main loosely heaped together, in 
any quantity, in a confined unven- 
tilated space. 

Full proof of this has been made 
by experiment in the dockyards ; 
and there is much reason to at- 
tribute many fires in former days 
to carelessness in the rope-walks 
and hemp stores ; in consequence 
of which, rigorous orders have 
been of late years issued as to 
the immediate disposal of loose 
oakum and hemp sweepings all 
more or less greased or oiled. 
The very oil-rags used by engravers 
in cleaning plates, when heaped 
together to any amount, will be 
consumed in a few hours. 

The combination in question 
seems to be between the oil and the 
oxygen of the atmosphere. Oil has 
always an affinity for oxygen ; 
though, when the bulk of the for- 
mer is considerable in proportion to 
the surface, the action is but feeble, 
and the results not ordinarily ap- 


preciable : but in the case of ad- 
mixture of such fibrous vegetable 
bodies as hemp, flax, or cotton 
with oily matters, where the ratio 
of surface to solidity is great, and 
when the conditions for accumu- 
lating heat are favourable, this 
accumulation soon produces igni- 
tion amongst such inflammable 
bodies as those just enumerated 

Come. i Come home ; ' said of an an- 
chor when it is broken from the 
ground, and drags. To ' come up ' 
a rope or tackle, is to slack it off 

Commandry, a religious house be- 
longing to a body of knights of 
the order of St. Bernard and St. 

Commissure, the joint between two 
stones in masonry 

Common pitch, an old term still ap- 
plied by country workmen to a 
roof in which the length of the 
rafters is about three-fourths of 
the entire span 

Common sewer of Rome : it was near 
the Senatorian bridge, and was 16 
feet in diameter 

Communication valves, the valves in 
a steam-pipe which connects two 
boilers to an engine, for cutting off 
the communication between either 
boiler and the engine 

Communion table, a piece of church 
furniture usually placed near the 
wall of the east end of the chancel, 
and enclosed by rails, within which 
the clergyman stands to administer 
the Sacrament 

Companion, a wooden covering over 
the staircase to a ship's cabin 

Compartition, the division or distri- 
bution of the ground-plan of an 
edifice into its various apartments 

Compartment of the streets within 
a city. According to Palladio, re- 
gard must be always had to the 
temperature of the air, and also to 
the region of heaven, or the cli- 
mate under which the place is 
situated ; because where the air is 
cold or temperate, there the streets 
ought to be made large and noble, 
since thereby the city will become 




more wholesome, convenient, and 
beautiful: it being certain that 
by how much less piercing, and 
withal by how much freer the air 
is, by so much the less will it 
offend the head; and therefore 
by how much more a town is 
situated in a cold place, or in a 
piercing air, and that the houses are 
high, by so much the longer ought 
the streets to be made, that they 
may be visited by the sun in every 
part of them 

Compartment, a division or separate 
part of a general design. 

Compass (Harris's magneto-electric). 
The inventor's object, in the appli- 
cation of his discovery of the stea- 
dying action of the copper ring, 
" is the combination of great sensi- 
tiveness with stability and simpli- 
city of construction ; so that while 
the needle is free to obey the mag- 
netic force of the earth in the most 
perfect way, it yet remains tran- 
quil amidst the disturbing motions 
to which a ship is exposed ; and 
this stability is obtained without 
the aid of friction or other me- 
chanical impediment, which often 
produce an apparent steadiness, or 
rather sluggishness of the compass 
(arising from indifference to mo- 
tion), at the expense of accuracy. 

" When the horizontal position 
of the card is disturbed by any 
alteration of dip incidental to a 
change of latitude, it is to be cor- 
rected by moving the silver sliders 
on the needle. 

" Should the compass be out of 
use, care must be taken to let the 
needle hang freely in the meridian; 
and if put into a store-room, or 
otherwise set by, the card and 
needle should be removed alto- 
gether, and placed with the needle 
downward in the shallow box pro- 
vided for it, the north point being 
on that part of the keeper marked 
with a cross, thus x . A good 
compass is liable to deterioration 
and damage when stowed away 
without regard to its magnetic 


properties, and without due care 
being taken to preserve the agate 
and the point of suspension in a 
perfect state." 

Compasses, an instrument with two 
long legs, working on a centre pin 
at one extremity ; used for draw- 
ing circles, measuring distances, 
setting out work, &c. 

Compass-headed, in ancient architec- 
tecture, circular 

Compass-plane, in joinery, a tool si- 
milar to the smoothing-plane in 
size and shape, but the sole is 
convex, and the convexity is in 
the direction of the length of the 
plane. The use of the compass- 
plane is to form a concave cylin- 
drical surface, when the wood to 
be wrought upon is bent with the 
fibres in the direction of the curve, 
which is in a plane surface perpen- 
dicular to the axis of the cylinder : 
consequently, compass-planes must 
be of various sizes, in order to 
accommodate different diameters. 

joss-roof, a roof in which the 
braces of the timbers are inclined 
so as to form a sort of arch. 

Compass-saw, in joinery, a tool for 
cutting the surfaces of wood into 
curved surfaces: for this purpose 
it is narrow, without a back, thicker 
on the cutting edge, as the teeth 
have no set : the plate is about 
an inch broad, next to the handle, 
and diminishes to about one quar- 
ter of an inch at the other extre- 
mity ; there are about five teeth in 
the inch : the handle is single 

Compass-window, a bay window, or 

Complement (the) of an arch or angle 
is what it wants of 90 degrees : thus 
the complement of 50 is 40, and 
the complement of 40 is 50. 

Compluvium (Latin), the interval be- 
tween the roofs of porticoes which 
surround the cavaedium. The rain 
was admitted through this opening, 
and fell upon the area below, 
which was termed by some authors 
the impluvium 

Composite Order : by some considered 




not a distinct order, but a variety 
of the Corinthian. For its height 
and proportion, see Architecture, 

Care must be taken in Compo- 
site as well as in Corinthian capi- 
tals, that the feet of the lower 
leaves do not project beyond the 
upper part of the column, as at 
St. Carlo, in the Corso at Rome, 
and at the Banqueting-house in 
London ; for nothing can be uglier. 
Neither are these leaves, as they 
mount, to bend forwards, as in 
many of the antiques, and in some 
modern buildings, because they 
then hide a considerable part of 
the upper row of leaves, and give 
a stunted disagreeable form to the 
whole capital. The different divi- 
sions of the acanthus leaf, and 
bunches of olive or parsley which 
compose the total of each leaf, 
must be firmly marked, and massed 
in a very distinct manner : the 
stems that spring from between 
the upper leaves are to be kept 
low upon the vase of the capital, 
while rising between the leaves, 
then spring gradually forwards, to 
form the different volutes ; and 
the ornaments, which sometimes 
are used to adorn the sides of the 
angular volutes, are never to pro- 
ject beyond the fillets between 
which they are confined. 

Composition of motion, in mechanics, 
an assemblage of several directions 
of motion resulting from several 
powers acting in different though 
not in opposite directions 

Composition, in painting, is a tasteful 
and proper distribution of the ob- 
jects of a picture, in grouping, in 
the attitudes, and in the draperies, 
and the management of the back- 

Composition and symmetry of tem- 
ples. The several parts which con- 
stitute a temple ought to be sub- 
ject to the laws of symmetry, the 
principles of which should be fami- 
liar to all who profess the science 
of architecture. Symmetry results 


from proportion, which, in the 
Greek language, is termed analogy. 
Proportion is the commensuration 
of the various constituent parts 
with the whole ; in the existence of 
which, symmetry is found to con- 
sist; for no building can possess 
the attributes of composition in 
which symmetry and proportion 
are disregarded, nor unless there 
exists that perfect conformation of 
parts which may be observed in a 
well-formed human being 

Compound arch, according to Profes- 
sor Willis, an arch which has the 
archivolt moulded or formed into a 
series of square recesses and angles, 
on the principle that " it may be 
resolved into a number of concen- 
tric archways successively placed 
within and behind each other" 

Compound pier, a term applied to a 
clustered column 

Compression, the result of pressing or 
squeezing matter so as to set its 
parts nearer to each other, and to 
make it occupy less space 

Computation, the method of esti- 
mating time, weights, measures, 

Concamerate, to arch over 

Concameratio, arched work 

Concave, a term denoting the curvi- 
linear vacuity of hollow bodies 

Concentric, having a common centre; 
as concentric circles, ellipses, &c. 

Concha, according to Dr. Whewell, a 
term for the concave ribless sur- 
face of a vault 

Conclave, a private or secret council; 
an inner room for meeting pri- 

Concluding line, a small line leading 
through the centre of the steps of 
a rope or Jacob's ladder 

Concrete, a composition of lime, sand, 
pebbles, or other materials, now 
commonly used for the founda- 
tions of buildings. 

The general employment of the 
mixture of lime and gravel, com- 
monly known by the name of con- 
crete, in all foundations where, 
from the nature of the soil, pre- 




cautions against partial settlements 
appear necessary, and the great 
probability of an extension of its 
use in situations where the mate- 
rials of which it is composed are 
easily and cheaply procured, must 
of course render it a subject of 
great interest to the engineer. 

Much valuable information on 
this subject Mill be found in a 
prize essay by Mr. G. Godwin, 
published in the ' Transactions of 
the Institute of British Architects.' 
In this essay, many instances are 
brought forward of the employment 
by the ancients of a mixture ana- 
logous to concrete, both for founda- 
tions and for walls. Several cases 
are also mentioned in which, of 
late years, it has been used advan- 
tageously for foundations, by some 
of the most distinguished architects 
and civil engineers. In these lat- 
ter instances, the proportion of the 
ingredients varies from one of lime 
and two of gravel, to one of lime 
and twelve of gravel, the lime 
being in most cases Dorking lime, 
and the gravel, Thames ballast. 
The proportion, however, most 
commonly used now, in and about 
London, is one of lime to seven of 
ballast ; though, from experiments 
made at the building of the West- 
minster New Bridewell, it would 
appear that one of lime to eight of 
ballast made the most perfect con- 

Concrete, compounded solely of 
lime and screened stones, will 
never assume a consistence at all 
equal to that of which sand forms 
a part. The north wing of Buck- 
ingham Palace affords an instance 
of this : it was first erected on a 
mass of concrete composed of lime 
and stones, and when subsequent 
alterations made it necessary to 
take down the building and remove 
the foundation, this was found not 
to have concreted into a mass. 

Mr. Godwin states, as the result 
of several experiments, that two 
parts of stones and one of sand, 


with sufficient lime (dependent on 
the quality of the material) to 
make good mortar with the latter, 
formed the best concrete. As the 
quality of the concrete depends, 
therefore, on the goodness of the 
mortar composed of the lime and 
sand, and as this must vary with 
the quality of the lime, no fixed 
proportions can of course be laid 
down which will suit every case. 
The proportions must be deter- 
mined by experiment ; but in no 
case should the quantity of sand 
be less than double that of the lime. 

The best mode of compounding 
the concrete is to thoroughly mix 
the lime, previously ground, with 
the ballast in a dry state ; sufficient 
water being then thrown over it to 
effect a perfect mixture, it should 
be turned over at least twice with 
shovels, and then wheeled away 
instantly for use. In some cases, 
where a great quantity of concrete 
has to be used, it has been found 
advisable to employ a pug-mill to 
mix the ingredients : in every case 
it should be used hot. 

With regard to the quantity of 
water that should be employed in 
forming concrete, there is some 
difference of opinion ; but as it is 
usually desirable that the mass 
should set as rapidly as possible, it 
is not advisable to use more water 
than is necessary to bring about a 
perfect mixture of the ingredients. 
A great change of bulk takes place 
in the ingredients of concrete when 
mixed together: a cubic yard of 
ballast, with the due proportion of 
lime and water, will not make a 
cubic yard of concrete. Mr. God- 
win, from several experiments made 
with Thames ballast, concludes that 
the diminution is about one-fifth. 
To form a cubic yard, therefore, of 
concrete, the proportion of lime 
being th of the quantity of ballast, 
it requires about 30 cubic feet of 
ballast, and 3f cubic feet of ground 
lime, with sufficient water to effect 
the admixture. 




An expansion takes place in the 
concrete during the slaking of the 
lime, of which an important use 
has been made in the underpinning 
of walls : the amount of this ex- 
pansion has been found to be about 
fths of an inch to every foot in 
height ; and the size thus gained, 
the concrete never loses. 

The examples from which the 
above rules are deduced are princi- 
pally of buildings erected in or 
about London; the lime used is 
chiefly from Dorking, and the bal- 
last from the Thames. It is very 
desirable that a more extended 
collection of facts should be made, 
that the proportions of the mate- 
rials, when other limes and gravels 
are used, should be stated, in order 
that some certain rules may be laid 
down by which the employment of 
concrete may be regulated under 
the various circumstances which 
continually present themselves in 

The Dorking and Hailing limes 
are slightly hydraulic. Will com- 
mon limes, such as chalk, and 
common stone-lime, answer for 
forming foundations of concrete, 
where the soil, although damp, is 
not exposed to running water ? Is 
it possible, even with hydraulic 
lime, to form a mass of concrete in 
running water ? If common lime 
will not answer, may it not be 
made efficient by a slight mixture 
of cement ? These, and questions 
similar to these, are of great in- 
terest; and facts which elucidate 
them will be valuable contributions 
to the stock of knowledge on this 

It is a question for consideration, 
whether a great variety of sizes in 
the materials used would not form 
the most solid as well as the hardest 
wall. The walls of the fortress of 
Ciudad Rodrigo, in Spain, are of 
concrete. The marks of the boards 
which retained the semi-fluid mat- 
ter in their construction are every 
where perfectly visible ; and besides 


sand and gravel, there are every 
where large quantities of round 
boulder-stones in the walls, from 
4 to 6 inches in diameter, procured 
from the ground around the city, 
which is every where covered with 

Condensation, the conversion of va- 
pour into water by cold 

Condenser, in steam engines, the ves- 
sel connected with the exhaust-port 
of the cylinder of a low-pressure 
engine, and also with the air-pump, 
by a passage at the bottom fitted 
by the foot-valve of the pump : it 
receives the steam from the cylin- 
der, and condenses it by a jet of 
cold water, thus forming a vacuum 
for the return stroke : the water, 
air, &c. is then drawn off by the 
air-pump, and discharged into the 
hot well 

Conditorium, a secret place; a sepul- 
chre ; a vault 

Conduction, electrical, a series of 
phenomena in electricity, giving 
origin to a classification of sub- 
stances as conductors of electricity. 
The substances which properly 
come under this conducting or non- 
electric class are principally as fol- 
lows : 


Every metallic substance known. 

Well-burned charcoal. 


Concentrated and diluted acids, and 

saline fluids. 

Water, and moist vegetable matter. 
Living animal matter. 
Flame smoke steam. 

The distinctive difference in the 
conducting and non -conducting 
property of bodies may be readily 
illustrated in the following way : 

Excite a glass tube and wire, 
and bring the ball of the wire into 
contact with any of the electrics, 
as a rod of glass, a stick of sealing- 
wax, or brimstone rendered per- 
fectly dry : the attractive power of 
the ball and wire, together with 
the tube, will not be in any sensi- 
ble degree impaired. Let the elec- 




trifled ball now touch the walls of 
the room or other conducting sub- 
stance communicating with the 
ground ; the attractive power will 
instantly vanish. 

It is evident from these facts 
that all electric substances are non- 
conductors or insulators, as they 
are appropriately termed; whilst, 
on the other hand, non-electric 
substances are transmitters or con- 
ductors of electrical action. 

When, therefore, any conduct- 
ing substance is placed on an elec- 
trical support, such as a rod of 
glass or shell-lac, it is considered 
to be insulated, and is termed an 
insulated conductor; when elec- 
trified by contact with any excited 
or other electrified body, it is said 
to be charged. The electrical 
charge thus communicated to an 
insulated conductor appears to be 
collected about its surface, and to 
be rather dependent on that than 
on the solid content. Thus, if two 
metallic spheres or cylinders, the 
one solid, the other hollow and 
extremely light, be suspended by 
silk lines, or placed on dry insu- 
lating supports, and be charged by 
contacts with an excited tube, the 
attractive energy of each upon any 
light substance presented to it will 
be found quite alike in each. In 
this experiment the insulators must 
be very dry and perfect. 

The best insulating substances 
are of the vitreous and resinous 
class, such as shell-lac, brimstone, 
dry glass rods, vitrified and crys- 
talline bodies: to these may be 
added silk. 

The best conducting substances 
are principally metallic bodies, sa- 
line fluids, and common charcoal. 

It should, however, be here un- 
derstood, that modern researches, 
especially those of Faraday, lead us 
to conclude that there are really 
no substances which perfectly con- 
duct or perfectly obstruct electrical 
action. The insulating and con- 
ducting power is, in fact, a differ- 


ence of degree only : still, the ex- 
treme differences are so great, that 
if classed in relation to such dif- 
ferences, those at the extremes of 
the series admit of being considered 
the one as insulators, the other as 
conductors ; whilst the interme- 
diate terms are made up of sub- 
stances which may be considered 
as imperfect, taken as either. Con- 
versely, every substance is capable 
of excitation by friction; yet the 
differences in this respect are so 
great as to admit of some bodies 
being called electrics and others 
non-electrics, with an intermediate 
class between these extremes, 
which may be termed imperfect 

Series of conductors and insu- 
lators. Metals and concentrated 
acids are found at the conducting 
extremity of such a series, shell- 
lac, brimstone, all vitreous and 
resinous bodies, at the other or 
electric extremity ; whilst the im- 
perfect or intermediate substances 
comprise such matter as common 
earth and stones, dry chalk, mar- 
ble, porcelain, paper, and alkaline 

The attractive power evinced by 
any electrical body in a state of 
excitation, although the first and 
usually the most evident electrical 
effect, is yet not the only force 
which seems to result from this 
curious condition of common mat- 
ter. On a closer examination of 
the phenomena, a new class of 
facts present themselves, of re- 
markable interest. If the excita- 
tion be considerable, and the at- 
tracted body insulated, it will, after 
being drawn into contact with the 
electrified substance, rebound from 
it with great violence, as if repelled 
by some new power, and will not 
be again attracted until it has had 
conducting communication with 
the earth, or some other mass of 
matter capable of reducing it to its 
original condition before the con- 




Conduit, a structure forming a reser- 
voir for water, and from which it 
is drawn for use 

Cone, a solid body having a circular 
base, and its other extremity ter- 
minating in a single point or vertex. 
Cones are either right or oblique 

Cone-plate, a strong plate of cast iron 
fixed vertically to the bed of a lathe, 
with a conical hole in it, to form a 
support for the end of a shaft 
which it is required to bore 

Confessional, a recess or seat in which 
the priest sits to hear the confes- 
sions of penitents 

Conge, another name for the echinus 
or quarter-round, as also for the 
cavetto : the former is called the 
swelling conge, the latter the hol- 
low conge 

Conic sections, the curves formed by 
the intersection of a circular cone 
and a plane ; the former being 
either oblique or right 

Conical points, in turnery, the cones 
fixed in the pillars for supporting 
the body to be turned: that on the 
right hand is called the fore centre, 
and that on the left hand, the back 

Conissinet, the stone which crowns a 
pier, or that lies immediately over 
the capital of the impost, and under 
the sweep. The bed of it is level 
below, and curved above, receiving 
the first rise or spring of the arch 
or vault 

Conisterium, an apartment in the pa- 
laestra, in which sand was kept for 
sprinkling the athletae, after they 
had been anointed 

Connecting-rods, in locomotive en- 
gines, the strong iron rods which 
connect the piston to the driving- 
wheel axle, and thus give motion 
to all the machinery 

Connecting-rods, in locomotive en- 
gines, outside or side rods, those 
which connect together the wheels 
of goods engines. They are seen 
outside the wheels, making an ir- 
regular forward motion, like water- 
men rowing a boat. By connect- 
ing the wheels together, one pair 


cannot slip without the others, 
and the greatest practicable adhe- 
sion is thus obtained 

Connecting-rod straps, in locomotive 
engines, strong pieces of iron bent 
like the letter Cj, which fit the 
ends of the connecting-rod, and 
into which the axle-bearing is fitted 
in two parts. They are attached 
to their respective ends of the rod 
by keys and cotters, which are 
taken out, and the half of the 
bearing also, when a connecting- 
rod has to be put on. The strap 
and half-bearing are then brought 
over the axle or cross-head, the 
other half-bearing put into the 
strap, the end of the rod brought 
up against the bearing, and secured 
by the keys and cotters. Taking 
off a rod is of course the reverse of 
putting one on 

Connecting-rod bearings, in locomo- 
tive engines, the gun-metal or 
composition-metal bearings fitted 
into the straps, to suit the parti- 
cular part they are to work on 

Conning, directing the helmsman in 
steering a vessel 

Conservation, the ceremony of sancti- 
fying or making holy 

Conservatory, a superior kind of 
greenhouse, for preserving curious 
and rare exotic plants. It is made 
with beds of the finest composts, 
into which the trees and plants are 
removed for culture and preserva- 
tion. Its construction is more ca- 
pacious than the ordinary green- 
house, and it is furnished in a supe- 
rior style, provided with a free ad- 
mission of light, and, in addition, 
with flues or boiling-water pipes 
to raise the temperature when ne- 
cessary, and also contrivances for 
the introduction of fresh air 

Consideration (the), w r hich one ought 
to have before he begins to build. 
Palladio says, " The first thing that 
requires our consideration, when 
we are about to build, is the plan, 
and the upright of the edifice we 
propose to erect." Three things, 
according to Vitruvius, are chiefly 



to be considered, without which a 
building cannot be of any value. 
These are, conveniency, solidity, 
and beauty : for no edifice can be 
allowed to be perfect, if it be com- 
modious and not durable; or, if 
being durable, it be subject to 
many inconveniences ; or if having 
both solidity and conveniency, it 
has no beauty or uniformity. 

Consistory court, a spiritual court, 
formerly held in the nave of the 
cathedral church 

Console, a bracket or truss, mostly 
with scrolls or volutes at the two 
ends, of unequal size and con- 
trasted, but connected by a flowing 
line from the back of the upper 
one to the inner convolving face of 
the lower 

Constant white, permanent white, or 
barytic white, is a sulphate of ba- 
rytes, and, when well prepared and 
free from acid, is one of the best 
whites for water-painting, being of 
superior body in water, but desti- 
tute of this quality in oil 

Construction, in architecture : for this 
the chief requisites are, magnitude 
and strength, and the art of distri- 
buting the different forces and 
strains of the parts and materials 
of a building in so scientific a 
manner as to avoid failure and to 
insure durability 

Continuous imposts, according to Pro- 
fessor Willis, are the mouldings of 
an arch which are continued with- 
out interruption down the uprights 
to the ground or base, the impost 
point having no mark or distinc- 
tion of any kind 

Contouring (surveying altitudes and 
levels). This term is applied to 
the outline of any figure, and con- 
sequently to that of any section of 
a solid body ; but when used pro- 
fessionally, in connection with the 
forms of ground, or of works of 
defence, the outline of a horizontal 
section of the ground, or works, is 
alone to be understood by it. 

When the forms of ground, or 
works, are described by contours, 


or horizontal sections, these sec- 
tions are taken at some fixed ver- 
tical interval from each other, 
suited to the scale of the drawing, 
or to the subject in hand ; and the 
distance of each, above or below 
some assumed plane of compari- 
son, is given in figures at the most 
convenient places on the plan. 
When the scale of the drawing is 
about 100 feet to an inch, 2 or 3 
feet will be found a convenient 
vertical interval between the con- 
tours ; and however large the scale 
of the plan, it will scarcely be 
found necessary to obtain contours 
with a less vertical interval than 2 
feet. If the scale of the plan be 
about 250 feet to an inch, or the 
ordinary special survey scale of 4 
chains to an inch, 5 feet will prove 
a convenient vertical interval ; and 
with a horizontal scale of from 500 
to 800 feet per inch, 10 feet may 
be taken as the vertical interval. 

In tracing and surveying the 
contours of ground, the following 
process may be adopted: com- 
plete the survey of the occupation 
of the ground, the streams, &c., 
and determine carefully the alti- 
tudes of the trigonometrical points 
employed above the intended place 
of comparison : take an accurate 
trace from the plot of one of the 
triangles, which, if the distances 
between the trigonometrical points 
are properly proportioned to the 
scale of the plan, will generally be 
a convenient piece in point of size 
to contour : take this trace to the 
ground, and find upon the ground, 
and mark upon the trace, the points 
where each of the intended con- 
tours will cut the boundary lines of 
the triangle. 

Contraction, the effect of cold upon 
a warm body, causing a diminution 
in its size by the particles ap- 
proaching each other 

Contramure, an out-wall built about 
the wall of a city or fortification 

Convent, a building appropriated to 
religious persons ; a nunnery 




Convocation and Convocators, or par- 
liament of tinners. All Stannary 
laws are enacted by the several 
convocations, and carry with them 
all the force and law of acts of 

Coopertorium, the roof of a huilding 

Co-ordinates, in the theory of curves, 
any absciss and its corresponding 

Coping, the reversing course of a 
wall, either flat or sloping on the 
upper surface, to throw off water 

Coppe-house, anciently a tool-house 

Copper, one of the six primitive 
metals, and the most ductile and 
malleable after gold and silver. 
Of this metal and lapis calaminaris 
is made brass, which is compara- 
tively a modern invention 

Copper green (colour) ; the appellation 
of a class rather than of an indi- 
vidual pigment, under which are 
comprehended verdigris, verditer, 
malachite, mineral green, green 
bice, Scheele's green, Schweinfurt 
or Vienna green, Hungary green, 
emerald green, true Brunswick 
green, lake green, mountain green, 
African green, French green, Saxon 
green, Persian green, patent green, 
marine green, Olympian green, &c. 
The general characteristic of these 
greens is brightness of colour, well 
suited to the purposes of house- 
painting, but not adapted to the 
modesty of nature in fine art. 

Coral wood is of a fine red colour, 

hard, and polishable 
Corbel, or Corbeille, a short piece of 
timber or stone let into a wall half 
its length or more, as the burthen 
superimposed may require, to carry 
a weight above it, and projecting 
from the general face of the work : it 
is carved in various fanciful ways ; 
the commonest form is, however, 
that of an ogee 

Corbel, in Gothic architecture, a pro- 
jecting stone or piece of timber 
which supports a superincumbent 

Corbel-table, a row of corbels sup- 
porting a parapet or cornice 


Corbel-table, a cornice supported by 

Corbie steps, steps up the sides of a 
gable, found in old houses in 
Flanders, Holland, &c. 

Corbona, in mining, a dropper from a 
lode in irregular masses 

Core, with the Cornish tinmen, is a 
division of time and labour 

Corinthian Order. The three columns 
in the Campo Vaccino, supposed 
remains of the temple of Jupiter 
Stator, are generally allowed to be 
the most perfect models of the 
Corinthian order amongst the an- 
tiques at Rome. Palladio, in his 
fourth book, where he gives the 
whole profile at large, acknow- 
ledges that he never had seen any 
work better executed, or more deli- 
cately finished ; that its parts are 
beautifully formed, well-propor- 
tioned, and skilfully combined ; all 
which last qualities are certainly 
signified by his Benissimo intesi. 

With these favourable senti- 
ments, it is extraordinary that, in 
his design of the Corinthian order, 
he should have so very considerably 
deviated from this excellent origi- 
nal as scarcely to leave the smallest 
shadow of resemblance. 

Vignola, in his Corinthian pro- 
file, has chiefly imitated the above- 
mentioned fragment, and the inte- 
rior order of the Pantheon, another 
very perfect model. His compo- 
sition is uncommonly beautiful, 
and, without dispute, superior to 
that of any other master : he art- 
fully collected all the perfections 
of his originals, and formed a whole 
far preferable to either of them. 
(For height and proportion, see 
Architecture, Orders.) 
Corner-stones, in architecture, the two 
stones which stand one in each joint 
of the chimney 
Cornice, the projection, consisting of 
several members, which crowns or 
finishes an entablature, or the body 
or part to which it is annexed. The 
cornice used on a pedestal is called 
the cap of the pedestal 




Cornish engine, a single-acting beam 
engine, used for raising water : the 
steam is worked very expansively, 
and used for the down-stroke only, 
to raise an immense weight, fas- 
tened to the pump-rod, at the end 
of the heam : the steam having 
acted for the down-stroke, and the 
entrance-valve being closed, a com- 
munication is formed between the 
top and bottom of the cylinder, by 
lifting a valve in the steam passage, 
called an equilibrium valve : the 
pressures on the piston are thus 
equalized, and the weight acts to 
force the water up, and raise the 

Cornucopia, or horn of plenty: among 
architects, painters, &c., it is repre- 
sented under the figure of a large 
horn, out of which issue fruit, 
flowers, &c. 

Corollary, an inference or deduction 

Coromandel wood, the produce of 
Ceylon and the coast of India, is 
shipped in logs and planks from 
Bombay and Madras ; it is of a red 
hazel-brown colour, handsome for 
furniture wood, and turns well 

Corona, the members constituting the 
uppermost of the three divisions of 
the entablature of a portico, or any 
other building in which columns are 
introduced: this division is termed 

Corona, that flat, square, and massy 
member of a cornice, more usually 
called the drip or larmier, whose 
situation is between the cymatium 
above and the bed-moulding below: 
its use is to carry the water drop 
by drop from the building 

Corporax cloth, a linen cloth or nap- 
kin spread upon the altar, on which 
the host and chalice are placed at 
the mass in the Catholic service 

Corpse-gate, a covered place at the 
entrance to a churchyard, intended 
to shelter the corpse and mourners 
from rain 

Corridor, a gallery or open communi- 
cation to the different apartments 
of a house 

Corsa, the name given by Vitruvius to 

~ 123 

a platband or square fascia whose 
height is more than its projecture 

Cortile, a small court enclosed by the 
divisions or appurtenances of a 

Cortis, in the middle ages, a court 
surrounded by edifices 

Coryceum, a room similar to a tennis- 

Costean pits, in Cornish mining, are 
shallow pits sunk to trace or find tin 

Costeaning, in mining, the discover- 
ing of lodes by sinking pits in their 
vicinity, and drawing transversely 
to their supposed direction 

Cot, in nautical phraseology, a bed- 
frame suspended from the beams 
of the ship, or otherwise 

Cotton, a white woolly or downy 
substance, found in a brown bud, 
produced by a shrub, the leaves of 
which resemble those of the syca- 
more-tree. The bud, which grows 
as large as a pigeon's egg, turns 
black when ripe, and divides at 
top into three parts : the cotton is 
as white as snow, and with the 
heat of the sun swells to the size 
of a pullet's egg. Scripture speaks 
of cotton. 

Cotton manufactures and trade. Cot- 
ton was woven by the Hindoos and 
Chinese many centuries before the 
Christian era. The Egyptians are 
supposed to have imported woven 
cotton before the plant had begun 
to be cultivated in their country; 
and the Romans received woven 
cotton from India long before the 
cotton-plant was known in Europe. 
The extension of the manufacture 
of it has now become enormous. 
The export of cotton goods from 
England, in 1846, was 25,600,693 
in value. 

Cotton spinning: the spinning of cot- 
ton into the form of yarn or thread 
requires many preparatory pro- 
cesses ; but the inventions and im- 
provements in machinery that have 
been effected in recent years have 
rendered the process simple and of 
great national value 

Cotton and Calico printing, the art 




of staining woven fabrics of cotton 
with various figures and colours 
Cotton cultivation and trade. The 
distinctive names by which cotton 
is known in commerce are mostly 
derived from the countries which 
produce it : the exceptions are, sea- 
island cotton, and upland cotton. 
The former of these was first cul- 
tivated in the low sandy islands 
near the coast of Charleston in 
America ; while the latter is grown 
in the inner or upland country. 
The sea-island cotton is the finest 
of the several varieties. The upl and 
is often called Bowled Cotton. 
! Cotton, gun, is prepared with cotton 
wool, and explodes at 400 Fahr. 
Gunpowder explodes at 600 
! Couched, laid close, as in a stratum 
j Couissinet. (See Conissinet.} 
\ Coulisse, any piece of timber which 
has grooves in it ; also pieces of 
wood which hold the floodgates in 
a sluice 

. Counter, that part of a vessel between 
the bottom of the stern and the 
wing transom and buttock 
Counterfort,, a pier, buttress, or 
oblique wall, built up against a wall 
to strengthen and support it 
1 Counter-gauge, in carpentry, a method 
of measuring joints by transferring 
the breadth of a mortise to the 
place on another timber where the 
tenon is to be made 
Counter-lath, in tiling, a lath placed 

by the eye 

Counterpoise, any weight which, 
placed in opposition to another 
weight, produces an equilibrium ; 
but it is more commonly used to 
denote the weight used in the Ro- 
man balance, or steelyard 
Countersinks, in joinery, are bits for 
widening the upper part of a hole 
in wood or iron, for the head of a 
screw or pin, and have a conical 
head. Those for wood have one 
cutter in the conic surface, and 
have the cutting edge more remote 
from the axis of the cone than any 
other part of the surface. Coun- 
tersinks for brass have eleven or 


twelve cutters round the conic sur- 
face, so that the horizontal section 
represents a circular saw. These 
are called rose-countersinks. The 
conic angle at the vertex is about 
90 degrees. Countersinks for iron 
have two cutting edges, forming an 
obtuse angle. 

Count-house, a reckoning-house, in 
Derbyshire ; a house or room on 
the mine used for keeping accounts 
of the products, &c. 

Country residences. There are im- 
portant advantages which deserve 
to be brought into notice, whether 
for comfort and convenience, for 
gratifying taste or fashion. Addi- 
tional rooms appropriated for new 
purposes are often requisite. For- 
merly a gallery, although there were 
no works of art to fill it, was a ne- 
cessary part of a mansion ; of late 
years, the billiard-room and the 
conservatory enter into the arrange- 
ments of an architect ; and a suit 
of well-planned nursery-rooms have 
been made a necessary part of the 
plan of a country mansion. The 
gallery is again about to resume 
its importance, and perhaps we may 
hereafter imitate the Romans in 
having covered walks contiguous 
to the house, in order to enjoy 
fresh air in the many rainy and 
snowy days at a country residence 
in an English winter. The irregu- 
lar style admits of such additions, 
and loses nothing of the picturesque 
effect. The exterior decorations of 
terraces, parterres, stairs of com- 
munication, and different gardens 
filled with groups of the many flow- 
ery shrubs and plants, are admirably 
in harmony with this style of archi- 
tecture. While we thus decorate 
closely around the house, it becomes 
less necessary to sacrifice so much 
to the park. The masonry of such 
irregular architecture requires not 
the expensive labour bestowed on a 
Grecian or Roman mansion. The 
whole should be in rough rubble- 
work, excepting the parapets, the 
corners, the windows, and doors. 




Many very good designs of castel- 
lated dwellings have been, in the 
execution, deprived of their effect, 
by being built of smooth, hewn free- 
stone. If circular or square towers 
are introduced in a composition of 
the irregular style, they should, in 
every case, be of great dimensions, 
as much for their being applied to 
useful rooms, as to produce that 
grandeur of appearance which bulk 
in towers always gives. 
Country seats (the) of the Italians have 
been copied by most civilized na- 
tions of Europe; celebratedby poets, 
visited and admired by travellers : 
they have not, however, been de- 
scribed or represented as they de- 
serve. They are so arranged as to 
produce the best effect, and ad- 
vantage of the nature of the site 
has been taken with admirable skill. 
The regularities of the gardens ac- 
company the decoration, and sup- 
port the architecture. (See Parker's 
'Villa Rustica,' recently published.) 
Couple-close, a pair of spars of a roof; 
also used by heralds as a diminu- 
tive of the chevron 
Coupled columns. When, from the 
extent between columns sometimes 
necessary for the introduction of 
doors, windows, niches, or other 
decorations, neither the eustylos 
nor the diastylos intercolumniation 
can be used, coupled columns are fre- 
quentlyintroduced. In this case two 
sistylosintercolumniations are used; 
the column which would otherwise 
occupy the middle of the space being 
brought to the distance of only half 
a diameter (or sufficient room for 
the projection of the capitals) from 
the extreme column. The middle 
space will then be three diameters 
and a half. This species has been 
called araeosistylos. When buildings 
are small, the intercolumniations 
will not require such particular at- 
tention to the foregoing rules, for 
columns should never be placed 
nearer to each other than 3 feet, 
which will allow for the easy pas- 
sage of a bulky person. 


Coupling, in machinery, is the name 
given to various arrangements by 
which the parts of a machine may 
be connected or disconnected at 
pleasure, or by which a machine j 
may be disengaged from, or re- ! 
engaged with, a revolving wheel or 
shaft, through which it receives ; 
motion from a steam engine, water- 
wheel, or other prime mover 
Couplings, in mill- work: it is fre- 
quently necessary to convey motion 
much farther than would be prac- 
ticable by any one shaft, and there- 
fore often requisite to connect two 
or more shafts together. These 
connections are denominated coup- 
lings, and may be divided into two 
classes : 1st, Those having two bear- 
ings; 2ndly, Those having one bear- 
ing. Couplings having two bearings 
have been long in use, and before 
those having one bearing, and are 
generally more simple in their con- 

Coupling-box, a metal box for joining 
the ends of two shafts, so that they 
may revolve together 
Course, a continuous range of stones 
or bricks, of uniform height, in the 
wall of a building 

Course, in Cornish mining, is a tin 
or copper course; a phrase for work- 
ing of the lode 

Courses, sails that hang from a ship's 
lower yards : the fore-sail is called 
the fore-course, and the main-sail 
the main-course 

Courts of Justice : there were in Rome 
twelve halls or courts of justice, 
where causes were heard and tried : 
they were adorned with statues, 
fine columns, and porticoes with 
double rows of columns 
Cove, a cave, a recess ; any kind of 
concave moulding; the concavity 
of an arch or of a ceiling 
Coved ceiling, the upper surface of an 
apartment formed in an arched or 
coved shape at its junction with 
the side walls 

Cover, in slating, the part of the slate 
that is hidden ; the exposed part 
being called the margin 




Cover-way, in roofing, the recess or 
internal angle left to receive the 

Come or Covey, a pantry 

Coving, the exterior projection of the 
upper parts of a building beyond 
the limits of the ground-plan 

Coving, a term applied to houses, &c., 
that project over the ground-plot 

Coving of a fire-place,the vertical sides, 
inclining backwards and inwards, 
for the purpose of reflecting the 

Cowl, a cover for the top of a chim- 
ney, made to turn round by the 
wind, and used to facilitate the 
escape of smoke 

Coxswain, the person who steers a 
boat, and has charge of her 

Crab, a wooden apparatus, something 
like a capstan,butnotfurnishedwith 
a drum-head ; it is used for similar 
purposes, with holes made to insert 
the bars 

Crab, a machine with three claws, 
used to launch ships, to heave them 
into the dock, or off the quay 

Cradle, a frame placed under the bot- 
tom of a ship, in order to conduct 
her steadily into the water when 
she is to be launched, at which time 
it supports her weight while she 
slides down the descent or sloping 
passage, called the ways, which are 
for this purpose daubed with soap 
or tallow 

Craft, a general name for all sorts of 
vessels employed to load or dis- 
charge merchant ships, or to carry 
alongside or return the guns, stores, 
or provisions of a man-of-war: such 
are lighters, hoys, barges, &c. 

Cramp, a short bar of iron, with its 
ends bent so as to form three sides 
of a parallelogram : at one end a 
set-screw is inserted, so that two 
pieces of metal, being placed be- 
tween, can be held firmly together 
by the screw 

Crane, a machine used for hoisting and 
lifting stones, ponderous weights, 
and heavy goods, principally at 
wharfs and warehouses, now much 
employed for hoisting heavy build- 


ing materials ; also as travelling 
cranes on framed scaffolding, for 
the assistance of masons, brick- 
layers, and other artizans in build- 
ing, saving the time and labour 
formerly so much prolonged in the 
execution of the work to be done. 
(For a succinct account of all kinds 
of cranes, see Glynn's work in the 
' Rudimentary Series.' ) 

Cranes, pieces of iron or timber at a 
vessel's sides, used to stow boats 
or spars upon 

Crank, the condition of a vessel when 
she is inclined to lean over a good 
deal, and cannot bear much sail: 
this may be owing to her construc- 
tion, or to her stowage 

Crank, the arms projecting from the 
main shaft of an engine, joined to- 
gether at the outer ends 

Crank, in mechanics, a square piece 
projecting from a spindle, serving 
by its rotation to raise and fall the 
pistons of engines : it also denotes 
the iron support for a lantern, and 
the iron made fast to the stock of 
a bell 

Crank, in machinery, is a bend in an 
axle, by which a reciprocating mo- 
tion in a rod is made to produce a 
revolving motion of an axle and of 
a wheel which may be connected 
with it 

Crank, in turning, that part of the 
axle of the fly which is bent into 
three knees, or right angles, and 
three proj ecting parts : one of the 
parts is parallel to the axis, and 
has the upper part of the crank- 
hook collared round it 

Crank-axle, the driving axle con- 
nected to the piston-rods of a loco- 
motive engine 

Crank-hook, in turning, sometimes 
also called the connecting-rod, as it 
connects the treadle and the fly 

Crank-pin, the cylindrical piece join- 
ing the ends of the crank arms, 
and attached to the connecting- 
rod, or, in vibrating engines, to 
the piston-rod : if the crank has 
only one arm. the pin projects 
from the end of it 




Crayon, a chalk ; a species of mate- 
rial for drawing. Black chalk, 
found in Italy, white chalk, found 
in France, and red chalk, form 
three of the best varieties of cray- 
ons : each has its own peculiar 
value as a drawing material. 

Creazes, in mining, the work or tin 
in the middle part of the buddle or 

Credence, the small table at the side 
of the altar, or communion table, 
on which the bread and wine were 
formerly placed before they were 

Creeper, an iron instrument like a 
grapnel, with four claws, used for 
dragging the bottom of a harbour 
or river, to find anything lost 

Crenelle, the embrasure of a battle- 
ment, or loopholes 

Crepido, according to Pliny, any 
raised basement upon which other 
things are built or supported, as of 
a temple, altar, obelisk, &c. 

Cresset, a candlestick or lamp to con- 
tain a light 

Crest, a term in heraldry ; the orna- 
ment of the helmet 

Creste, the ornamented finishing sur- 
rounding a screen or canopy of a 

Crest-tiles, those used to cover the 
ridge of a roof, upon which they fit 
on the principle of a saddle 

Cringle, a short piece of rope with 
each end spliced into the bolt-rope 
of a sail, confining an iron ring or 

Criplings, short spars at the sides of 

Crista, a crest ; the apex or highest 
part of a shrine 

Crocket, an ornament of foliage or 
animals running up the back of a 
pediment, arch-pinnacle, or spire, 
from the corbels below to the finial 
above, in which latter the crockets 
on both sides appear to merge 

Crockets, projecting leaves, flowers, 
or bunches of foliage, used in 
Gothic architecture to decorate the 
angles of spires, canopies, pinna- 
cles, &c. 


Cromlech, in British antiquity, high, 
broad, and flat stones, raised upon 
other stones set on end, apparently 
for the purpose of an altar 

Crop, ore or tin of the first quality, 
after it is dressed or cleaned for 

Crosette, a truss, or console, in the 
flank or return of an architrave of 
a door, window, or other aperture 
in a wall 

Crosettes, in decoration, the trusses 
or consoles on the flanks of the ar- 
chitrave, under the cornice 

Cross, a gibbet constructed of two 
pieces of wood placed transversely, 
whether they cross each other at 
right angles at the top, like a T, 
or in the middle of their length, 
like an X 

Cross, the symbol of the Christian 

Cross, cross crusse, cross bar, cross 
goffan, cross lode, either a vein of 
a metallic nature, or a soft earth, 
clay, or flookan, like a vein, which 
unheads and intersects the true 

Cross-bars, round bars of iron bent 
at each end, used as levers to turn 
the shank of an anchor 

Cross-chocks, pieces of timber fayed 
across the deadwood amidships, to 
make good the deficiency of the 
heels of the lower futtocks 

Cross (church), or a Greek cross, that 
in which the length of the trans- 
verse part is equal to that of the 
nave ; so called because most of 
the Greek churches were built in 
that form 

Cross (church), or a Latin cross, that 
whose nave is longer than the cross 
part, as in most Gothic churches 

Cross-grained stuff', in joinery, wood 
having its fibres running in con- 
trary positions to the surfaces, and 
which consequently cannot be made 
perfectly smooth when planed in 
one direction, without turning it or 
turning the plane 

Cross-heads, in locomotive engines 
the part of the motion into which 
the piston-rod is fitted on the cy- 




Under side and the connecting-rod 
attached on the driving wheel axle 

Cross-head guides, in locomotive en- 
gines, the parallel bars between 
which the cross-head moves in a 
right line with the cylinder and 
driving wheel axle: they are also 
called motion Mrs 

Cross-head blocks, in locomotive en- 
gines, the parts which slide between 
the parallel guides. The ends of 
the cross-head are fitted into these 
blocks. The cross-head, cross- 
head guides, and block, constitute 
what is called ' the motion of the 

Cross-head, in the steam engine, a 
cross-bar fixed centrally on the top 
of a piston-rod, and connected to 
the beam : its motion is confined 
to a direct line by guides at each 
end; or, in the side-lever and beam 
engines, by an apparatus called a 
' parallel motion' 

Cross-jack : the cross-jack yard is the 
lower yard on the mizen mast 

Cross-spales, pieces of timber placed 
across a vessel, and nailed to the 
frames, to keep the sides together 
until the knees are bolted 
| Cross-somer, a beam of timber 
i Cross-springer, in groined vaulting, 
the rib which extends diagonally 
from one pier to another 

Cross-trees, pieces of oak supported 
by the cheeks and trestle-trees at 
the mast-heads, to sustain the tops 
on the lower mast, and to spread 
the top-gallant rigging at the top- 
mast head 

Cross vaulting is formed by the inter- 
section of two or more simple 
vaults of arch-work 

Croud, or Crowde, a crypt, or under- 
croft of a church 

! Crow, in mechanics, an iron lever, 
made with a sharp point at one 
end, and two claws at the other ; 
used in heaving and purchasing 
great weights 

Crow-foot, a number of small lines 
rove through to suspend an awning 

Crown, in geometry, a plane ring in- 


eluded between two concentric 
perimeters, generated by the mo- 
tion of part of a right line round 
the centre, to which the moving 
part is not contiguous 

Crown of an anchor, the place where 
the arms are joined to the shank 

Crown of an arch, that line or point 
upon its surface which is the 
highest or most elevated from its 

Crown-post, the middle post of a 
trussed roof 

Crown-ivheels. Circular motion is 
communicated at right angles by 
means of teeth or cogs situated 
parallel to the axis of the wheel. 
Wheels thus formed are denomi- 
nated ' crown' or ' contrate wheels :' 
they act either upon a common 
pinion or upon a lantern. 

Crozier, the pastoral staff of a bishop 
or mitred abbot, having the head 
curled round somewhat in the man- 
ner of a shepherd's crook 

Crucifix, a representation of our 
blessed Saviour on the cross 

Crust ce, figures or images in low 
relief, embossed upon plate 

Crust arius, an artist; an engraver for 
inlaid work, &c. 

Crutch, a knee or piece of knee 
timber, placed inside a vessel to 
secure the heels of the cant-tim- 
bers abaft 

Cryophorus, an instrument by which 
the freezing qualities of the atmo- 
sphere may be ascertained 

Crypt, a vault beneath a building, 
either entirely or partly under- 
ground, frequently under churches 
and cathedrals 

Crypta, or Crypt, among the Romans, 
any long narrow vault, whether 
wholly or partially below the level 
of the earth 

Crypto Portico, an enclosed gallery 
or portico having a wall with 
openings or windows in it, instead 
of columns at the side 

Ctesibica machina, a double-actioned 
forcing pump invented by Ctesibius 
of Alexandria 

Cuare (Cornish), a quarry of stones 




Cubature, the cubing of a solid, or 
measuring of the space compre- 
hended in a solid, as in a cone, 
pyramid, cylinder, &c. 
Cube, in geometry, a regular or solid 
body consisting of six square and 
six equal faces and sides, and its 
angles all right, and therefore 

Cube, or Hexahedron, a solid regular 
body, consisting of six equal square 

Cubes, or Cube numbers in arithmetic, 
and the theory of numbers, are 
those whose cube root is a com- 
plete integer ; or they are numbers 
produced by multiplying a given 
number twice into itself, or by the 
multiplication of three equal fac- 

Cube root, of a number, say 8, the 
number which multiplied into itself 
twice will produce 8 namely, 2 ; 
or it is that number by which, if 
you divide a number twice, the 
quotient will be equal to itself 
Cubic foot of water, what a vessel 
1 foot square and 1 foot deep will 

Cubicule, among the Romans, a bed- 
chamber, tent, or balcony 
Cubiculum, according to Pliny, a 
room furnished with a sofa or bed 
Cubile, the ground-work or lowest 

course of stones in a building 
Cubit, a measure used among the 
ancients, and which the Hebrews 
call ' amma,' the mother of other 
measures. A cubit was originally 
the distance from the elbow to the 
extremity of the middle finger; 
which is the fourth part of a well- 
proportioned man's stature. 
Cubital, a bolster or cushion for the 

elbow to rest upon, for invalids 
Cuboch, a name for the unit or in- 
teger of a power, being the effect 
produced by one cubic foot of 
water in one foot perpendicular 

'uckold's-neck, a knot by which a 
a rope is secured to a spar, the 
two parts of the rope crossing 
each other and seized together 

129 F 5 

Cuddy, a cabin in the fore part of a 

Cullis, a gutter in a roof; any groove 
or channel 

Culm, stone coal, resembling the Kil- 
kenny coal of Ireland 

Culmen, the roof of a house or 

Culverhouse, a dove-cot or pigeon- 

Culvert, an arched drain for the pas- 
sage of water 

Culvert, an arched passage or bridge 
beneath a road, canal, or railway 

Culver-tail, to dove-tail 

Cuneus, the division of the audience 
part of a theatre comprehended 
between two adjoining scalaria or 
staircases which lead from one 
prsecinctio to another : so called 
from its form, which resembles a 
wedge. The foremost cunei were 
termed ' cavae prima ;' the middle, 
' cavse media ;' and the uppermost, 
' cavae summa.' The whole of 
the audience part, exclusive of 
the orchestra, was likewise called ' 

Cupboards answered in some respects | 
to the sideboards of the pre- 
sent day. They were sometimes 
mere planched tops, resting on 1 
trestles, or fixed with legs against 
the wall ; at others, framed on 
stages, rising one above another, 
and moveable : these were called 
'joined cupboards,' occasionally 
carved, and, like tables, covered 
with carpets. At the marriage of 
Prince Arthur, son of Henry VII., 
in the hall was a triangular cup- 
board, five stages high, set with ' 
plate, valued at JE1200, entirely j 
ornamental ; and in the " utter 
chamber," where the princess 
dined, was another cupboard, " set 
with gold plate, garnished with 
stone and pearl," and valued at 

Cupola, a small room, either circular 
or polygonal, standing on the top 
of a dome : by some it is called 
a lantern 
Cupola, a spherical or spheroidal 




covering to a building, or any part 
of it 

Cup-valve, for a steam-engine : it re- 
sembles a conical valve, made to fit 
a cover in the form of a vase or of 
the portion of a sphere 

Curia, in architecture ; the building 
in which the highest council of 
the Roman state assembled, des- 
cribed by Vitruvius as being ad- 
jacent to the agora or forum 

Cur ling -stuff, in joinery, that which 
is produced by the winding or 
coiling of the fibres round the 
boughs of a tree, when they begin 
to shoot out of the trunk 

Current, a stream or flux of water in 
any direction. The setting of the 
current is that point of the com- 
pass towards which the waters 
run ; and the drift of a current is 
the rate it runs per hour. 

Curtilage, a term formerly applied to 
the division or boundary of manor- 
ial lands 

Curve, in geometry, a line wherein 
the several points of which it con- 
sists tend several ways, or are 
posited towards different quarters 

Curvilinear, consisting of curved lines 

Cushion-capital, the capital of a co- 
lumn so sculptured as to resemble 
a cushion pressed down by the 
weight of its entablature 

Cushions and window -pillows were, in 
Tudor times, stuffed not unlike 
the woolsack of the lord chancellor 
in round, square, and oblong 
shapes, covered with carpet- work, 
velvet, or embroidery; the family 
armsfrequentlysupplyingthe device 

Cusp, an ornament generally in Gothic 
windows or doors : it is to be found 
in the concave bends of stone-work 

Cusps, projecting points forming the 
featherings or foliation in Gothic 
tracery, archery, panels, &c. 

Cut, in mining, to intersect a vein, 
branch, or lode, by driving hori- 
zontally or sinking perpendicularly 
at right angles 

Cutter, a small boat ; also a kind of 

Cutting. Cutting instruments act in 


dividing bodies upon the same 
principle as the wedge. The blade 
of the instrument is in general a 
thin wedge, but the edge itself is 
usually much more obtuse. 

Cutwater, in a ship, is the sharp part 
of the head under the beak or figure 

Cycle, a round of time ; a space in 
which the same revolution begins 
again ; a periodical space of time 

Cycle, lunar, a period of nineteen 

Cycle, solar, a period of twenty-eight 
years, after which the days of the 
month return to the same days of 
the week 

Cyclograph, or Arcograph, an instru- 
ment for drawing arcs of circles 
without centres, used in architec- 
tural and engineering drawings 
when the centres are too distant 
to be conveniently accessible 

Cycloidal curves are defined as fol- 
lows : 1. When a circle is made to 
rotate on a rectilinear basis, the 
figure described on the plane of 
the basis by any point in the plane 
of the circle is called a trochoid : 
a circle concentric with the gene- 
rating circle, and passing through 
the describing circle. 2. If the 
describing point is in the circum- 
ference of the rotating circle, the 
two circles coincide, and the curve 
is called a cycloid. 3. If a circular 
basis be substituted for a rectilinear 
one, the trochoid will become an 
epitrochoid, and the cycloid an 

Cyclopian Architecture, a class of 
building supposed to have preceded 
the invention of the classic orders 
in Greece, and attributed to the 

Cyclopean wall, the oldest example of 
mason-work in Italy : in town-walls 
only has this style of building been 
used. The history of its origin is 
obscure. A large irregular mass 
of stone, having three, four, five, 
or more sides, hewn only on the 
irregular sides to be built upon, 
begins a wall : to this mass others 
are added, the sides of which are 




made to fit the irregular sides of 
the first block ; and on these again 
others of similar forms are built in 
the same manner. 
Cyclostylar, relating to a structure 
composed of a circular range of 
columns without a core; with a 
core, the range would be a peristyle 
Cylinder, a body having two flat sur- 
faces and one circular: for in- 
stance, a roller is a cylinder 
Cylinder, a roller used for levelling and 
condensating the ground in agri- 
cultural and other operations 
Cylinders, in steam engines, hollow 
cylindrical vessels : within the cy- 
linder the steam exerts its power 
upon the piston, which, by means 
of its rod, transmits it to the 
other parts of the engine 
Cylinders, in locomotive engines, 
hollow vessels, usually made of cast 
iron, and bored out accurately, into 
which pistons are fitted steam- 
tight, yet easily moveable by the 
pressure of the steam 
Cylinder cocks, in steam engines, 
cocks placed in convenient parts 
of the cylinder for admitting oil to 
lubricate the piston, or by which 
to blow out the condensed steam, 
or any deposit in the cylinders 
Cylinder cover, in steam engines, the 
lid bolted to a flanch round the top 
of a cylinder, so as to be perfectly 
steam-tight : it has a stuffing-box 
cast in the centre, through which 
the piston-rod alternates 
Cylindrical vault, a vault without 
groins, resting upon two parallel 


ACTYLUS, aGreek measure of length, 
the sixteenth part of an English foot 
lado, a term for the die or plane 
face of a pedestal. The dado em- 
ployed in the interior of buildings 
is a continuous pedestal, with a 
plinth and base moulding, and a 
cornice or dado moulding sur- 
mounting the die. 


Cylindrical walling is that erecte( 
upon a circular plan, forming 
cylinder, or a part less than a cy 
linder, according as the plan is a 
entire circumference or a less por 

Cyling, anciently ceiling. 
Cyma, called also cymatium, its nam 
arising from its resemblance to 
wave ; a moxilding which is hollo\ 
in its upper part, and swelling be 
low. There are two sorts, th 
Cyma recta, just described, anc 
the Cyma reversa, whose uppe 
part swells, whilst the lower par 
is hollow. 
Cymatium, a moulding whose section 
or profile is convex below and con 
cave above, somewhat resembling 
the letter S 
Cymophane, a mineral of a green 
colour, resembling the chrysobery 
Cypress-tree, one of the evergreens 
very proper to mix with pines anc 
firs in forming clumps. The wood 
of the cypress is very valuable, 
when grown to a size fit for planks, 
which dimension it attains in as 
short a time as oak. It was much 
used by the ancients, and was em- 
ployed in the original doors of St. 
Peter's at Rome, which, on being 
replaced, after six hundred years, 
by gates of brass, were found to be 
perfectly free from decay, and with- 
in to have retained part of the ori- 
ginal odour of the wood. 
Cyrtostyle, a circular projecting por- 

Cyzicenus, anciently a hall decorated 
with sculpture 


Dado, the solid block or cube forming 
the body of a pedestal, in classical 
architecture, between the base 
mouldings and cornice; an archi- 
tectural arrangement of mouldings, 
&c. round the lower part of the 
walls of a room 

Dagger, in ship-building, a piece of 
timber that crosses all the poppets 




of the bulge-ways, to keep them 
together: the plank that secures 
the heads of the poppets is called 
the dagger-plank 

Dagger knees are lodging knees, with 
side arms cast down and bolted 
through the clamp : they are placed 
at the lower decks of some ships, 
instead of hanging knees, to pre- 
serve as much stowage in the hold 
as possible 

Dairy-house, a place for keeping milk 

Dais, in early domestic architecture, 
the chief seat at the high board or 
principal table (cross-table) in a 
baronial hall; also the principal 
table itself, and the raised part of 
the floor on which it is placed 

Dais, a canopy to cover an altar, 
throne, or tribunal; the chief or 
upper table in a monastery 

Dam, a bank or obstruction built 
across a river or stream, for the 
purpose of raising the level of the 
water on the upper side of it. 
Dams built for the purpose of in- 
land navigation, or for that of se- 
curing a water power, may be con- 
sidered as having a more permanent 

Damascus steel, a sort of steel brought 
from the Levant, greatly esteemed 
for the manufacture of cutting in- 

Damasquine, a term applied to orna- 
mental work of gold or silver, in- 
crusted on iron or steel 

Damonico or Monicon, an iron ochre, 
being a compound of terra di sienna 
and Roman ochre, burnt, and hav- 
ing all their qualities : it is rather 
more russet in hue than the orange 
de Mars, has considerable transpa- 
rency, is rich and durable in colour, 
and affords good flesh tints 
i Damper, a valve placed in a chimney, 
to diminish the draught when the 
heat is too intense 

Damper, in locomotive engines, a kind 
of iron Venetian blind, fixed to the 
smoke-box end of the boiler, in 
front of the tubes : it is shut down 
when the engine is standing, and 
thus stops the draught and econo- 


mizes fuel ; but it is opened when 
the engine is running 

Damps : various kinds of permanently 
elastic fluids generated in mines 
are thus named by the miners : 
choke-damps consist mostly of 
carbonic acid gas, and fire-damps 
of carburetted hydrogen gas 

Dancette, in heraldry, zigzag or 
chevron fret; seen in Norman 

Data useful in various calculations of 
the properties of materials. [The 
data correspond to the mean tem- 
perature and pressure of the atmo- 
sphere ; the materials are assumed 
to be dry, and the temperature is 
measured by Fahrenheit's scale.] 

AIR. Specific gravity, 0-0012; 
weight of a cubic foot, 0-0753 ft., 
or 527 grains (Shuckburgh) ; 13*3 
cubic feet, or 17 cylindric feet of 
air, weigh 1 ft>. ; it expands -^ or 
00208 of its bulk at 32 by the 
addition of one degree of heat 
(Dulong and Petit). 

ASH. Specific gravity, 0'76 ; 
weight of a cubic foot, 47'5fts. ; 
weight of a bar 1 foot long and 1 
inch square, 0-33 ft. ; will bear 
without permanent alteration a 
strain of 3540 fts. upon a square 
inch, and an extension of -^^ of its 
length ; weight of modulus of elas- 
ticity for a base of an inch square, 
1,640,000 fts. ; height of modulus 
of elasticity, 4,970,000 feet; mo- 
dulus of resilience, 7'6 ; specific 
resilience, 10. (Calculated from 
Barlow's experiments.) 

Compared with cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0-23 ; its extensibi- 
lity, 2-6 ; and its stiffness, 0-089. 

ATMOSPHERE. Mean pressure of, 
at London, 28-89 inches of mercury 
= 14'18fts. upon a square inch. 
(Royal Society.) The pressure of 
the atmosphere is usually estimated 
at 30 inches of mercury, which is 
very nearly 14f fts. upon a square 
inch, and equivalent to a column 
of water 34 feet high. 

BEECH. Specific gravity, 0*696 
weight of a cubic foot, 45-3 fts. 


weight of a bar 1 foot long and 
1 inch square, 0'315 ft.; will bear 
without permanent alteration on a 
square inch, 2360 fts., and an ex- 
tension of ^3^5- of its length; weight 
of modulus of elasticity for a base 
of an inch square, 1, 345,000 fts. ; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
4,600,000 feet ; modulus of resi- 
lience, 4-14; specific resilience, 6. 
(Calculated from Barlow's Experi- 

Compared with cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0'15 ; its extensibi- 
lity, 2-1; and its stiffness, 0-073. 

BRASS, cast. Specific gravity, 
8-37; weight of a cubicfoot,523fts.; 
weight of a bar 1 foot long and 
1 inch square, 3 '63 fts. ; expands 
Sagoo of its length by one degree 
of heat (Troughton); melts at 1869 
(Daniell) ; cohesive force of a square 
inch, 18,000 fts. (Rennie); will bear 
on a square inch without perma- 
nent alteration, 6700 fts., and an 
extension in length of 7-^33-; weight 
of modulus of elasticity for a base 
of an inch square, 8,930,000 fts. ; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
2,460,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, 5 ; specific resilience, 0-6 

Compared with cast iron as 
unity, its strength is 0'435 ; its 
extensibility, 0*9 ; and its stiffness, 

BRICK. Specific gravity, 1-841; 
weight of a cubic foot, 115 fts. ; 
absorbs -^ of its weight of water ; 
cohesive force of a square inch, 
275 fts. (Tredgold) ; is crushed by 
a force of 562 fts. on a square inch 

BRICK-WORK. Weight of a cubic 
foot of newly built, 117 fts. ; weight 
of a rod of new brick-work, 16 

BRIDGES. When a bridge is 
covered with people, it is about 
equivalent to a load of 120 fts. on 
a superficial foot ; and this may be 
esteemed the greatest possible ex- 
traneous load that can be collected 
on a bridge ; while one incapable 



of supporting this load cannot be 
deemed safe. 

BRONZE. See Gun-metal. 

CAST IRON. Specific gravity, 
7'207 ; weight of a cubic foot, 
450 fts. ; a bar 1 foot long and 1 
inch square weighs 3'2 fts. nearly ; 
it expands T ^oo- of its length by 
one degree of heat (Roy) ; greatest 
change of length in the shade in 
this climate, yyVs"'' greatest change 
of lengthwhen exposed tosun'srays, 
-j^; melts at 3479 (Daniell), 
and shrinks in cooling from -^ to 
^ of its length (Muschet) ; is 
crushed by a force of 93,000 fts. 
upon a square inch (Rennie) ; will 
bear without permanent alteration, 
15,300 fts. upon a square inch, and 
an extension of -j^W of its length ; 
weight of modulus of elasticity for 
a base 1 inch square, 1 8,400,000fts.; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
5,750,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, 12- 7 ; specific resilience, 
1-76 (Tredgold). 

CHALK. Specific gravity, 2-315; 
weight of a cubic foot, 144' 7 fts. ; 
is crushed by a force of 500 fts. on 
a square inch. (Rennie.) 

CLAY. Specific gravity, 2-0 ; 
weight of a cubic foot, 125 fts. 

COAL, Newcastle. Specific gra- 
vity, 1-269 ; weight of a cubic foot, 
79-31 fts. A London chaldron of 
36 bushels weighs about 28 cwt., 
whence a bushel is 87 fts. (but is 
usually rated at 84 fts.) A New- 
castle chaldron, 53 cwt. (Smea- 

COPPER. Specific gravity, 8'75 
(Hatchett) ; weight of a cubic foot, 
549 fts.; weight of a bar 1 foot long 
and 1 inch square, 3'81 fts. ; ex- 
pands in length by one degree of 
h ea t> lo/aoo (Smeaton) ; melts at 
2548 (Daniell) ; cohesive force of 
a square inch, when hammered, 
33,000 fts. (Rennie). 

EARTH, common. Specific gra- 
vity, 1-52 to 2-00 ; weight of a 
cubic foot, from 95 to 125 fts. 

ELM. Specific gravity, 0-544 ; 
weight of a cubic foot, 34 fts. 




weight of a bar 1 foot long and 1 
inch square, 0-236 ft. ; will bear 
on a square inch without perma- 
nent alteration, 3240 fts., and an 
extension in length of ^j-^ ; weight 
of modulus of elasticity for a base 
of an inch square, 1, 340,000 fts. ; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
5,680,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, 7 '8 7 ; specific resilience, 
14-4. (Calculated from Barlow's 

Compared with cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0-21 ; its extensi- 
bility, 2-9 ; and its stiffness, 0-073. 

FIR, red or yellow. Specific gra- 
vity, 0-557 ; weight of a cubic foot, 
34-8 fts. ; weight of a bar 1 foot 
long and 1 inch square, 0-242 ft. ; 
will bear on a square inch without 
permanent alteration, 4290 fts. = 
2 tons nearly, and an extension in 
length of %$$ ; weight of modulus 
of elasticity for a base of an inch 
square, 2,016,000 fts. ; height of 
modulus of elasticity, 8,330,000 
feet; modulus of resilience, 9-13; 
specific resilience, 16'4. (Tred- 

Compared with cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0'3 ; its extensibi- 
lity, 2-6, and its stiffness, 0-1154, 

FIR, white. Specific gravity, 0-4 7; 
weight of a cubic foot, 29'3 fts. ; 
weight of a bar 1 foot long and 
1 inch square, 0-204 ft.; will bear 
on a square inch without perma- 
nent alteration, 3630 fts., and an 
extension in length of -5^. ; weight 
of modulus of elasticity for a base 
of an inch square, 1,830,000 fts. ; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
8,970,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, 7'2 ; specific resilience, 15-3. 

Compared with cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0-23 ; its extensibi- 
lity, 2-4 ; and its stiffness, 0-1. 

FLOORS. The weight of a super- 
ficial foot of a floor is about 40 fts. 
when there is a ceiling, counter- 
floor, and iron girders. When a 
floor is covered with people, the 


load upon a superficial foot may be 
calculated at 120 fts.: therefore, 
120 + 40 = 160 fts. on a superficial 
foot is the least stress that ought 
to be taken in estimating the 
strength for the parts of a floor of 
a room. 

FORCE. See Gravity, Horse, &c. 

GRANITE, Aberdeen. Specific 
gravity, 2-625 ; weight of a cubic 
foot, 164 fts.; is crushed by a force 
of 10-910 fts. upon a square inch. 

GRAVEL. Weight of a cubic 
foot, about 120 fts. 

GRAVITY generates a velocity 
of 32 feet in a second in a body 
falling from rest ; space described 
in the first second, 16^ feet. 

GUN-METAL, cast (copper 8 
parts, tin 1). Specific gravity, 
8-153; weight of a cubic foot, 
509 fts. ; weight of a bar 1 foot 
long and 1 inch square, 3-54 fts. 
(Tredgold) ; expands in length by 
1 of heat, flflpgo (Smeaton) ; will 
bear on a square inch without per- 
manent alteration, 10,000 fts., and 
an extension in length of -^^ ; 
weight of modulus of elasticity for 
a base 1 inch square, 9,873,000 fts.; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
2,790,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, and specific resilience, not 
determined (Tredgold). 

Compared with cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0-65 ; its extensibi- 
lity, 1-25 ; and its stiffness, 0-535. 

HORSE, of average power, pro- 
duces the greatest effect in draw- 
ing a load when exerting a force 
of 187ifts. with a velocity of 2 
feet per second, working 8 hours 
in a day. (Tredgold.) A good 
horse can exert a force of 480 fts. 
for a short time. (Desaguliers.) 
In calculating the strength for 
horse machinery, the horse's power 
should be considered 400 fts. 

IRON, cast. See Cast Iron. 

Iron, malleable. Specific gravity, 
7'6 (Muschenbroek) ; weight of a 
cubic foot, 475 fts. ; weight of a 
bar 1 foot long and 1 inch square, 




3-3 fts. ; ditto, when hammered, 
3-4 fts.; expands in length by lof 
heat TTsVoo- ( Smeaton ) ; good 
English iron will bear on a square 
inch without permanent alteration, 
17,800 fts. = 8 tons nearly, and an 
extension in length of ^ Q ; cohe- 
sive force diminished ^oW D J r an 
elevation 1 of temperature; weight 
of modulus of elasticity for a base 
of an inch square, 24,920,000 fts. ; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
7,550,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, and specific resilience, not 
determined (Tredgold). 

Comparedwith cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 1-12; its extensibi- 
lity, 0-86 ; and its stiffness, 1-3. 

LARCH. Specific gravity, '560 ; 
weight of a cubic foot, 35 fts. ; 
weight of a bar 1 foot long and 
1 inch square, 0-243 ft. ; will bear 
on a square inch without perma- 
nent alteration, 2065 fts., and an 
extension in length of -^^ ; weight 
of modulus of elasticity for a base 
of an inch square, 10,074,000 fts. ; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
4,415,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, 4; specific resilience, 7*1. 
(Calculated from Barlow's Experi- 

Compared with cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0-136 ; its extensi- 
bility, 2-3 ; and its stiffness, 0-058. 

LEAD, cast. Specific gravity, 
11-353 (Brisson) ; weight of a 
cubic foot, 709-5 fts.; weight of a 
bar 1 foot long and 1 inch square, 
4-94 fts. ; expands in length by 1 
degree of heat, g^oo (Smeaton) ; 
melts at 612 (Crichton) ; will 
bear on a square inch without per- 
manent alteration, 1500 fts., and 
an extension in length of -^^ ; 
weight of modulus of elasticity for 
a base 1 inch square, 720,000 fts. ; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
146,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, 3-12; specific resilience, 
0-27 (Tredgold). 

Comparedwith cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0-096 ; its extensi- 
bility, 2-5 ; and its stiffness, 0-0385. 


MAHOGANY, Honduras. Specific 
gravity, 0-56 ; weight of a cubic 
foot, 35 fts.; weight of a bar 1 foot 
long and 1 inch square, 0-243 ft. ; 
will bear on a square inch without 
permanent alteration, 3800 fts., 
and an extension in length of -^^ ; 
weight of modulus of elasticity for 
a base 1 inch square, 1,596,000 fts.; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
6,570,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, 9-047; specific resilience, 
16-1. (Tredgold.) 

Comparedwith cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0*24 ; its extensibi- 
lity, 2-9 ; and its stiffness, 0-487. 

MAN. A man of average power 
produces the greatest effect when 
exerting a force of 31-1 fts. with a 
velocity of 2 feet per second, for 
10 hours in a day. (Tredgold.) A 
strong man will raise and carry 
from 250 to 300 fts. (Desaguliers.) 

MARBLE, white. Specific gra- 
vity, 2*706; weight of a cubic foot, 
169 fts. ; weight of a bar 1 foot 
long and 1 inch square, 1-17 ft. ; 
cohesive force of a square inch, 
1811 fts.; extensibility, Tg ^ of its 
length ; weight of modulus of elas- 
ticity for a base of an inch square, 
2,520,000 fts. ; height of modulus 
of elasticity, 2,150,000 feet; mo- 
dulus of resilience at the point of 
fracture, 1*3; specific resilience at 
the point of fracture, 0-48 (Tred- 
gold) ; is crushed by a force of 
6060 fts. upon a square inch 

MERCURY. Specific gravity, 
13-568 (Brisson); weight of a 
cubic inch, 0-4948 ft.; expands in 
bulk by 1 of heat, ^fa (Dulong 
and Petit) ; weight of modulus of 
elasticity for a base of an inch 
square, 4,417,000 fts.; height of 
modulus of elasticity, 750,000 feet 
(Dr. Young, from Canton's Experi- 

OAK, good English. Specific 
gravity, 0-83 ; weight of a cubic 
foot, 52 fts.; weight of a bar 1 foot 
long and 1 inch square, 0'36ft. ; 
will bear upon a square inch with- 




out permanent alteration, 3960 fts., 
and an extension in length of -^^ ; 
weight of modulus of elasticity for 
a base 1 inch square, l,700,000fts,; 
height of modulus of elasticity, 
4,730,000 feet; modulus of resi- 
lience, 9'2; specific resilience, 11. 

Compared with cast iron as 
unity, its strength is 0*25; its ex- 
tensibility, 2-8; and its stiffness, 

PENDULUM. Length of pendu- 
lum to vibrate seconds in the lati- 
tude of London, 39-1372 inches 
(Kater); ditto to vibrate half- 
seconds, 9'7843 inches. 

PINE, American yellow. Specific 
gravity, 0'46 ; weight of a cubic 
foot, 26ffts.; weight of a bar 
1 foot long and 1 inch square, 
0-186 ft. ; will bear on a square 
inch without permanent alteration, 
3900 fts., and an extension in length 
of TIT 5 weight of modulus of elas- 
ticity for a base of an inch square, 
1, 600,000 fts. ; height of modulus 
of elasticity, 8,700,000 feet; mo- 
dulus of resilience, 9-4 ; specific 
resilience, 20. (Tredgold.) 

Compared with cast iron as 
unity, its strength is 0-25 ; its ex- 
tensibility, 2-9; and its stiffness, 

PORPHYRY, red. Specific gra- 
vity, 2 '8 71 ; weight of a cubic foot, 
1 79 fts. ; is crushed by a force of 
35,568 fts. upon a square inch. 

ROPE, hempen. Weight of a 
common rope 1 foot long and 1 
inch in circumference, from 0-04 
to 0'46 ft. ; and a rope of this size 
should not be exposed to a strain 
greater than 200 fts. ; but in com- 
pounded ropes, such as cables, the 
greatest strain should not exceed 
120 fts.; and the weight of a cable 
1 foot in length and 1 inch in 
circumference does not exceed 
0-027 ft. The square of the cir- 
cumference in inches multiplied by 
200 will give the number of pounds 
j a rope may be loaded with ; and 


multiply by 120 instead of 200 for 
cables. Common ropes will bear a 
greater load with safety after they 
have been some time in use, in con- 
sequence of the tension of the fibres 
becoming equalized by repeated 
stretchings and partial untwisting. 
It has been imagined that the im- 
proved strength was gained by 
their being laid up in store ; but if 
they can there be preserved from 
deterioration, it is as much as can 
be expected. 

ROOFS. Weight of a square foot of 
Welsh rag slating,! l^fts.; weightof 
a square foot of plain tiling, 16^ fts. ; 
greatest force of the wind upon a 
superficial foot of roofing may be 
estimated at 40 fts. 

SLATE, Welsh. Specific gravity, 
2-752 (Kirwan) ; weight of a cubic 
foot, 1 72 fts. ; weight of a bar 1 foot 
long and 1 inch square, 1-19 ft. ; 
cohesive force of a square inch, 
1 1,500 fts. ; extension before frac- 
ture, YgVo' weight of modulus of 
elasticityfor abase of an inch square, 
15,800,000 fts.; height of modulus 
of elasticity, 13,240,000 feet; mo- 
dulus of resilience, 8-4 ; specific re- 
silience, 2 (Tredgold). 

SLATE, Westmoreland. Cohe- 
sive force of a square inch, 78 70 fts. ; 
extension in length before fracture, 
TsVo weight of modulus of elas- 
ticity for a base of an inch square, 
12,900,000 fts. (Tredgold). 

SLATE, Scotch. Cohesive force 
of a square inch, 9600 fts. ; exten- 
sion in length before fracture, l6 \ 5 ] 
weight of modulus of elasticity for a 
base 1 inch square, 15, 790,000 fts. 

STEAM. Specific gravity at 2 12 
is to that of air at the mean tem- 
perature as 0-472 is to 1 (Thomson) ; 
weight of a cubic foot, 249 grains ; 
modulus of elasticity for a base of 
an inch square, 14f fts. ; when not 
in contact with water, expands T i 75 - 

STEEL. Specific gravity, 7'84 ; 
weight of a cubic foot, 490 fts.; a 
bar 1 foot long and 1 inch square 




weighs 3-4 tbs.; it expands in length 
by 1 of heat, T7r7 ^ TnT (Roy); tern- 
pered steel will bear without per- 
manent alteration, 45,000 tbs. ; co- 
hesive force of a square inch, 
130,000 fts. (Rennie) ; cohesive 
force diminished ^oVo" ^Y elevating 
the temperature 1; modulus of 
elasticity for a base of an inch 
square, 29,000,000 fts. ; height of 
modulus of elasticity, 8,530,000 feet 
(Dr. Young). 

STONE, Portland. Specific gra- 
vity, 2-113 ; weight of a cubic foot, 
132 fts. ; weight of a prism 1 inch 
square and 1 foot long, 0-92 ft. ; 
absorbs T ^ of its weight of water 
(R. Tredgold) ; is crushed by a 
force of 3729 fts. upon a square 
inch (Rennie) ; cohesive force of a 
square inch, 857 fts. ; extends be- 
fore fracture T7 V^ f ^ ts length ; 
modulus of elasticity for a base of 
aninch square, l,533,000fts.; height 
of modulus of elasticity, 1,672,000 
feet ; modulus of resilience at the 
point of fracture, 0*5 ; specific re- 
silience at the point of fracture, 
0-23 (Tredgold). 

STONE, Bath. Specific gravity, 
T975 ; weight of a cubic foot, 
123-4 fts.; absorbs ^ of its weight 
of water (R. Tredgold) ; cohesive 
force of a square inch, 478 fts. 

STONE, Craigleith. Specific grav- 
ity, 2-362 ; weight of a cubic foot, 
14 7-6 fts.; absorbs $ of its weight 
of water; cohesive force of a square 
inch, 7 72 fts. (Tredgold); is crushed 
by a force of 5490fts. upon a square 
inch (Rennie). 

STONE, Dundee. Specific grav- 
ity, 2-621 ; weight of a cubic foot, 
163-8 fts. ; absorbs -^ part of its 
weight of water ; cohesive force of 
a square inch, 2661 fts. (Tredgold); 
is crushed by a force of 6630 fts. 
upon a square inch (Rennie). 

STONE-WORK. Weight of a cubic 
foot of rubble-work, about 140 fts.; 
of hewn stone, 160 fts. 

TIN, cast. Specific gravity, 7'291 
(Brisson) ; weight of a cubic foot, 


455-7 fts. ; weight of a bar 1 foot 
long and 1 inch square, 3-165 fts. ; 
expands in length by 1 of heat, 
,^ 10 (Smeaton); melts at 442 
(Crichton) ; will bear upon a square 
inch without permanent alteration, 
2880 fts., and an extension in 
length of 1 g 1 00 ; modulus of elas- 
ticity for a base of an inch square, 
4,608,000; height of modulus of 
elasticity, 1,453,000 feet; modulus 
of resilience, 1-8 ; specific resilience, 
0-247 (Tredgold). 

Compared with cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0-182 ; its extensibi- 
lity, 0-75 ; and its stiffness, 0-25. 

WATER, river. Specific gravity, 
1-000; weight of a cubic foot, 
62-5 fts. ; weight of a cubic inch, 
252-525 grains ; weight of a prism 
1 foot long and 1 inch square, 
0-434 ft. ; weight of an ale gallon 
of water, 10-2 fts.; expands in bulk 
by 1 of heat, ^^_ (Dalton) ; ex- 
pands, in freezing, -^ of its bulk 
(Williams); andthe expandingforce 
of freezing water is about 35,000fts. 
upon a square inch, according to 
Muschenbroek's valuation ; modu- 
lus of elasticity for a base of an 
inch square, 326,000 fts.; height of 
modulus of elasticity, 750,000 feet, 
or 22,100 atmospheres of 30 inches 
of mercury (Dr. Young, from Can- 
ton's Experiments). 

Water has a state of maximum 
density at or near 40, which is 
considered an exception to the 
general law of expansion by heat : 
it is extremely improbable that there 
is any thing more than an apparent 
exception, most likely arising from 
water at low temperatures absorbing 
a considerable quantity of air, which 
has the effect of expanding it, and 
consequently of causing the appa- 
rent anomaly. 

WATER, sea. Specific gravity, 
1-0271 ; weight of a cubic foot, 
64-2 fts. 

WATER is 828 times the density 
of air of the temperature 60, and 
barometer 30. 

WHALE-BONE. Specific gravity, 




1'3 ; weight of a cubic foot, Sifts.; 
will bear a strain of 5600 fts. upon 
a square inch without permanent 
alteration, and an extension in 
length of T^-; modulus of elas- 
ticity for a base of an inch square, 
820,000 fts. ; height of modulus of 
elasticity, 1,458,000 feet; modulus 
of resilience, 38'3 ; specific resili- 
ence, 29. (Tredgold.) 

WIND. Greatest observed ve- 
locity, 159 feetper second (Rochon); 
force of wind with that velocity, 
about 57f fts. on a square foot. 

ZINC, cast. Specificgravity,7'028 
(Watson) ; weight of a cubic foot, 
4394- fts. ; weight of a bar 1 inch 
square and 1 foot long, 3'05 fts. ; 
expands in length by 1 of heat, 
srthjcr (Smeaton); melts at 648 
(Daniell) ; will bear on a square 
inch without permanent alteration, 
5700 fes. = 0-365 cast iron, and an 
extension in length of ^^ 00 = ^that 
of cast iron (Tredgold) ; modulus 
of elasticity for a base of an inch 
square, 13, 680,000 fts. ; height of 
modulus of elasticity, 4,480,000 
feet ; modulus of resilience, 2-4 ; 
specific resilience, 0'34 (Tredgold). 
Compared with cast iron as unity, 
its strength is 0'365 ; its extensibi- 
lity, 0-5; and its stiffness, 0'76 

Data, a term for such facts, things, 
or quantities as are given or known, 
in order thereby to find other things 
that are unknown 

Davit, in navigation, a short boom 
fitted in the fore channel, to hoist 
the flukes of the anchor to the 
bow, which is called ' fishing the 

Day or Bay, in architecture, one of 
the lights or compartments between 
mullion and mullion, in the great 
windows of the pointed style 

Days, in early domestic architecture, 
the bay or lights of a window; the 
spaces between the mullions 

Dead colouring is the first layer of 
colours, consisting usually of some 
shade of grey. Its design is to 
receive and preserve the finishing 
colours ; and it is called dead be- 


cause it is not seen when the work 
is completed 

Dead doors, in ship building, fitted to 
the outside of the quarter-gallery 
doors, in case the quarter-gallery 
should be carried away 

Dead eyes, fixed in the channels, with 
three holes to receive the lanyard 
of the shrouds 

Dead fiat, the name of a midship board 

Dead lights, in navigation, wooden 
shutters for the cabin windows, 
which are fastened on when the 
sea runs high 

Dead reckoning, the estimation which 
seamen make of the ship's place, 
by keeping an account of her way 
by the log, by the course steered, 
and by rectifying the whole by al- 
lowance for drift, leeway, &c. 

Dead shore, a piece of timber worked 
up in brick-work, to support a su- 
perincumbent mass until the brick- 
work which is to carry it has set or 
become hard 

Dead water, the eddy water imme- 
diately at the stern of a ship while 
under way 

Dead wood, pieces of timber fayed 
on the keel to seat the flow-tim- 
bers on afore and abaft the floors, 
and continued as high as the cutting 
down of the floors 

Deafening sound boarding, the pugging 
used to prevent the passage of sound 
through wooden partitions 

Deam, a door-post, or threshold ; to 
conceal, or shut up 

Deambulatory, an ambulatory or clois- 
ter for exercise ; also the aisles of 
a church, or the porticoes round 
the body of a church 

Debacle, a great aqueous torrent, a 
breaking up and transport of mas- 
sive rocks and gravel by an enor- 
mous rush of water 

Debris, fragments of rocks, boulders, 
gravel, sand, trunks of trees, &c., 
detached from the summits and 
sides of mountains by the effect of 
the elements 

Decade, the sum of ten 

Decagon, in geometry, a plain figure 
of ten sides 




Decalogue, the Ten Commandments 
delivered to the Israelites from 
Mount Sinai, in which the moral 
law is summarily comprehended. 
The Jews call these precepts ' The 
Ten Words.'* In the building of 
new churches, and in the restora- 
tion of those of olden times, a pro- 
per and effective style of painting 
and embellishing the words of the 
ten commandments in face of the 
altar has been introduced. 

Decanicum, an ecclesiastical prison 

Decastyle, in architecture : a temple 
is said to be decastyle when its por- 
tico contains ten columns in a line 

Decastyle, a portico consisting of ten 
columns in front 

Decempeda, a ten-foot rod employed 
by architects and surveyors for 
taking measurements 

Decemremis, a vessel with ten banks 
of oars on a side 

Decimal, the tenth part 

Deck, the floor of a ship 

Decoration, the combination of orna- 
mental objects which are employed 
in great variety, principally for the 
interior and exterior of all kinds 
of edifices, and for purposes of art 
generally. Decoration, when judi- 
ciously introduced, becomes in 
many instances a language, intel- 
ligible only, however, when the 
artist is capable of speaking it 
correctly and the spectator of 
comprehending it. It is then a 
system of hieroglyphic writing, 
and the building to which it is ap- 
plied becomes historical, and tells 
its tale more nobly and appro- 
priately than it can ever do through 
the undignified medium of mural 
inscriptions. Nothing can be more 
judicious or appropriate than the 
sculpture in the metopes and pedi- 
ment of the Parthenon. Ornament 
here not only creates a variety on 
the surface of the work, but re- 
lates, by the aid of the sculptor, a 
history intimately connected with 

the religious and moral destination 
of the edifice to which it is applied. 

Decorative style of Gothic Architec- 
ture : first introduced in the reign 
of Edward I., it was matured in 
England, and prevailed during the 
greater part of the 14th century. 
Its distinguishing features, says Dr. 
"Whewell, are characterized by its 
window-tracery, geometrical in the 
early instances, flowing in the 
later; but also, and perhaps bet- 
ter, by its triangular canopies, 
crocketed and finialed ; its niched 
buttresses, with triangular heads ; 
its peculiar mouldings, no longer a 
collection of equal rounds, with 
hollows like the early English, but 
an assemblage of various members, 
some broad, some narrow, beauti- 
fully grouped and proportioned. A 
capital with crumpled leaves, a 
peculiar base and pedestal, also 
belong to this style. 

Definitions in geometry : 

1. A point is that which hath 
no parts, or which hath no magni- 

2. A line is length without 

3. A superficies has length and 

4. A solid is a figure of three di- 
mensions, having length, breadth, 
and thickness. Hence surfaces 
are extremities of solids, and lines 
the extremities of surfaces, and 
points the extremities of lines. 

If two lines will always coincide, 
however applied, when any two 
points in the one coincide with 
the two points in the other, the 
two lines are called straight lines, 
or otherwise right lines. 

A curve continually changes its 
direction between its extreme 
points, or has no part straight. 

Parallel lines are always at the 
same distance, arid will never meet, 
though ever so far produced. Ob- 
lique right lines change their dis- 

* To these the Saviour added another: " A new commandment I give unto you, That 
ye love one another ; as I have loved you. that ye also love one another," (John ziii. 34.) 




tance, and would meet, if pro- 

One line is perpendicular to an- 
other when it inclines no more to 
one side than another. 

A straight line is a tangent to a 
circle "when it touches the circle 
without cutting, when both are 

An angle is the inclination of 

two lines towards one another in 

the same plane, meeting in a point. 

Angles are either right, acute, 

or oblique. 

A right angle is that which is 
made by one line perpendicular to 
another, or when the angles on 
each side are equal. 

An acute angle is less than a 
right angle. 

An obtuse angle is greater than 
a right angle. 

A plane is a surface with which 
a straight line will every where 
coincide ; and is otherwise called 
a straight surface. 

Plane figures, bounded by right 
lines, have names according to the 
number of their sides, or of their 
angles, for they have as many sides 
as angles : the least number is 

An equilateral triangle is that 
whose three sides are equal. 

An isosceles triangle has only 
two sides equal. 

A scalene triangle has all sides 

A right-angled triangle has only 
one right angle. 

Other triangles are oblique- 
angled, and are either obtuse or 

An acute-angled triangle has all 
its angles acute. 

An obtuse-angled triangle has 
one obtuse angle. 

A figure of four sides, or angles, 
is called a quadrilateral, or quad- 

A parallelogram is a quadrilate 
ral, which has both pairs of its 
opposite sides parallel, and takes 
the following particular names : 


A rectangle is a parallelogram, 
having all its angles right ones. 

A square is an equilateral rect- 
angle, having all its sides equal, 
and all its angles right angles. 

A rhombus is an equilateral 
parallelogram whose angles are 

A rhomboid is an oblique-angled 
parallelogram, and its opposite sides 
only are equal. 

A trapezium is a quadrilateral, 
which has neither pair of its sides 

A trapezoid hath only one of its 
sides parallel. 

Plane figures, having more than 
four sides, are in general called 
polygons, and receive other parti- 
cular names according to the num- 
ber of their sides or angles. 

A pentagon is a polygon of five 
sides, a hexagon of six sides, a hep- 
tagon seven, an octagon eight, an 
enneagon nine, a decagon ten, an 
undecagon eleven, and a dodecagon 
twelve sides. 

A regular polygon has all its 
sides and its angles equal ; and if 
they are not equal, the polygon is 

An equilateral triangle is also a 
regular figure of three sides, and 
a square is one of four ; the former 
being called a trigon, and the latter 
a tetragon. 

A circle is a plane figure, 
bounded by a curve line, called 
the circumference, which is every 
where equidistant, from a certain 
point within, called its centre. 

The radius of a circle is a right 
line drawn from the centre to the 

A diameter of a circle is a right 
line drawn through the centre, 
terminating on both sides of the 

An arc of a circle is any part of 
the circumference. 

A chord is a right line joining 
the extremities of an arc. 

A segment is any part of a circle 
bounded by an arc and its chord. 




A semicircle is half a circle, or 
a segment cut off by the diameter. 
A sector is any part of a circle 
bounded by an arc, and two radii 
drawn to its extremities. 

A quadrant, or quarter of a cir- 
cle, is a sector having a quarter 
part of the circumference for its arc, 
and the two radii perpendicular to 
each other. 

The height or altitude of any 
figure is a perpendicular let fall 
from an angle or its vertex to the 
opposite side, called the base. 

The measure of any right-lined 
angle is an arc of any circle con- 
tained between the two lines which 
form the angle, the angular point 
being the centre. 

A solid is said to be cut by a 
plane when it is divided into two 
parts, of which the common sur- 
face of separation is a plane, and 
this plane is called a section. 
Definitions of solids : 

A prism is a solid, the ends of 
which are similar and equal paral- 
lel planes and the sides parallelo- 

If the ends of the prism are per- 
pendicular to the sides, the prism 
is called a right prism. 

If the ends of the prism are 
oblique to the sides, the prism is 
called an oblique prism. 

If the ends and sides are equal 
squares, the prism is called a cube. 
If the base or ends are paral- 
lelograms, the solid is called a 

If the bases and sides are rect- 
angles, the prism is called a rect- 
angular prism. 

If the ends are circles, the prism 
is called a cylinder. 

If the ends or bases are ellipses, 
the prism is called a cylindroid. 

A solid, standing upon any plane 
figure for its base, the sides of 
which are plane triangles, meeting 
in one point, is called a pyramid. 

The solid is denominated from 
its base, as a triangular pyramid is 
one upon a triangular base, a 


square pyramid one upon a square 
base, &c. 

If the base is a circle or an ellip- 
sis, then the pyramid is called a 

If a solid be terminated by two 
dissimilar parallel planes as ends, 
and the remaining surfaces joining 
the ends be also planes, the solid 
is called a prismoid. 

If a part of a pyramid next to 
the vertex be cut off by a plane 
parallel to the base, the portion of 
the pyramid contained between the 
cutting plane and the base is called 
the frustrum of a pyramid. 

A solid, the base of which is a 
rectangle, the four sides joining the 
base plane surfaces, and two oppo- 
site ones meeting in a line parallel 
to the base, is called a cuneus or 

A solid terminated by a surface 
which is every where equally dis- 
tant from a certain point within 
it is called a sphere or globe. 

If a sphere be cut by any two 
planes, the portion contained be- 
tween the planes is called a zone, 
and each of the parts contained by 
a plane and the curved surface is 
called a segment. 

If a semi-ellipsis, having an axis 
for its diameter, be revolved round 
this axis until it come to the place 
whence the motion began, the solid 
formed by the circumvolution is 
called a spheroid. 

If the spheroid be generated 
round the greater axis, the solid is 
called a prolate spheroid. 

If the solid be generated round 
the lesser axis, the solid is called 
an oblate spheroid. 

A solid of any of the above 
structures, hollow within, so as to 
contain a solid of the same struc- 
ture, is called a hollow solid 
Deflagrator, an instrument for pro- 
ducing intense light and heat 
Deflection, a term applied to the dis- 
tance by which a curve departs 
from another curve, or from a 
straight line 




Deflection, the deviation of a ship 
from its course 

Degree, the 360th part of the circum- 
ference of a circle ; 60 geographical 

Degree, consisting of three figures of 
three places, comprehending units, 
tens,' and hundreds 

Deliquiee, according to Vitruvius, gut- 
ters, or drains 

Delivery valve, the upper valve in 
the air-pump, or that through 
which the water is lifted into the 
hot well ; also used when speaking 
of any sort of pump 

Delphica, a table made of marhle or 
bronze, and resembling a tripod 

Delubrum, a font or baptismal basin 

Delubrum, in antiquity, a church, 
chapel, temple, or consecrated 

Delubrum, that part of a Roman 
temple in which the altar or statue 
of the deity was erected 

Demesne, lands belonging to the lord 
of a manor, and which are conti- 
guous to the manor-house 

Demi-relievo, in sculpture, half-raised 
figures from the plane, as if cut in 
two, and only half fixed to the plane 

Demi-tint is that shade seen when 
the sun shines on a house, or any 
other object, making an angle of 
nearly 45 on the ground plane, or 
when it shines more on the front 
than on the end. 

Dendrometer, an instrument for the 
measuring of trees 

Denticulus, a member in the Ionic 
and Corinthian entablatures, occur- 
ing between the zophorus and 
corona, and properly speaking, a 
part of the latter: so called be- 
cause it represents denticuli, or 
small teeth, placed at equal inter- 
vals apart 

Dentils, ornaments resembling teeth, 
used in the bed-mouldings of Ionic, 
Corinthian, and Composite cornices 

Departure, in navigation, is the east- 
ing or westing of a ship with re- 
spect to the meridian from which 
it departed or sailed; or it is the 
difference of longitude between the 


present meridian and where the last 
reckoning was made 

Depression of the pole, in navigation : 
so many degrees as you sail from 
the pole towards the equator, so 
many you are said to depress the 
pole, because it becomes so much 
lower in the horizon 

Derrick, a Cornish word for a miner 

Derrick, in navigation, a tackle used 
at the outer quarters of the mizen- 
yard; it also signifies a prop or 
support to sheers, &c. 

Derrick. Sheers and Gyn have one 
object in common, to find a point 
or fulcrum in space to which the 
pulley, in the shape of block and 
tackle, is to be supplied ; and this 
is effected by the above, on one, 
two, and three legs, respectively. 
In the derrick and sheers, stability 
is given by guys ; in the gyn, they 
are unnecessary. Wherever these 
guys are used, great attention must 
be paid to their being well fixed, or 
being (when requisite) duly eased- 
off: when accidents occur from 
neglect in this respect, they are 
generally very severe. 

Describent, in geometry, is the line or 
surface from the motion of which 
a surface or body is supposed to 
be generated or described 

Descriptive geometry: the applica- 
tion of geometrical rules to the 
representation of the figures and 
the various relations of the forms 
of bodies, in accordance to forms 
applicable to civil, military, and 
naval architecture, civil and me- 
chanical engineering, and the other 
arts that require more correct scien- 
tific representations than have hi- 
therto been afforded to the student 

Desiccation, the chemical operation of 
drying bodies, sometimes effected 
by drying in the air, sometimes in 
warm chambers, by the air-pump, 

Design, a term in the fine arts, is em- 
ployed first to signify the art of 
drawing or representing in lines 
the form of any object; next it ex- 
presses that combination of inven- 




tion and purpose which enables the 
artist to compose a picture or a 
group, without reference to the 
material in which it is executed 

Destina, according to Vitruvius, a 
column or pillar to support an edi- 

Device, an emblem or ensign for- 
merly borne on shields or em- 
broidered upon banners as a cogni- 
zance; contemporary, in the history 
of heraldry, with coat armour it- 

Device, in heraldry, painting, &c., any 
emblem used to represent a certain 
family, person, action, or quality, 
with a suitable motto, applied in a 
figurative sense 

Dexter, in heraldry, an appellation 
given to whatever belongs to the 
right side of a shield or coat of 
arms, as the bend dexter, dexter 
point, &c. 

Diagonal, a line drawn from angle to 

Diagonal rib, a projecting baud of 
stone or timber passing diagon- 
ally from one angle of a vaulted 
ceiling across the centre to the 
opposite angle 

Diagonal scale. Equidistant parallel 
lines cut all lines drawn across 
them into equal parts ; consequently 
a set of equidistant parallels laid 
down upon a ruler, with oblique 
lines of various lengths drawn across 
them, give with the compasses the 
means of immediately taking off 
various proportions of those lines. 

Diagram, a delineation of geometrical 
figures ; a mathematical illustration 

Dial, an instrument for the measuring 
of time ; not mentioned in Scrip- 
ture before the reign of Ahaz, A.M. 
3262. It is not clearly ascertained, 
even after this time, how the Jews 
divided the time by hours. The 
word hour occurs first in Tobit, 
which may confirm the opinion that 
the invention of dials came from 
beyond the Euphrates. 

Dialling. In all dials, the gnomon 
represents the axis of the earth ; 
hence its angle with the horizon is 


the latitude of the place, and it 
lies in the plane of the meridian. 
There are a great variety of dials, 
according to whether they are hori- 
zontal, oblique, or vertical, and also 
depending on their aspect with re- 
ference to the sun, &c. 

Diamicton, according to Pliny, a term 
used by the Roman builders to de- 
signate a particular manner of con- 
structing walls, the exterior of 
masonry, and the interior of rub- 

Diamond, a genus of precious stones 
of a fine pellucid substance of great 
hardness, and never debased by 
any admixture of earthy or other 
coarse matter. When pure, it is 
perfectly colourless. It is the most 
valuable of all gems, and is found 
only in the East Indies and the 
Brazils. It is constituted solely of 
carbon in its densest form. 

Diamond, glaziers', the pencil dia- 
mond, used in cutting glass, is a 
small fractured piece of diamond 

Diaper ornament, of flowers, applied 
to a plain surface, either carved 
or painted: if carved, the flowers 
are entirely sunk into the work 
below the general surface ; they 
are usually square, and placed close 
to each other, and are various in 
their pattern and design: it was first 
introduced in the Early English 
style in some of the principal Gothic 
structures in England 

Diaper, a panel or flat recessed sur- 
face covered with carving or other 
wrought work in low relief ; a kind 
of linen cloth, wrought with figures 
in the process of weaving 

Diastyle, an arrangement of columns 
in Grecian and Roman architecture, 
in which the intercolumniation or 
space between them is equal to 
three or four diameters of the 

Diathyra, the vestibule before the 
doors of a Greek house, correspond 
ing with the prothyra of the Ro- 

Diatom, the angle stones of a wall, 
wrought on two faces, and which, 




stretching beyond the stones above 
and below them, form a good 
band or tie to the work 

Diatoni, according to Vitruvius, the 
girders or band-stones formerly em- 
ployed in constructing walls ; cor- 
ner stones 

Diatretum, an enchased or curiously 
engraved vase or drinking-cup 

Diaulon, a race-course, the circuit of 
which was two stadia, or 1200 feet ; 
whence it was used to signify a 
measure of two stadia 

Dicrotum, a boat with two oars 

Die, the cube or dado of a pedestal 

Die, or Dye, a naked square cube : 
thus the body of a pedestal, or 
that part between its base and 
its cap, is called the die of the pe- 

Dies, two pieces of hardened steel, 
which, when placed together, form 
a female screw (or a screw in a 
nut) which has cutting edges, used 
for making a screw on a bolt 

Die-sinking: in the preparation of 
coined money and of medals, the 
most important feature is the en- 
graving of the die which is to form 
the stamp. The piece of steel is 
prepared with care, and brought 
to a soft state when about to be 
submitted to the hands of the en- 
graver. By the aid of small, fine, 
hardened steel tools, the engraver 
cuts away the steel until he has 
produced, in cavity or intaglio, an 
exact reverse of the design for the 
medal or coin. 

Dieu et mon droit ' God and my 
right/ in heraldry, the motto of 
the royal arms of England, first 
assumed by Richard I. 

Differential thermometer. This in- 
strument was invented by the same 
gentleman who contrived the pho- 
tometer and aetherioscope, and 
was used by him in his investi- 
gations on heat. Its principal use 
to the meteorologist is to make 
experiments on the light and heat 
of the moon, &c., by concentrating 
its rays by a lens upon the sentient 
ball. This can only be dpne when 

the moon is on the meridian. It 
is peculiarly adapted for measuring 
the effect of radiation. 

Digester, a boiler invented by Papin 
for raising water to a higher tem- 
perature than the common boiling 
point, 212: this is effected by 
forming a vessel somewhat resem- 
bling a kitchen pot ; the mouth is 
formed into a flat ring, so that a 
cover may be screwed tightly on ; 
this cover is furnished with a safety- 
valve, loaded to the required pres- 

Digit, a finger ; a term employed to 
signify any symbol of number from 
to 9 : thus ten (10) is a number 
of two digits 

Digit, a measure of length, containing 
three-fourths of an inch 

Diglyph, in architecture, an imperfect 
triglyph, with only two channels 
instead of three 

Dilapidation, decay for want of repair ; 
not unfrequently a point of dispute 
between a party in possession of a 
house and another party having an 
interest therein. Where there is a 
right to use lands or houses, ques- 
tions will arise as to the manner in 
which they ought to be used, and 
by whom dilapidations, whether 
caused by accident or decay, ought 
to be supplied. The rights of par- 
ties with respect to immoveable 
property so closely border on each 
other, and the line of demarcation 
between them is so indistinct, that 
one man, in the fancied exercise of 
his right, is continually liable to 
encroach upon or disregard the 
right of another. No person, how- 
ever absolute his property in land, 
can put it to any use he pleases : 
his right to use is restrained by the 
rights of his neighbour ; he is 
bound to take care that his manner 
of using does not interfere with 
the inoffensive and profitable occu- 
pation by his neighbour of his land. 
(See the second edition, just pub- 
lished, of Mr. Gibbons's elaborate 
work on the ' Law of Dilapidations 
and Nuisances.') 






Dilettante ( Italian), an ardent admirer 
of the fine arts. The Dilettanti 
Society, consisting of many dis- 
tinguished noblemen and gentle- 
men, has done much to rescue the 
noble monuments of Grecian art 
from otherwise inevitable ruin 

Dilleuiny, a Cornish word for a method 
of washing or finishing the dress- 
ing of tin in very fine hair sieves 

Diluvial formation, the superficial 
deposits of gravel, clay, sand, &c., 
which lie far from their original 
sites on hills, and in other situ- 
ations, to which no forces of water 
now in action could transport them 

Dimension, a term used in the same 
sense as degree 

Diminution, a term expressing the 
gradual decrease of thickness in 
the upper part of a column 

Diminution of columns. The shafts 
of columns are diminished in dia- 
meter as they rise, sometimes from 
the foot itself of the shaft, some- 
times from one-quarter, and some- 
times from one-third of its height. 
The diminution at top is seldom 
less than one-eighth or more than 
one-sixth of the inferior diameter 
of the column. 

Dioptase, or emerald copper, a crys- 
tallized silicate of copper, the pri- 
mary form of which is a rhomboid. 
Its colour varies from emerald to 
blackish green: it is translucent 
and brittle 

Dioptra, a geometrical instrument 
employed in measuring the altitude 
of distant objects, and for taking the 
levels of a source of water intended 
to be conveyed to a distance by 
means of an aqueduct 

Diorama, a mode of scenic exhibi- 
tion invented by two French artists, 
Daguerre and Bouton 

Dip, in mining, the greatest inclination 
of a stratum to the horizon 

Di Palito is a light yellow ochre, 
affording tints rather purer in co- 
lour than the stone ochre, but less 
so than Naples yellow. Many 
pleasing varieties of ochreous co- 
lours are produced by burning 


and compounding with lighter, 
brighter, and darker colours, but 
often very injudiciously and ad- 
versely to that simple economy of 
the palette which is favourable to 
the certainty of operation, effect, 
and durability. 

Diplinthius, according to Vitruvius, 
two bricks thick 

Dipping-needle, in navigation, a mag- 
netic needle, so hung that one end 
dips, or inclines to the horizon, and 
the other is proportionally elevated, 
forming an angle equal to the dip- 
ping of the needle at the place 
where the experiment is made 

Dipteral, having a double range of 
columns all round : a dipteral tem- 
ple usually had eight in the front 
row of the end porticoes, and fifteen 
at the sides, the columns at the 
angles being included in both 

Dipteron, in ancient architecture, a 
temple surrounded with a double 
row of columns which form porti- 
coes, called wings or aisles 

Dipteros, in Greek architecture, a 
temple with a double row of co- 
lumns on each of the four sides 

Direct-action engine, an engine having 
the rotatory motion communicated 
to a crank placed directly over the 
cylinder, so as to save height, and 
lessen the weight of the engine : 
the term applies more particularly 
to marine engines 

Discharging arch, an arch formed in 
the substance of a wall, to relieve 
the part which is below it from the 
superincumbent weight : it is fre- 
quently used over lintels and flat- 
headed openings 

Discord, a term applied to painting 
when there is a disagreement of 
the parts or the colouring ; when 
the objects appear foreign to each 
other, and have an unpleasing and 
unnatural effect 

Disembogue, to pour out at the mouth 
of a river 

Distemper, in painting, the working- 
up of colours with something else 
besides mere water or oil. If the 
colours be prepared with the first, 




it is called limning; and with the 
last, painting in oil 
Distemper is a preparation of colours 
without oil, only mixed with size, 
whites of eggs, or any such proper 
glutinous or unctuous substance : 
with this kind of colour all the an- 
cient pictures, hefore the year 1410, 
were painted, as also are the cele- 
brated cartoons of Raphael 
Ditrigtyph, an interval between two 
columns, admitting two triglyphs 
in the entablature; used in the 
Doric order 

Dividiculum, in Rome, a tower on an 
aqueduct, containing a large reser- 

Diving lell, a machine contrived for 
safely lowering a man to any rea- 
sonable depth under water, so that 
he may remain there for a consi- 
derable time 

Division of an Order. The general 
division of an order being into two 
parts, namely, the column and en- 
tablature, the column is subdivided 
into three unequal parts, viz. the 
base, the shaft, and the capital. 
The entablature consists also of 
three unequal parts, which are, the 
architrave, the frieze, and the cor- 
nice. Each of these divisions con- 
sists of several smaller parts, which 
by their variety and peculiarity dis- 
tinguish the orders from each other. 
Dock, a place artificially formed for 
the reception of ships, the entrance 
of which is generally closed by 
gates. There are two kinds of 
docks, dry docks and wet docks : 
the former are used for receiving 
ships for repair, the latter for the 
purpose of keeping vessels afloat. 
Docks are enclosed artificial recepta- 
cles for shipping, and are usually 
formed by excavation of the soil, 
and constructed walls of masonry, 
with inlets and gates for admitting 
the passage of vessels. Docks are 
usually distinguished as wet docks 
or basins, and dry or graving docks. 
The former of these are already 
described under the head Basin; the 
latter may be described as follows : 


Graving docks, in which repairs 
of vessels are effected, are con- 
structed of various dimensions, ac- 
cording to the class of vessel for 
which provision is intended. Se- 
veral splendid works of this kind 
have, within the last few years, 
been executed in the English dock- 
yards. One of these, the Eastern 
Dock in Her Majesty's Dockyard 
at Woolwich, is 282 feet in ex- 
treme length, 81 feet in width on 
the ground level, and 39 feet in 
the bed. The depth from the 
ground level to the bed is 27 feet. 
The inclined sides and curved end 
of the masonry are formed into a 
series of steps or altars, by which 
access is readily obtained to all 
parts of the dock, and fixing-places 
obtained for the struts with which 
the sides of the vessel under repair 
are maintained in an upright posi- 
tion, when the water is discharged 
from the dock. The river-wall of 
this structure was originally con- 
structed of concrete block-facings 
with rough concrete backing, ac- 
cording to a plan introduced into 
this country by Mr. Ranger ; but 
these were abandoned, and granite 
facings substituted, the entire mass 
of the wall being supported on 
timber-piling. The whole of the 
piers, apron, and coffer-dam walls 
w y ere executed by tide-work, in the 
following manner : a small space 
was surrounded by sheet-piling, 
which was carried up from 6 to 8 
feet above the level of low water : 
into the enclosure thus formed a 
pipe from two 18 -inch pumps, 
worked by a steam engine, was 
led, and the pumps set to work as 
soon as the tide fell below the 
sheet-piling. The subsequent ex- 
cavation for the dock reached a 
bed of chalk, which was found to 
be sufficiently firm to dispense with 
the inverted arch of masonry usu- 
ally constructed beneath the bed of 
these docks, and the floor was con 
sequently constructed of a hori- 
zontal paving of blocks of granite 




2 feet in thickness, each stone 
being joggled to the adjacent stones 
with dove-tail joggles of Valentia 
slate bedded in cement. The river 
water is admitted into the dock 
through a culvert 5 feet high and 

3 feet wide, passing through each 
pier, and which culverts are worked 
by sluices of cast iron. The front 
of the dock is closed with a caisson 
formed of plate iron, fixed with 
rivets to ribs of angle iron; the 
form of the caisson being similar 
to that of a vessel, namely, with a 
continuous keel along the bottom 
and up each end, and a swelling 
outline tapering towards the end 
keels, and reduced to a width nearly 
parallel in the deck-level. This 
continuous keel, which is of oak, 
and formed in two pieces, fits into 
a recess in the masonry at the en- 
trance of the dock, and the admis- 
sion of water into it is regulated 
by sluices and pumps. 

From the description given of 
graving docks, it will be under- 
stood that their action and efficiency 
depend upon the command of an 
adequate depth of water, and a 
sufficient rise and fall of tide to 
leave the vessel dry or to float her, 
as occasion requires. The use of 
these docks also compels the re- 
tention of the vessel during the 
action of the tide, and thus involves 
a considerable lapse of time, which 
sometimes cannot be afforded for 
trifling repairs or examination of a 
vessel in active service. 

For situations in which no tide 
exists, a different arrangement be- 
comes necessary, and a construc- 
tion called a 'slip' is commonly 
substituted for a graving dock. 
The slip which has been the most 
extensively used is that known as 
' Morton's slip,' and which was 
secured by a patent dated March 
23, 1819, granted to T. Morton, 
for a method of dragging ships out 
of water for repairs, &c. This 
slip consists of an inclined plane, 
formed of timber framing laid upon 


suitable foundations of masonry, or 
cut in the surface of the rock. 
Upon this framing longitudinal 
metal racks are fixed, and a move- 
able carriage, upon which the ves- 
sel is received, (by running the 
carriage to the lower part of the 
plane, beneath the water, and se- 
curing the vessel upon it,) is fitted 
with cog-wheels, or other suitable 
apparatus for working upon these 
racks. The moving carriage con- 
sists of a succession of small strong 
blocks or carriages, any number of 
which may be connected together, 
according to the length of vessel 
to be hauled up. Each of these 
blocks or carriages, which are laid 
in corresponding pairs on each 
side of the central line of the slip, 
so as to leave a continuous inter- 
mediate space to receive the keel 
of the vessel, is fitted with rollers, 
upon which it may be moved trans- 
versely ; and thus the distance be- 
tween the two blocks of each pair, 
or on each side of the centre, may 
be adjusted according to the sec- 
tional form of the ship. These 
motions are ingeniously effected 
with the aid of cross ropes or lines 
which are fixed to the blocks, and 
by which means the entire action 
of the apparatus is much facili- 
tated. The combined carriage, 
when loaded with the vessel, is 
hauled up the slip by cables at- 
tached to a drum apparatus, with 
suitable gearing fixed in a building 
at the head or upper end of the 
slip. The power required is of 
course in proportion to the weight 
to be hauled up, and to the rate of 
inclination of the slip, and is usu- 
ally supplied by a steam engine. 

This principle is susceptible of 
being extended, so as to provide 
berths for several vessels with only 
one hauling-up slip and machinery. 
For this purpose it has been sug- 
gested to construct a series of 
frames arranged radially round a 
centre, and capable of motion' and 
of adjustment, with one slip con- 




structed in such a direction as to 
correspond with a produced radius 
of the same circle. This arrange- 
ment, which would be similar to 
that of the polygonal engine-houses 
now erected on several lines of 
railway, offers great facilities for 
extended operations in the repair 
of vessels, but of course requires 
great space for the construction of 
the radial frames. 

In order to provide for cases in 
which sufficient tidal difference 
cannot be had for raising vessels of 
deep draughts on to a dry dock, 
floating docks have been introduced 
in North America, and found to 
act satisfactorily. These floating 
docks are constructed with a buoy- 
ant bed, or cradle, capable of sup- 
porting a vessel within the dock, 
with its keel above the surface of 
the water. This float or cradle is 
made in a box-like form, composed 
of strong logs, jointed firmly, and 
well caulked, so as to make it 
water-proof. The capacity of the 
float must be such that when freed 
from water by pumping, and loaded 
with the vessel, workmen, &c., it 
shall sustain this load with safety. 
The float moves within a recess 
of masonry, by which its motion 
is guided and secured. Suitable 
shores, blocks, struts, &c., are used 
in making the vessel steady within 
the float, which is fitted with valves 
in the lower part. The action of 
this floating dock is as follows : 
The cradle or float, being full of 
water (the valves being open), is 
sunk so that the vessel may be 
brought over it, and temporarily 
secured in position : the valves are 
then closed, and the pumps set to 
work to clear the water from the 
float, which rises in consequence, 
and brings up the vessel to a dry 
level. When the ship is again ready 
for sea, the opening of the valves 
admits the water, and sinks the 
float, leaving the vessel free above 
it to pass out of the dock. 

The docks and basins of London 


and Liverpool comprise some of 
the largest specimens of works of 
this kind. Those of the latter port 
were commenced in 1708, and con- 
sist of several docks of great ex- 
tent. The first public docks for 
merchant shipping in London were 
the West India Docks, opened in 
1805, the great basin of which is 
420 yards in length, and 230 yards 
in width. This is connected with 
the river by another basin of about 
three acres in area. The London 
Docks were commenced soon after 
the West India Docks, and opened 
in the same year, viz. 1805. The 
principal basin of these docks is 
420 yards in length, and 276 yards 
in width. The East India Dock 
for unloading inwards is 470 yards 
in length, and 173 yards in width ; 
and that for loading outwards is 
260 yards in length, and 140 yards 
in width. The St. Katherine's 
Docks occupy an area of 24 acres. 

Dodecagon, in geometry, a figure of 
twelve angles and sides 

Dodecahedron, in geometry, one of 
the regular bodies comprehended 
under twelve equal sides, each of 
which is a pentagon 

Dodecastyle, a building having twelve 
columns in front 

Dogs, or andirons, creepers, braziers, 
&c. Long after the general intro- 
duction of chimneys, wood was the 
ordinary fuel for all sorts of apart- 
ments. Coals formed no part of 
the ' liveries,' but wood was com- 
monly included in them. A ' cra- 
dle for sea coal' is, however, fre- 
quently mentioned as belonging to 
the chief rooms in superior houses, 
though the usual way of warming, 
or rather airing, bed-chambers was 
with braziers or chafing-dishes. 
Andirons are a larger and higher 
sort of irons, made to support the 
wood, and have usually long necks 
rising up before, to prevent the 
wood from falling upon the floor. 
Creepers are smaller and lower 
irons, with short necks, or none at 
all, which are placed between the 




andirons, to keep the ends of the 
wood and the brands from the 
hearth, that the fire may burn 
more freely. 

Dog-kennel, a lodgement for dogs 
kept for the purpose of field sports : 
it is almost as invariable an ap- 
pendage to the manor-house as 
it was formerly to the baronial 
castle. Bishop Percy observes, 
"that a nobleman in the dark 
ages, retired within his castle, had 
neither books, nor newspapers, nor 
literary correspondence, nor visits, 
nor cards, to fill up his leisure : his 
only amusements were field sports ; 
nor did the love for these decline in 
the Tudor period." 

Dog wood, a small underwood, free 
from silex : small splinters are used 
by watch-makers for cleaning out 
the pivot-holes of watches ; it is 
also used by butchers for making 

Dolomite, massive magnesian lime- 
stone, used by the ancient sculptors 
in their best works 

Dolphin, a technical term applied to 
the pipe and cover at a source for 
the supply of water 

Dome, a term applied to a covering of 
the whole or part of a building : 
the word dome is strictly applied 
to the external part of the spheri- 
cal or polygonal roof, and cupola 
to the internal part 

Dome or cupola, a roof, the base of 
which is a circle, an ellipsis, or a 
polygon, and its vertical section a 
curve line, concave towards the in- 
terior. Hence domes are called 
circular, elliptical, or polygonal, 
according to the figure of the base. 
The most usual form for a dome 
is the spherical, in which case its 
plan is a circle, the section a seg- 
ment of a circle. 

The top of a large dome is often 
finished with a lantern, which is 
supported by the framing of the 

The interior and exterior forms 
of a dome are not often alike, and 
in the space between, a staircase to 


the lantern is generally made. Ac- 
cording to the space left between 
the external and internal domes, 
the framing must be designed. 
Sometimes the framing may be 
trussed with ties across the open- 
ing; but often the interior dome 
rises so high that ties cannot be 

Accordingly, the construction of 
domes may be divided into two 
cases : viz. domes with horizontal 
ties, and those not having such 

Dome, in locomotive engines, the 
conical part of the boiler, forming 
a steam chamber, and terminating 
the top of the fire-box part. In 
a locomotive engine the safety- 
valves are usually placed on the 
top of the dome or the body of the 

Dome cover, in locomotive engines, 
the brass or copper cover which 
encloses the dome, to prevent the 
radiation of heat 

Dome Cathedral of Pisa, the first 
model of that Tuscan style of ar- 
chitecture, so solid, grave, and im- 
posing, neither Greek nor Gothic, 
was begun in the eleventh century ; 
and in the thirteenth was founded 
the majestic church of Santa Maria 
del Fiori at Florence, of which the 
dome equals in size that of St. 
Peter's at Rome, and was its model 

Dome of St. Paul's Cathedral (the) is 
elliptical, and built of wood ; it is 
confined by strong chains, consist- 
ing of iron bars : that of the Pan- 
theon at Rome is nearly circular, 
and its lower parts are so much 
thicker than its upper parts as to 
afford sufficient resistance to their 
pressure; they are supported by 
walls of great thickness, and fur- 
nished with many projections which 
answer the purpose of abutments 
and buttresses 

Domes in Asia are probably more 
ancient than in Italy. At Lanker- 
rood, at Dhay-nain, at Sin-sin, five 
or six days' journey south of Tehe- 
ran in Persia, towns are all de- 




serted : there are about a hundred 
large dwelling-houses quite entire, 
of a very singular construction. 
Each edifice stands separate, and 
is constructed of several central 
arches supporting a pointed dome ; 
while smaller divisions project from 
the body of the building, also 
arched, and the whole finished 
with the greatest neatness, having 
remains of stucco-painted walls 

It is probable that the arch and 
vault and dome were not unknown 
to the nations in the East, beyond 
the Indies, in a very remote age ; 
but in Greece and in Asia Minor 
there are no traces of them before 
their introduction by the Romans. 
To the Romans they were familiar 
at a very early period of their his- 
tory; a knowledge of which they 
borrowed perhaps from the Etrus- 

cans, or from the supposed extinct 
people who possessed a city on 
the site of Rome itself, before the 

Domestic Architecture in England. 
At the termination of the York and 
Lancaster wars, the fortified style 
of architecture was gradually aban- 
doned in England ; and as we had 
no other model of domestic archi- 
tecture than the gable and the cot- 
tage, by the duplication of this 
simple form, in various positions, 
was constructed what has been 
called the Old English Manor- 
house style. If we take a common 
two-floored English gable and cot- 
tage, add to it one, two, or three 
cottages side by side, of the same 
size ; and in order to gain rooms 
out of the roof on the sides of this 
double or triple cottage, raise gable 
ends either projecting from the 




ground to the top of the roof, or 
merely raised from the eaves-drop ; 
if we insert broad low windows, 
divided by simple wooden or stone 
mullions, in these projecting gable 
ends, and similar windows at the 
ends of this double or triple cot- 
tage; ornament the inclined sides 
of the gable ends above the eaves- 
drop by steps or small pinnacles, or 
both ; then add a parapet, plain or 
embattled, we have a manor-house 
in the most florid style. Many 
such houses came afterwards to be 
adorned by a centre of architec- 
tural decoration, in which Roman, 
Grecian, and Gothic were strangely 
mixed. There is, however, a cer- 
tain degree of antique-like gran- 
deur in such houses, which pro- 
duces a very striking impression. 
This step towards a better style took 
place before the time of Inigo Jones. 
" The mansion at South Elmham 
(represented onthe'preceding page), 
when entire, formed a quadrangle, 
as usual, of which stables and 
offices made up a part. The do- 
mestic and ecclesiastical styles are 
singularly combined in this build- 
ing, though the latter seems to 
predominate; and the occasional 
discovery of old floor-stones, of a 
sepulchral character, intimates that 
the projecting porch led to the 
chapel of the dwelling, not into 
the hall; and yet the ceilings of 
the chambers where the two wings 
and upper windows are observed, 
on the right hand of the porch, are 
flat, divided into small squares by 
the girders above, and covered with 
plastered mouldings, in the manner 
usually seen in dwellings of an 
early period." 

Domestic buildings and castles. The 
towns and ordinary houses of the 
Normans were entirely built of 
wood, and, for the most part, are 
so to this day. Their castles, 
having but one destination, that of 
defence, aimed at nothing but 
strength in their plan or construc- 
tion. A site was also selected 


which was already fortified by 

The plan of the Norman castles 
was as nearly the same as the di- 
versity of ground would allow. 
The principal feature was always 
the keep, which contained the 
apartments of the lord of the castle, 
and was also meant to be the last 
refuge of the garrison, if the outer 
works were forced. The keep was 
usually raised on an artificial 
mound, or placed on the edge of a 
precipice. The walls, strengthened 
in every way that art could devise, 
were of immense thickness, and 
composed of grouting poured in 
between two solid walls of stone. 
The facing consisted sometimes of 
irregular courses, and sometimes of 
small squared stones, after the Ro- 
man manner. Ashler was usually 
introduced at the angles of the 
building. The windows were few, 
and little more than chinks, unless 
very high up, or turned to the 
court. The door of entrance could 
only be reached by a staircase. 

Under the keep were usually 
vaults, or dungeons, for the recep- 
tion of prisoners. 

The keep was enclosed in two 
courts surrounded by walls flanked 
with towers. The tower at the 
entrance was called the barbican, 
and served at once for an outwork 
and post of observation. The whole 
fortress was defended by a moat. 

The remains of the Norman cas- 
tles which exist scarcely afford any 
specimens of early Norman con- 
struction, almost all these castles 
having been besieged, destroyed, 
and rebuilt, over and over again. 

The keep of Falaise is perhaps 
the only castellated remnant of 
early Norman times. 

The castle of Gizors, which was 

built by William Rufus, retains 

nothing of its original construction. 

Domus, a private house occupied by 

a single proprietor and his family 
Doors (Antique). The Greeks in the 
temple of Minerva Polias, at 




Athens, and also the Romans in 
the temple of Vesta, or the Sibyl, 
at Tivoli, made the doors and win- 
dows smaller at top than at bot- 
tom : the architrave or dressing 
always constituted an agreeable 
decoration when in character with 
the building. Those of the win- 
dows in the Grecian temple have 
a projection, or what is sometimes 
termed a knee, at their upper angle ; 
while those of the temple of Vesta, 
whose apertures have the same 
form, continue without interrup- 
tion, and are surmounted by a cor- 
nice ; but the cornice above the 
door is separated from the archi- 
trave by a frieze, while the cornice 
of the windows joins the archi- 
trave. In the temple of Minerva, 
the architrave of the windows rests 
only on a plain socle ; those of the 
temple of Vesta rest also on a socle 
orsupport,the face of which is sunk. 

Doors (Modern). There are two 
doors, designs of Vignola, w r hich 
offer in their profiles and propor- 
tions a happy medium between the 
antique and modern compositions ; 
and all other designs of this kind 
are either derived from them, or 
possess a vague character which 
renders them unworthy of imita- 

There are breaks in the archi- 
trave, as in those of the temple 
of Minerva Polias ; and the ter- 
mination or lower extremity of 
these breaks determines the length 
of the consoles, which gives har- 
mony to the arrangement. These 
consoles are also placed against a 
second architrave, beyond which 
the first projects. The design of 
the door of the church of St. Lo- 
renzo is more regular. 
Doonuay (Anglo-Norman). The 
Anglo-Norman builders bestowed 
much pains and 
evinced consider- 
able artistic skill 
in very elaborately 
ornamenting the 
portal entrances 
to churches in 
their style of ar- 
chitecture, by a 
profusion of orna- 
mental mouldings 
and of sculpture. 
Very many ex- 
amples are to be 
met with in great 
variety in several 
of the counties of 
England, particu- 
larly in the coun- 
ties of Norfolk 
and Suffolk. The 
example repre- 
sented in the an- 
nexed engraving 
is a beautiful spe- 
cimen taken from 
the church of St. 
Botolph, at Cove, 
in the county of 





Doorways. In the Gothic, and the 
architecture of the middle ages, 
doorways are striking and import- 
ant features, affording in the cha- 
racter of the mouldings and orna- 
ments the style and period of the 

Doric Order. The Doric order, says 
Palladio, was invented by the Do- 
rians and named from them, being 
a Grecian people which dwelt in 
Asia. If Doric columns are made 
alone without pilasters, they ought 
to be seven and a half or eight 
diameters high. The intercolumns 
are to be little less than three 
diameters of the columns ; and this 
manner of spacing the columns is 
by Vitruvius called Diastylos. 

The ancients employed the Doric 
in temples dedicated to Minerva, 
to Mars, and to Hercules, whose 
grave and manly dispositions suited 
well with the character of this or- 
der. Serlio says it is proper for 
churches dedicated to Jesus Christ, 
to St. Paul, St. Peter, or any other 
saints remarkable for their forti- 
tude in exposing their lives and 
suffering for the Christian faith. 
Le Clerc recommends the use of 
it in all kinds of military build- 
ings ; as arsenals, gates of fortified 
places, guard-rooms, and similar 
structures. It may likewise be 
employed in the houses of gene- 
rals or other martial men, in 
mausoleums erected to their me- 
mory, or in triumphal bridges and 
arches built to celebrate their vic- 

Vitruvius himself makes the Doric 
column in porticoes higher by half 
a diameter than in temples ; and 
most modern architects have, on 
some occasions, followed his exam- 
ple. In private houses, therefore, it 
may be 16, 16, or IGf modules 
high ; in interior decorations, even 
seventeen modules, and sometimes 
perhaps atriflemore; which increase 
in the height may be added entirely 
to the shaft, as in the Tuscan order, 
without changing either the base 

or capital. The entablature, too, 
may remain unaltered in all the 
aforesaid cases ; for it will be suffi- 
ciently bold without alteration. 

Doric Order. The height of the 
Doric column, including its capital 
and base, is sixteen modules ; and 
the height of the entablature, four 
modules ; the latter of which being 
divided into eight parts, two of 
them are given to the architrave, 
three to the frieze, and the remain- 
ing three to the cornice. 

In most of the antiques, the 
Doric column is executed without 
a base. Vitruvius likewise makes 
it without one; the base, accord- 
ing to that author, having been 
first employed in the Ionic order, 
to imitate the sandal or covering 
of a woman's foot. Scamozzi 
blames this practice ; and most of 
the moderns have been of his 
opinion, the greatest part of them 
having employed the Attic base in 
this order. 

Dorman tree, a large beam lying 
across a room ; a joist, or sleeper 

Dormer window, a window pierced 
through a sloping roof, and placed 
in a small gable which rises on the 
side of the roof 

Dormitory, a sleeping apartment; 
a term formerly applied to the 
sleeping-room of the inmates of 
monasteries and other religious 

Dormond, a large beam lying across 
a room; a joist, or sleeper: same 
as Dorman 

Doron, a hand-breadth, or palm : 
among the Greeks, their bricks or 
tiles were termed tetradoron, four 
hands' breadth, or pentadoron, five 
hands broad : the word also im- 
plies a gift : hence, probably, the 
origin of the English word dowry 

Dosel, hangings round the walls of a 
hall, or at the east end, and some- 
times the sides, of the chancel of 
a church, made of tapestry or car- 
pet-work; used also in churches, 
and frequently richly embroidered 
with silks, and gold and silver 

153 G5 




Dosel, ornamental and rich stuff for 
the back of a chair, a throne, or a 
screen of ornamental wood- work 

Double-acting pump, a pump which 
lifts and forces water at the same 
time, by means of a solid piston, 
and an entrance and exit-valve 
communicating with each side 

Double-beat valve, a valve used in 
Cornish engines and water-works. 
It has two beats, or seatings, one 
above the other : the bottom one 
is similar to an ordinary circular 
valve seating; the top one is some- 
what less in diameter than the bot- 
tom one, and is supported from it 
by ribs, and forms a cover nearly 
the size of the inner passage. A 
shell with two beats to correspond 
with the seatings shuts the sides : 
when raised, (which requires but 
little power, as the fixed cover 
before mentioned bears nearly all 
the pressure, its diameter being 
nearly equal to that of the shell,) 
the steam or water escapes at the 
sides both of the top and bottom 

Double cylinder engine, a marine en- 
gine with two cylinders placed at 
right angles to the crank-shaft, and 
at a small distance apart, to give 
space for the vibration of the rod 
connecting the crank to the long 
end of a shaped cross-head, which 
slides in grooves between the cy- 
linders : the upper ends of the 
cross-head are connected to the 
piston-rods. This form of engine 
is patented by Messrs. Maudsley. 

Dove-tail, in carpentry, a method of 
joining two boards together by 
letting one piece into another in 
the form of the tail of a dove, when 
that which is inserted has the ap- 
pearance of a wedge reversed 

Dove-tailing, a method of fastening 
together two pieces of metal or 
wood, by projecting bits cut in the 
form of dove-tails in one piece, to 
fit into corresponding hollows in 
the other 

Dowel. A round dowel or coak is 
the piece of timber to which the 


felloes of a carriage-wheel are 

Dowsing cheeks, in ship-building, 
pieces fayed across the apron, and 
lapped on the knightheads or 
inside stuiF above the upper deck 

Draft-engine, an engine used for 

Drag-bar, a strong iron rod with 
eye-holes at each end, connecting 
a locomotive engine and tender by 
means of the drag-bolt and spring 

Drag-bolt, the strong bolt coupling 
the drag-bar of a locomotive engine 
and tender together, and remove- 
able at pleasure 

Drag-hook and chain, the strong chain 
and hook attached to the front of 
the engine buffer-bar, to connect 
it on to any other locomotive en- 
gine or tender: also attached to 
the drag -bars of goods waggons 

Drag-link, a link for connecting the 
cranks of two shafts : it is used in 
marine engines for connecting the 
crank on the main-shaft to that on 
the inner paddle-shaft 

Drag-spring, a strong spring placed 
near the back of the tender. It is 
attached by the ends to the drag- 
bar which connects the engine and 
tender, and by the centre to the 
drag-bar which connects the train 
to the tender. 

Dragon's blood (colour), a resinous 
substance brought from the East 
Indies. It is of a warm semi-trans- 
parent, rather dull -red colour, 
which is deepened by impure air, 
and darkened by light. There are 
two or three sorts, but that in drops 
is the best. White lead soon de- 
stroys it, and it dries with extreme 
difficulty in oil. It is sometimes 
used to colour varnishes and lac- 
quers, being soluble in oils and 
alcohol; but notwithstanding it has 
been recommended as a pigment, it 
does not merit the attention of the 

Drainage of marshes and fen lands. 
The steam engine is used to raise 
the water above the level of those 
lands which he too low to be drained 




by natural outfall, and also in situ- 
ations where the fall is not sufficient 
to carry off the superfluous water 
in time to prevent damage to the 

Mr. Glynn has applied steam 
power to the drainage of land in 
fifteen districts, all in England, 
chiefly in Cambridgeshire, Lincoln- 
shire, and Norfolk. The quantity 
of land so drained amounts to more 
than 125,000 acres, the engines em- 
ployed being seventeen in number, 
and their aggregate power 870 
horses : the size of the engines 
varies from 20 to 80 horses. Mr. 
Glynn was also engaged in draining 
by steam power the Hammerbrook 
district, close by the city of Ham- 
burgh; and in another level near 
to Rotterdam, an engine and ma- 
chinery with the requisite buildings 
have been erected from his plans by 
the Chevalier Conrad, and the works 
successfully carried into effect. 

In British Guiana the steam en- 
gine has been made to answer the 
double purpose of drainage and irri- 
gation. Some of the sugar planta- 
tions of Demerara are drained of 
the superfluous water during the 
rainy reason, and watered during 
the dry season. 

In many of the swampy levels of 
Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire, 
much had been done to carry off the 
water by natural means, and many 
large cuts had been made and em- 
bankments formed, especially in the 
Bedford Level, which alone con- 
tains about 300,000 acres of fen- 
land : the Great Level of the fens 
contains about 680,000, formerly 
of little value, but now rich in corn 
and cattle. 

The general plan is to carry away 
the water coming off the higher 
grounds, and prevent it, as much 
as possible, from running down into 
the marsh by means of the catch- 
water drains, leaving the rain alone 
which falls upon the district to be 
dealt with by mechanical power. 

As the quantity of rain falling on 


the Great Level of the fens seldom 
exceeds 26 inches in the year, and 
about two-thirds of this quantity is 
carried off by evaporation and ab- 
sorption, or the growth of plants, it 
is only in extreme cases that 2 in- 
ches in depth require to be thrown 
off by the engines in any one month, 
which amounts to 1 cubic foot of 
water upon every square yard of 
land, or 7260 feet to the acre. 

The standard and accepted mea- 
sure of a horse's power is 33,000 fos. 
raised 1 foot high in a minute, or 
3300 tfes. raised 10 feet high in the 
same time ; and as a cubic foot of 
water \veighs 62^tbs., and a gallon 
of water lOlbs., so one horse's power 
will raise and discharge, at a height 
of 10 feet, 330 gallons, or 52^ 
cubic feet of water in a minute. 
Consequently this assumed excess 
of 7260 cubic feet of water fallen 
upon an acre of land will be raised 
and discharged at an elevation of 
10 feet in about two hours and 
twenty minutes. If the quantity 
of land be 1000 acres of fen or 
marsh, with the upland waters all 
banked out, the excess of rain, ac- 
cording to the foregoing estimate, 
will amount to 726,000 cubic feet. 
A steam engine of 10-horse power 
will throw off this water in 232 
hours, or in less than twenty days, 
working twelve hours a day. This 
calculation has been found fully 
supported in practice. 

Although the rain due to any 
given month may fall in a few days, 
yet in such case much of it will be 
absorbed by the ground; and the 
drains must be made of sufficient 
capacity to receive and contain the 
rain as it falls ; besides, in case of 
necessity, the engine may be made 
to work twenty hours a day in- 
stead of twelve, until the danger be 

The main drains have generally 
been cut 7 feet deep, and of width 
sufficient to give them the required 
capacity to contain the excess of 
rain, and to bring the watej freely 




down to the engine. In some in- 
stances, where the districts are ex- 
tensive and their length great, it 
has been found necessary to make 
them somewhat deeper. 

In all cases where it has been 
requisite to use steam power, Mr. 
Glynn has applied scoop-wheels to 
raise the water. These scoop-wheels 
somewhat resemble the undershot 
wheel of a water-mill, but instead 
of being turned by the impulse of 
the water, they are used to lift it, 
and are kept in motion by the steam 

The floats or ladle-boards of the 
wheels are made of wood, and fitted 
to work in a trough or track of 
masonry ; they are generally made 
5 feet in length, that is to say, they 
are immersed 5 feet deep in the 
water, and their width or horizontal 
dimension varies from 20 inches to 
5 feet, according to the power of 
the engines employed, and the head 
of water to be overcome. The 
wheel-track at the lower end com- 
municates with the main drain, and 
at the higher end with the river ; 
the water in the river being kept 
out by a pair of pointing doors, 
like the lock-gates of a canal, which 
close when the engine ceases to 
work. The wheels themselves are 
made of cast iron, formed in parts 
for convenience of transport. The 
float-boards are connected with the 
cast-iron part of the wheel by means 
of oak- starts, which are stepped 
into sockets cast in the circum- 
ference of the wheel to receive 

There are cast-iron toothed seg- 
ments fitted to the wheel, into 
which works a pinion fixed upon 
the crank-shaft of the steam engine. 
When the head of water in the 
river or delivering drain does not 
vary much, it is sufficient to have 
one speed for the wheel; but where 
the tide rises in the river, it is 
desirable to have two speeds or 
powers of wheel-work, the one to 
be used at low water, the other 


more powerful combination to act 
against the rising tide. But in 
most cases it is not requisite to 
raise the water more than 3 or 4 feet 
higher than the surface of the land 
intended to be drained ; and even 
this is only necessary when the 
rivers are full between their banks, 
from a continuance of wet weather, 
or from upland floods. 

In some instances, the height of 
the water in the rivers being affected 
by the tide, the drainage by natural 
outfall can take place only during 
the ebb ; and here, in case of long- 
continuing rains, the natural drain- 
age requires the assistance of me- 
chanical power. 

It has been stated that the main 
drains have generally been made 
7i feet deep, or more in larger dis- 
tricts, so that the water may never 
rise higher than within 18 inches 
or 2 feet of the surface of the ground, 
and the ladles or float-boards dip 
5 feet below the water, leaving a 
foot in depth below the dip of the 
wheel, that the water may run freely 
to it, and to allow for the casual 
obstruction of weeds in the main 
drain, which, if it be sufficiently 
capacious and well formed, will bring 
down the water to the engine with 
a descent of 3 inches in a mile. 

Suppose then that the wheel dips 
5 feet below the surface of the 
water in the main drain, and that 
the water in the river into which 
this water must be raised and dis- 
charged has its level 5 feet above 
that in the drain, the wheel in such 
case will be said to have 10 feet 
head and dip, and ought to be made 
28 or 30 feet in diameter. 

Mr. Glynn has found it practi- 
cable to throw out the water against 
a head of 10 feet with a dip of 5 feet, 
that is to say, 15 feet of head and 
dip, with a wheel of 35 feet in di- 
ameter; but in another engine, more 
recently erected, he has made the 
wheel 40 feet in diameter. The 
engine that drives this wheel is of 
80-horse power, and is situated on 




the Ten-mile Bank, near Littlepool, 
in the Isle of Ely. The largest 
quantity of water delivered by one 
engine is from Deeping Fen, near 
Spalding : this fen contains 25,000 
acres, and is drained by two engines, 
one of 80 and one of 60 horse power. 

The 80 -horse engine has a wheel 
of 28 feet in diameter, with float- 
boards or ladles measuring 5 feet 
by 5 feet, and moving with a mean 
velocity of 6 feet per second; so 
that the section of the stream is 
27^ feet, and the quantity dis- 
charged per second 165 cubic feet; 
equal to more than 4^ tons of water 
in a second, or about 16,200 tons 
of water in an hour. 

It was in 1825 that these two 
engines were erected, and at that 
time the district was kept in a half- 
cultivated state by the help of forty- 
four wind-mills, the land at times 
being wholly under water. It now 
grows excellent wheat, producing 
from four to six quarters to the 
acre. In many districts, land has 
been purchased at from 10 to 20 
an acre, by persons who foresaw the 
and which they could now sell at 
from 50 to 70 an acre. 

This increase in value has arisen, 
not only from the land being cleared 
from the injurious effects of the 
water upon it, but from the im- 
proved system of cultivation it has 
enabled the farmers to adopt. 

The fen-lands in Cambridgeshire 
and great part of the neighbouring 
counties are formed of a rich black 
earth, consisting of decomposed 
vegetable matter, generally from 
6 feet to 10 feet thick, although in 
some places much thicker, resting 
upon a bed of blue gait, containing 
clay, lime, and sand. 
Draining, as applied to lands, towns, 
and buildings, is the art of drawing 
or conveying away refuse liquid 
and other matters, the accumula- 
tion of which would be detrimental 
to animal and vegetable existence. 

In that department which re- 


lates to lands, draining compre- 
hends also the methods of irriga- 
ting or supplying water for agri- 
cultural purposes, for which the 
natural supply is inadequate. Re- 
ferring to towns and buildings, this 
art includes also, for the purpose of 
thorough cleansing, the artificial 
supply of water. 

According to this comprehensive 
definition, which will be found to 
have greater practical convenience 
than any more limited one, Drain- 
ing comprises observations of the 
relative levels of districts and of 
their geological structure; of the 
several sources of water, and the 
amount of their products ; and the 
construction and arrangement of 
all the artificial appliances required 
for the supply, conduct, and dis- 
posal of water, and for conveying 
and discharging refuse matters 

The sources of water are rains 
and the ocean. The former, pass- 
ing into the earth, descend along 
the lower surfaces, and form streams 
and rivers ; or penetrate into some 
permeable media, and accumulating 
in subterranean depositories, form 

An examination of the super- 
ficial and structural features of the 
soil enables us to estimate the 
quantity of water present in a dis- 
trict, and to determine the means 
that will be available for supplying 
the deficiency or discharging the 

The same observations afford ge- 
neral information required in order 
to arrange the artificial channels, 
drains, sewers, &c., by which the 
supply and refuse matters are to 
be conducted and disposed of. 

Soils are retentive of water in 
proportion to their density arid 
compactness. Thus, on clay-lands 
an excess of water is commonly 
found, while, from the porous tex- 
tures of gravel and loose sand, 
water passes rapidly away, and they 
are thus kept in a dry condition. 




The size of the channels or 
drains, by which the water is con- 
ducted away, will be adapted to the 
superficial extent to be drained, 
and the quantity of water due to 
the district, as computed from its 
relative position and structure. 
The construction of the drains will 
depend upon the materials of the 
soil, and the proximity of those 
suitable for the purpose. Generally, 
covered drains are far preferable to 
open ones ; and those formed with 
a duct of earthen piping are more 
durable and economical than any 
others. The implements used are 
rods and levels, for measuring dis- 
tances and ascertaining inclinations 
of surface ; tools for boring the 
soil, to examine substrata, and de- 
tect springs, consisting of augers, 
chisels, punches, &c. ; spades, 
shovels, and picks of various forms 
and dimensions ; and hoes, scoops, 
&c. for clearing out and finishing 
the form of drains. 

For the draining of towns and 
buildings, including the artificial 
supply of water, the best available 
sources such as rivers and springs 
are resorted to, and the advan- 
tageous use of these will require a 
careful consideration of the quali- 
ties of the water obtained, and its 
suitability for domestic and manu- 
facturing purposes. Arrangements 
are required for making the water 
furnished by rains available to the 
full extent, and rendering it and all 
other waters fit for use by subsi- 
dence, filtration, and purification. 

For discharging the refuse mat- 
ters from houses and other build- 
ings, and from streets and public 
thoroughfares, drains and sewers 
of various forms and materials are 
to be selected, made of ample di- 
mensions and permanent construc- 
tion, with such vertical inclination, 
and so arranged, that their con- 
tents shall always have a tendency 
to run off, and never suffer inter- 
ference from the discharge of other 


As a final point to be observed 
in any system of town-drainage, 
that of the ultimate disposal of the 
refuse matters is one of the highest 
importance in both a sanatory and 
an economical point of view. Col- 
lected in proper reservoirs, and 
judiciously treated, these matters 
may be distributed in fertilizing 
streams over the fields and the 
gardens of the suburbs, and will 
thus realize immense value in im- 
proved and augmented crops : al- 
lowed to accumulate in cesspools 
beneath human dwellings, they en- 
gender malignant and fatal disease, 
and if finally discharged into a 
river, by way of getting rid of them, 
they pollute waters otherwise whole- 
some, and, in dry seasons, send 
forth from the banks the most un- 
healthy gases. 

Draught, in ship draughting, the draw- 
ing or design by which the ship is 
to be built, which is generally by a 
scale of one-fourth of an inch to a 

Draute-chamber, a retiring or with- 
drawing room 

Draw-bore, the pinning a mortise and 
tenon, by piercing the hole through 
the tenon nearer to the shoulder 
than the holes through the cheeks 
from the abutment in which the 
shoulder is to come in contact 

Draw -bore pins, pieces of steel in the 
shape of the frustrum of a cone, 
somewhat tapered, and inserted in 
handles with the greatest diameter 
next to the handle, for driving 
through the draw-bores of a mor- 
tise and tenon, in order to bring 
the shoulder of the rail close home 
to the abutment on the edge of the 
style : when this is effected, the 
draw-bore pins, when more than 
one are used, are taken out singly, 
and the holes filled up with wooden 

Drawbridge. All drawbridges are 
composed of two distinct parts, viz. 
the platform, which revolves on a 
horizontal axis, acting as a barrier 
or gate when in a vertical position, 




and becoming a bridge when in a 
horizontal position; and the con- 
trivance necessary to balance the 
platform in every position. The 
equilibrium should be such that 
friction is the only force to be 
overcome in raising or lowering 
the platform. 

The chief difference between 
drawbridges lies in the arrange- 
ment of this latter contrivance; for 
the platforms only differ in small 
details of construction, which have 
very little influence on the qualities 
which are essential to the arrange- 
ment of the balancing apparatus. 
These qualities remain the same, 
whether the drawbridges are used 
for closing communications in for- 
tified works, or merely for forming 
passages across navigable canals. 
They are principally as follows : 

1st. The whole system should 
possess sufficient strength to be 
perfectly free from danger in all 
positions and at all times, and 
should therefore be constructed 
of solid and lasting materials. 

2nd. A small number of men 
should be able to raise or lower 
the bridge in a short space of time. 
This quality requires all the parts 
to be in equilibrium when friction 
is not considered. 

3rd. The machinery for raising 
and lowering the bridge should not 
obstruct the communications either 
in front or in rear of the buttresses 
of the gateway where it is placed ; 
and also the space formed by rais- 
ing the bridge should be as wide 
as possible, for this space consti- 
tutes the chief use of the bridge. 

4th. The counterpoise and the 
machinery attached to it should be 
raised as little as possible above 
the platform when vertical, in or- 
der that it may not be much ex- 
posed to an enemy's fire, and that 
it may be easily covered by the ad- 
vanced works; besides that, by 
raising it, the expense of construct- 
ing and the inconvenience of work- 
ing the machinery are increased, 


and the strength of the gateway or 
postern is sometimes diminished. 

5th. The counterpoise and its 
machinery should not be much be- 
low the level of the ground, and 
particularly very little below the 
level of the surface of the water in 
wet ditches. At all events, the 
descending parts should be enclosed 
in narrow shafts of masonry secure 
from damp. In order not to weaken 
the postern walls, they should be 
at least 3 feet in rear of them. 

Drawing is the art of representing 
objects on a flat surface by lines 
describing their forms and contours 
alone, independently of colour or 
even shadow, although the latter 
is closely allied with drawing, both 
in practice and theory 

Drawings in pencil are sometimes re- 
quired to be fixed: this can be 
done by using water-starch made 
to the consistency of that employed 
by laundresses: it should be ap- 
plied with a broad camel's hair 
brush, as in varnishing. Isinglas 
size, and rice-water, are sometimes 
used, but are not so good as the 
first-named substance. 

Dredge's Suspension Bridge consists 
in making the chains of sufficient 
magnitude and strength at the 
points of suspension to support 
with safety the greatest permanent 
and contingent load to which, un- 
der the circumstances of locality, 
they are ever likely to be exposed; 
and from thence, to taper or dimi- 
nish them gradually to the middle 
of the bridge, where the strain be- 
comes essentially evanescent. The 
gradual diminution of the chains, 
however, is not the only peculiarity 
which characterizes this mode of 
construction, and marks its utility. 
The suspending-rods or bars that 
support the platform, or roadway, 
instead of being hung vertically or 
at right angles to the plane of the 
horizon, are inclined to it in angles 
which vary in magnitude from the 
abutments to the middle of the 
bridge, where the obliquity, as well 




as the stress upon the chains, at- 
tains its minimum value. 

Dredging machines, mechanical con- 
trivances placed in the hull of a 
vessel, and floated in situations for 
the dredging and clearing away of 
deposited matter from the beds of 
rivers, canals, harbours, basins, &c. 
Some machines for these purposes 
are to be compared to harrows or 
shovels, which loosen the deposit 
preparatory to its removal either 
by the action of the tide or stream; 
but for the more general purposes 
of dredging, vast improvements 
have been effected. The machinery 
of the best construction is described 
in Weale's ' Quarterly Papers on 

Dressings, the mouldings and sculp- 
tured decorations of all kinds which 
are used on the walls and ceilings 
of a building for the purpose of or- 

Drift, a piece of hardened steel, 
notched at the sides and made 
slightly tapering: it is used for 
enlarging a hole in a piece of metal 
to a particular size by being driven 
through it 

Drift, the horizontal force which an 
arch exerts with a tendency to 
overset the piers from which it 

Drifts, in the sheer draught, are 
where the rails are cut off and 
ended with a scroll. Pieces fitted 
to form the drifts are called drift- 

Driftway, in mining, is a passage cut 
under the earth from shaft to shaft 

Drill, a tool for cutting a circular 
hole in a piece of metal 

Drilling machine, a machine for cut- 
ting circular holes in metal by 
means of a revolving drill 

Drilling, the art of boring small holes. 
Drilling may be effected in a lathe. 
The drill is screwed upon the spin- 
dle, so that its point shall turn ex- 
actly opposite that of the screw in 
the shifting head. Various inge- 
nious improvements have recently 
been made. 


Drip, the projecting edge of a mould- 
ing channeled beneath, so that the 
rain will drip from it : the corona 
of the Italian architects 

Dripstone, called also the 'label,' 
'weather moulding,' and 'water 
table,' a projecting tablet or mould- 
ing over the heads of doorways, 
windows, archways, niches, &c. 

Driver, the foremost spur in the 
bulge-ways, the heel of which is 
fayed to the foreside of the fore- 
most poppet, and the sides placed 
to look fore and aft in a ship 

Driver, the bent piece of iron fixed in 
the centre chuck, and projecting 
over it to meet the carrier, and 
drive it forward 

Driving shaft, any shaft which gives 
motion to another shaft 

Driving springs, the springs fixed 
upon the boxes of the driving axle 
of a locomotive engine, to support 
the weight and to deaden the 
shocks caused by irregularities in 
the rails 

Driving wheels, the large wheels of a 
locomotive engine, which are fixed 
upon the crank-axle, or main shaft 
of the engine 

Drum, in architecture, thebell-formed 
part of the Corinthian and Compo- 
site capitals 

Drum, a hollow cylinder fixed on a 
shaft, for driving another shaft by 
a band 

Drummond light, a peculiar light 
invented by the late Capt. Drum- 
mond, called a heliostat, which re- 
flected the sun's rays in sufficient 
abundance to render the station 
which was to be observed visible. 
This invention obviated the diffi- 
culty of distinguishing the stations 
chosen for the angular points of 
the triangles in a geodesical sur- 
vey : where those stations are many 
miles asunder, it is necessary to 
have recourse to illuminations even 
in day-time. 

Druxey, timber in a state of decay, 
with white spongy veins 

Dryness is a term by which artists 
express the common defect of the 




early painters in oil, who had but 
little knowledge of the flowing con- 
tours which so elegantly show the 
delicate forms of the limbs and the 
insertion of the muscles ; the flesh 
in their colouring appearing hard 
and stiff, instead of expressing a 
pleasing softness. The draperies 
of those early painters, and parti- 
cularly of the Germans, concealed 
the limbs of the figures, without 
truth or elegance of choice; and 
even in their best masters, the dra- 
peries very frequently either de- 
meaned or encumbered the figures. 

Dry-rot, a disease affecting timber, 
and particularly the oak employed 
for naval purposes. Many contri- 
vances are employed as remedies 
which have recently been patented, 
and have been successfully applied. 

Dub, to work with the adze 

Ductilimeter, an instrument for com- 
paring the ductility of lead, tin, &c. 

Ductility is that property of bodies 
which admits of their being drawn 
out in length, while their diameter 
is diminished, without any actual 
fracture. Gold, silver, platinum, 
iron, copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, 
are ductile in the order here given : 
wire-drawing depends on ductility. 

Ductility, the property possessed by 
certain bodies of yielding to percus- 
sion, and receiving a change of form 
without breaking 

Dums (in Cornish), frames of wood 
like the jambs of a door or the 
frame of a window ; set in loose 
ground in adits and places that are 
weak and liable to fall in or tumble 

Dungeon, a place of incarceration, for- 
merly the principal tower or keep of 
a castle : it w r as always the strongest 
and least accessible part of a building 

Durbar (Persian), a court or building 
where the sovereign or viceroy gives 

Dutch Pink, English and Italian 
Pinks, are bright yellow colours 
used in distemper and for paper- 
staining, and other ordinary pur- 
poses. The pigment called 'stil,' 


or ' stil de grain,' is a similar pre- 
paration, and a very fugitive yellow, 
the darker kind of which is called 
Brown Pink. 

Dutch School of Painting. This 
school of art cannot be said to 
possess the perfections that are to 
be observed in the Flemish school ; 
their subjects are derived from the 
tavern, the smith's shop, and from 
vulgar amusements of the rudest 
peasants. The expressions are suf- 
ficiently marked ; but it is the ex- 
pression of passions which debase, 
instead of ennobling human nature. 
It must be acknowledged, at the 
same time, that the Dutch painters 
have succeeded in several branches 
of the art. If they have chosen low 
subjects of imitation, they have re- 
presented them with great exact- 
ness ; and truth must always please. 
If they have not succeeded in most 
difficult parts of the chiaro-oscuro, 
they at least excel in the most 
striking, such as in light confined 
in a narrow space, night illuminated 
by the moon, or by torches, and the 
light of a smith's forge. The Dutch 
understandthegraflationsof colours. 
They have no rivals in landscape 
painting, considered as the faithful 
representation of a particular scene; 
but they are far from equalling 
Titian, Poussin, Claude Lorraine, 
&c., who have carried to the 
greatest perfection the ideal land- 
scape ; and whose pictures, instead 
of being the topographical repre- 
sentation of certain places, are the 
combined result of every thing beau- 
tiful in imagination or in nature. 

Dyeing is the art of staining textile 
substances with permanent colours 

Dyke, in coal mining, the banks of 
basalt or whin, by which the coal 
strata are frequently divided 

Dynamics, the science of moving 
powers, or of the action offerees on 
solid bodies when the result of that 
action is motion. 


1. The mass of a body is the 
quantity of matter of which it is 




composed, and is proportional to its 
weight, or to the force which must 
be applied to the body to prevent 
its gravitating to the earth, and 
which, being greater or less as the 
mass is greater or less, w r e regard 
as a measure of the mass itself. 

2. Density is a word by which 
we indicate the comparative close- 
ness or otherwise of the particles of 
bodies, and is synonymous with the 
term, specific gravity. Those bodies 
which have the greatest number of 
particles, or the greatest quantity 
of matter, in a given magnitude, we 
call most dense; those which have 
the least quantity of matter, least 
dense. Thus lead is more dense 
than freestone ; freestone more 
dense than oak; and oak more 
dense than cork. 

3. The velocity with which a 
body in motion moves, is measured 
by the space over which it passes in 
any given time; the unit usually 
assumed being one second. 

4. If the body passes over an 
equal space in each successive unit 
of time, the body is said to move 
uniformly, or to have a uniform 
velocity, and the measure of such 
velocity is the space actually passed 
over by the body in each second. 

5. If, however, the body passes 
over a greater space in each suc- 
cessive second than it did in the 
preceding, then it is said to move 
with an accelerated velocity : when 
the differences between the spaces 
moved over in any two successive 
seconds is the same, at whatever 
period of the body's motion they be 
taken, or in other words, wiien the 
successive spaces form an arithme- 
tical progression, the body is said 
to move with a uniformly accele- 
rated velocity ; but when the spaces 
passed over in successive seconds 


Early English Architecture, the first 
of the pointed or Gothic styles of 
architecture used in England. It 


increase according to any other law, 
the body is then said to have its 
velocity variably accelerated. 

6. If, on the other hand, the body 
passes over a smaller space in each 
successive second than it did in the 
preceding, then it is said to move 
with a retarded velocity ; which, if 
the successive spaces form a de- 
creasing arithmetical series, is said 
to be uniformly retarded; if other- 
Vfise,itissaidto\)evariably retarded. 

7. The velocity of a body whose 
motion is variable is expressed at 
any moment by the space which it 
would pass over in a second, if its 
velocity at the moment spoken of 
were to continue uniform for that 

8. Mechanical effect is measured 
by the product of the mass or 
weight of the body into the space 
over which it has been moved ; no 
regard being had to the time occu- 
pied. The unit of mechanical effect 
is a weight of one pound raised 
through a space of one foot. 

9. The momentum of a body in 
motion means the mechanical effect 
which such a body will produce in 
a moment (or second) of time, and 
varies as the weight of the body 
multiplied by its velocity. 

10. The vis viva of a body in 
motion is the whole mechanical 
effect which it will produce in 
being brought to a state of rest, no 
regard being had to the time in 
which the effect is produced, and 
it varies as the weight of the body 
multiplied by the square of its 

Dynamometer, an instrument which 
measures any thing to which the 
name of power has been given, 
whether that of an animal or other- 

Dysodile, a papyraceous brown coal 


immediately succeeded the Norman 
towards the end of the 12th cen- 
tury, and gradually merged into 




the Decorated at the end of the 
13th. The mouldings consist of 
alternate rounds and deeply cut 
hollows, with small fillets, pro- 
ducing a strong effect of light and 
shadow. The arches are usually 
equilateral orlanced-shaped, though 
drop-arches are frequently met 
with, and sometimes pointed seg- 
mented arches : trefoil and cinque- 
foil arches are also often used in 
small openings and panelings. 
The doorways of this style, in 
large buildings, are often divided 
into two by a single shaft or small 
pin, with a quatre-foil or other 
ornament. The windows are al- 
most universally of long and narrow 
proportions, and are used singly, 
or in combinations of two, three, 
five, and seven : when thus com- 
bined, the space between them 
sometimes but little exceeds the 
width of the mullions of the later 
styles. Groined ceilings are very 

common in this style. The pillows 
usually consist of small shafts ar- 
ranged round a larger circular pier, 
but others of a different kind are 
sometimes found. The capitals 
consist of plain mouldings, or are 
enriched with foliage and sculpture 
characteristic of the style. 
Earth-work. The patented excavator, 
originally an American invention, 
is capable of cutting and levelling 
earth-work for the making of rail- 
ways and for other works at a cost 
considerably below manual labour, 
and which has the additional ad- 
vantage of saving much time : it 
forms an important consideration 
in railway making. 

By the attendance of the engine- 
man and assistant, together with 
the labour of six men for carting 
away the removed earth-work, this 
machine, it is said, can be made 
to excavate 1500 cubic yards in 
twelve hours, at a cost of fuel of 





12*. per diem. The cost of the 
machine is 1500. Earth- work 
in England has generally been 
taken at Wd. to 1*. per yard. 

This apparatus is a strong rect- 
angular frame of wood, or other 
material, mounted upon wheels, 
supported, together with the ma- 
chine, on a temporary railroad : 
at one end of this frame is a strong 
crane, consisting of a vertical shaft 
or pillar, with the jib supported by 
diagonal stays, or arms : to the 
end of the chain tackle is suspended 
a scoop, shovel, or scraper, made 
of strong boiler-plate iron, and 
consisting of two sides, end, and 
bottom, the edge of which latter is 
provided with four or more pro- 
jecting points or cutters ; and be- 
tween these, and at their roots, is 
a steel edge, well tempered, so as 
to resist stone or other hard sub- 
tance with which it may come in 
contact: the chain tackle is at- 
tached to the sides of the shovel, 
and passes over a pulley at the end 
of the jib, and over another pulley 
fixed on the top of the pillar or 
support of the crane, and from 
thence to the barrel, upon which 
it is made to coil: the periphery 
of the last-mentioned pulley is 
formed with indentations to receive 
the links of the chain, for the pur- 
pose of giving motion to the pulley, 
which has on its axis a bevel- 
wheel, taking into and driving a 
similar wheel, upon the end of an 
inclined shaft, which shaft actuates 
certain machinery fixed to and 
supported by the diagonal arms of 
the crane. This machinery con- 
sists of a barrel, with other appur- 
tenances, round which is passed a 
chain, with its ends attached to 
the opposite ends of a beam or 
arm, which is also fixed to the 
shovel or scraper. The crane is 
capable of being moved round, so 
as to turn the scoop, when ele- 
vated, either to the right or left, in 
a horizontal direction : for this 
purpose a ' horse -shoe pulley,' 


having a groove in its periphery, is 
affixed to the upper part of the 
crane: a chain, attached at each 
end to a transverse bar, passes 
round this pulley, and over certain 
horizontal and vertical guide pul- 
leys, to a barrel, in such a manner 
that, by reversing the motion of 
the barrel, the jib of the crane can 
be turned either to the right or 
left. A steam engine is erected at 
one end of the rectangular frame, 
or platform, for the purpose of 
giving motion to the various parts 
of the apparatus. When com- 
mencing operation, the shovel, or 
scraper, is suspended by the chain 
tackle in a nearly vertical position, 
with the steel points towards the 
ground : by releasing the clicks, 
or catches, of the chain barrel, and 
applying the brake, the shovel will 
be lowered, and force itself, by its 
own weight, into the ground ; then 
by communicating motion to the 
chain barrel, the tackle will be 
raised, and, by means of the in- 
dented grooved pulley, motion will 
be given to the shaft, which ac- 
tuates the machinery on the dia- 
gonal arms, which in its turn will 
force forward the shovel into the 
ground. At the same time that this 
motion is going forward, the sho- 
vel, or scraper, is being raised or 
lifted up by the tackle, by which 
means the shovel has a double 
motion, a thrusting forward mo- 
tion and a lifting motion. When 
the shovel has become filled, and 
attained its proper altitude, these 
motions stop ; and the shovel being 
prevented from returning by the 
clicks, or catches, the other barrel 
is thrown into gear by means of a 
coupling or clutch -box, and the 
crane turned round so as to bring 
the shovel over the cart, or other 
place of deposit ; and by certain 
arrangements it is turned up so as 
to empty itself ; in which position 
it is again ready for another 
Easel, for painters, the frame on 




which the canvas is laid, stretched 
for painting 

East Indian Black wood grows to an 
immense size, and is much used for 
making furniture 

Easter, a moveable feast held in com- 
memoration of the Resurrection. 
Being the most important and most 
ancient in observance, it governs 
the other moveable feasts through- 
out the year. 

Eaves, the lower edge of a sloping 
roof which overhangs the face of 
a wall, for the purpose of throwing 
off the water 

Ebony wood is of several colours, as 
yellow, red, green, and black. The 
latter is always preferred, and is 
much used. It is. imported princi- 
pally from the East, and is used for 
cabinet, mosaic, and turnery work, 
for flutes, handles of doors, knives, 
surgeons' instruments, piano-forte 
keys, &c. 

Eborarim, a term applied by the Ro- 
mans to a kind of ivory-work 

Eccentric, or Excentric, a circular disc 
revolving within a strap or ring, 
and having its axis of revolution 
on one side of the centre. It is 
used as a substitute for a crank for 
giving a reciprocating motion to 
the slide-valve or to the feed-pump 
of a steam engine. 

Eccentrics are circular sheaves with a 
hole for the driving-wheel axle, 
about 2 inches out of the centre of 
the sheave of a locomotive engine, 
which thus makes it project some 
4 inches more from the centre of 
the driving axle on one side than 
on the other. It is this eccentricity 
of motion which works the slide- 
valve gear and pumps in a very 
satisfactory manner. Eccentrics 
are fitted in two parts, and secured 
to the axle by a hoop and set- 

Eccentric hoops, hoops fitted round 
the projecting part of the eccentric 
sheaves of a locomotive engine, to 
strengthen them 

Eccentric rod and strap, the rod, the 
strap end of which encircles the 


eccentric sheave, and the other end 
connects it with the quadrant, or 
rocking-shaft, according to the 
class of a locomotive engine. In 
some engines the end is forked to 
go on the stud of the rocking- 
shaft, and opens out something 
like the letter V ; or when only 
one rod is used for both back and 
forward movements, it resembles 
the letter X. In other engines it 
is attached to the quadrants by a 
bolt, one rod for forward gear, and 
another rod for backward gear. 

Eccentric rod, the rod connecting the 
eccentric strap to the lever which 
moves the slide-valve 

Eccentric strap, a brass ring formed 
by two pieces bolted together, and 
fixed to the eccentric rod: the 
ring fits a grooved part in the cir- 
cumference of the eccentric 

Echinus, the egg and anchor, or egg 
and tongue ornament found carved 
on the ovolo, in classical architec- 

Echinus, a member of the Doric capi- 
tal ; so called from its resemblance 
to the echinus, or large vase, in 
which drinking-cups were washed 

Ecphora, the projection of any mem- 
ber or moulding before the face of 
the member or moulding next be- 
low it 

Eduction pipe, the pipe from the ex- 
haust passage of the cylinder to the 

Effect is the art of giving to a draw- 
ing a striking appearance, or so- 
lemnity, awe, sadness, mirth or 
tranquillity, by a judicious combi- 
nation of objects, and by strong 
light and shadow. It is a faithful 
representation of the appearance of 
nature, best seen under certain cir- 
cumstances and at certain times, 
such as morning effect, evening 
effect, twilight effect, and stormy 
effect, torch-light and candle-light 
effects, &c. 

Effects of buildings. " The site adap- 
ted for buildings, and the accompa- 
niments of terraces, gardens, and 
other decorations to set off their 




architectural designs, are subjects 
for consideration in which we are 
influenced by the desire to raise 
and extend the theory and practice 
to what we consider belongs to the 
art. It was in Italy, when the -fine 
arts were in perfection, that the 
laying out great villas was prac- 
tised by artists who often combined 
the practice of painting and archi- 
tecture ; and until it be adopted in 
England, the designs of the archi- 
tect never will have justice done to 
them in the execution. Our parks 
may be beautiful, our mansions 
faultless in design ; but nothing is 
more rare than to see the two pro- 
perly connected. Let the architect 
by study and observation qualify 
himself to include in his art the 
decorations around the immediate 
site of the intended building, toge- 
ther with its interior adornment, 
furniture, and upholstery, and the 
growing taste among the gentry of 
England will second such laudable 

Egyptian Architecture had its origin 
2222 years before Christ, and ad- 
vanced and flourished under dif- 
ferent dynasties. The first includes 
the two great dynasties of Theban 
princes, who governed Egypt dur- 
ing her " most high and palmy 
state," when Thebes sent forth her 
armies to distant conquest. In the 
second period is comprised the 
erection of the Pyramids. The 
third includes the reigns of the 
Ptolemies and earlier Caesars, un- 
der whom Egyptian architecture 
flourished in a second youth, and 
almost attained its original splen- 
dour. Egyptian architecture, so 
massive and so sombre, with its 
vast aisled halls without windows, 
its close files of gigantic columns, 
and its colossal statues, owes many 
characteristic forms and effects to 
earlier cavern temples in Ethiopia. 
One of the most striking peculiari- 
ties of the style is the pyramidal 
character of the ascending lines : 
it is observed in the outline of the 


portal and the gigantic pylon, in 
walls, doorways, pedestals, and 
screens : it pervades the whole 
system, and must have been occa- 
sioned by circumstances connected 
with its origin. The representa- 
tions given in ancient paintings 
show a remarkable love of uniform- 
ity of arrangement of their do- 
mestic houses and gardens. In an 
ordinary house a number of cham- 
bers were ranged round a rectan- 
gular court, as at Pompeii. The 
larger mansions sometimes consist- 
ed of an assemblage of such courts, 
the whole occupying a square or 
oblong plot. Sometimes a central 
group of buildings was surrounded 
by a narrow court. A spacious area 
often extended from front to rear, 
with a chief and side entrances at 
either end : the exterior had no- 
thing of the ponderous character 
of temple structures, which would 
have been ill-suited to the wants 
and festivities of social life. Houses 
two and three stories high were 
common; but large mansions ap- 
peartohave been low and extensive 
rather than lofty. The terraced 
top was covered by an aw r ning or 
roof, supported on light graceful 

Eidograph, an instrument contrived 
for the purpose of copying draw- 

Ekeing, in ship-building, a piece fitted 
to make good a deficiency in length 
on the lower part of the supporter 
under the cat-head, &c. ; likewise 
the piece of carved work under the 
lower end of the quarter-piece at 
the aft part of the quarter -gal- 

Elastic, springy, having the pow r er of 
returning to the form from which 
it was distorted 

Elastic force of steam. The French 
reckon an atmosphere to be equal 
to a column of mercury *76 of a 
metre in height, w r hich is only 
29'92 inches, and the boiling point 
of their thermometer is adapted 
thereto ; whereas, since about the 




commencement of the present cen- 
tury, the English have reckoned it 
to be 30 inches. This circumstance 
accounts in some degree for their 
scale of temperatures differing from 
Mr. Southern's. 

The French account of the occa- 
sion of making their experiments 
on the temperatures corresponding 
to different elasticities of steam, in 
1829, contains the following pas- 
sage : " Science did not then pos- 
sess this knowledge, and engineers 
appointed to superintend the con- 
struction of steam engines had no 
other guidance than some discord- 
ant measures upon the tempera- 
tures which correspond to the elas- 
ticities between one and eight at- 
mospheres: for higher pressures 
there was no result of direct expe- 
riments, nor any theory which 
could supply the deficiency." 

Elder wood. The branches of the elder 
contain a very light kind of pith, 
which is used, when dried, for elec- 
trical purposes ; the wood is also 
frequently used for carpenters' 
rules, weavers' shuttles, &c. 

Electrical state of the atmosphere. 
The electrical condition of the air 
in serene and tempestuous weather 
has been too much overlooked by 
meteorologists. The atmosphere 
is generally found to be in an elec- 
trical state. The apparatus for 
these observations is simply a me- 
tallic rod, insulated at its lower 
extremity, elevated at some height 
above the ground, and communi- 
cating with an electroscope. When 
the amenity of the weather will 
permit, a kite should be raised, in 
the string of which a metallic wire 
should be interwoven : this will 
collect the electricity of the higher 
regions of the air. The atmosphere 
is usually found to be positively 
electrified, and its electricity is 
stronger in the winter than in the 
summer ; and during the day than 
in the night. 

Electricity (from electrum, amber), 
was a name given at first to some 


peculiar effects observed on rub- 
bing that substance, and gradually 
extended to an immense collection 
of facts of a similar kind, as well 
as to the cause of these effects, 
whatever it may be, and to the 
science which investigates their 

This science is sometimes divided 
into five or six branches, according 
to the modes in which electric ef- 
fects may be brought about. The 
term atmospheric electricity applies 
to that which is naturally exhibited 
at nearly all times, but especially 
in thunder-storms ; common or 
frictional electricity, to that deve- 
loped by mere mechanical actions ; 
galvanism or voltaic electricity, to 
that developed by chemical action; 
j^erwo-electricity, by the action of 
heat; magneto-electricity, by that 
of magnetism ; and animal electri- 
city, by the will of certain fishes, 
which use this power as a defence. 
A more modern and comprehensive 
division is into 1. Electro-statics, 
or tensional electricity, referring to 
those effects in which the agency 
seems to have the equilibrium of 
its distribution disturbed, so as to 
be excessive or deficient in certain 
bodies, making them appear in dif- 
ferent states. 2. Electro-dynamics, 
or current electricity, describing 
those effects in which the agency 
appears to be moving from place to 
place, and displaying momentum. 

Electrum, from the Greek, a name 
given to amber, or to a mixture of 
metals composed of gold and silver 

Electrum, argentiferous gold; an alloy 
of silver 

Elegance, in a design, is a manner 
which embellishes and heightens 
objects, either as to their form or 
colour, or both, without destroying 
or perverting truth 

Elementary Instruction. Before en- 
tering into practice, it will be ne- 
cessary to bear the following rules 
and tables always in mind; and 
although we are to suppose every 
one already well acquainted with 




them, they may yet possibly be 
found useful and essential here. 


+ Plus, or more : the sign of ad- 
dition; as 5 + 6 = 11 

Minus, or less : the sign of sub- 
traction, as 20 5 = 15 

x Multiply by : the sign of multi- 
plication, as 8 x 9 = 72 

-f- Divide by : the sign of division, 
as 16-^-4 = 4 

= Equal to : the sign of equality, 
as 27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard 

: : Proportion : the sign of propor- 
tion, as 3 : 6 : : 8 : 16 

fi Fraction 

V Square root. V Cube root 


7'92 inches .... 1 link 
12 inches .... 1 foot 

3 feet 1 yard 

5-3- yards . 1 rod. pole, or perch 

4 poles, 100 links . 1 chain 
40 poles, 10 chains . Ifurlong 

8 furlongs, 1760 yards, 1 mile 
80 chains, 8000 links 1 mile 


144 square inches . 1 square foot 

9 square feet . . 1 square yard 

30} square yards { ' 

40 perches ... 1 rood 
4 roods ... 1 acre 
640 acres .... 1 square mile 


1728 solid inches . 1 cubic foot 
27 solid feet . . 1 cubic yard 

Proceeding to the various forms 
of plane surfaces, and the methods 
of measuring them, and beginning 
with the square, which has four 

A B 

equal sides and four right angles, 
as A, B, c, D, Rule : Multiply the 
given side by itself, and the product 
is the area required. Ex. 12 x 12 
= 144. 

The next figure will be a paral- 
lelogram, or oblong square. Rule 
Multiply the length by the breadth, 

and the product gives the an 
Ex. 18' 0"x6'0"=108'0". 

The next figure will be a rhom- 
bus, which has four sides all equal, 
but no right angle. Rule : Multi- 

ply the base by the perpendicular 
height, and the product is the area. 
Ex. 16' 0" x 14' 0" = 224' 0". 

The next figure will be the 
rhomboid, which has its two sides 
equal and parallel, but no right 
angle : it is a long square pushed 

A" ~ ysr ~ 7 
Zl / 

aside. Rule : Multiply the longer 
side by the perpendicular heig v * i 
or breadth, and the product is the 
area. Ex. 18'0" * 5' 6" = 99' 0". 

The next will be a right-angled 
triangle, having one of its angles a 
true square, or just 90 degrees. 





Rule: Multiply one of the legs 
forming the right angle by half 
the other ; the product is the area. 
Ex. 16' 0"-f-2 = 8'x20 / 0" = 160' 

The next figure will be a tri- 
angle. Rule: Multiply the longest 
side by one-half the perpendicular, 

and the product is the content. 
Ex. 14' 0" + 2 = 1' 0" x 24' 0" = 
168' 0", area required. 

The next figure will be the tra- 
pezium, which consists of four un- 
equal sides and four unequal an- 
gles; it is, indeed, two triangles., 
aad may be measured at twice, as 
shown in the preceding triangle, or 

by this Rule : Multiply the diagonal 
by one-half- the sum of the two 
perpendiculars. Ex. 8' 0" + 4' 0" 
= 12' 0" -r- 2 = & 0" x 20' 0" = 
120' 0", the area required. 

The next figure will be the area 
of a circle. Rule : Square the 
diameter, and multiply that pro- 
duct by -7854, a decimal, and that 

product will be the content. Ex. 
12' 0" x 12' 0"= 144' 0" x -7854 = 

The next dia- 
gram will be a 
segment or part 
of a section of a 
circle: to mea- 
sure this, mul- 
tiply half the 
sum of the two 
arches by one 
of the ends, and 
the product will 
give the area. 
Ex. 24' 0" + 
18' 0" = 42' 0" 
-=-2 = 21' 0"x 
2' 0" = 42' 0", 
which is the 
area required. 

Where the figure is found of 
the shape annexed, with two right 
angles, aiid the sides not parallel, 

hi stead of dividing it and measuring 
it as a parallelogram and an angle, 
take the mean of the two per- 
pendiculars, and multiply by the 
length; the product will give the 
area required. Ex. 12' 0" + 8' 0" 
= 20' 0"+2 =10' 0"= x 32' 0" = 
320' 0". 

It is now necessary to take into 
consideration the methods of mea- 
suring solid or cubic bodies; for 
example, to begin with a cube, viz. 
a solid bounded by six square sides, 
similar to a die. 

Rule : Mul- 
tiply the side 
by itself, and 
that product 
by the side 
again; the last 
product will 
be the solid content. Ex. 6' 0" x 
6' 0" = 36' 0" x 6' 0" = 216' 0" 
cubic feet. 





The next figure 
is the parallelo- 
pipedon, or ob- 
long cube. Rule: 
Multiply the 
breadth by the 
depth, and that 
product by the 
length ; this last 
product will be 
the content of it. 
Ex. 6'0 " x 8' 0" 
= 48 / 0"x32 / 0" 
= 1536' 0" = 
the required con- 
tent of the paral- 

Next proceed to 
the prism, to measure 
which, find the area at 
the end, multiply that 
by the length, and that 
product is the content. 
Ex. The perpendicular 
height, 6' 0" -* 2 = 
3' 0"xl2' 0" = 36' 0" 

The inclined plane 
and wedge may be 
measured by the same 
rule as the prism ; but 
the readier way is to j 
multiply one - half of | 
the thickness of the 
base by its width, and 

that by the perpendicular or length. 
Ex. 3' 0" x 15' // = 45 / 0" x 20' 0" 
= 900' 0" = content of inclined 

This figure will be found in all 
earth-work, passing from cutting 
to embankment. 

Again, 6' 0" x 15' 0" = 90' 0" x 
20' 0"=1800' 0", content of the 

The next figure is a square pyra- 
mid, and the one-half of which is 
a very prominent formation in 
banks, and is measured by multi- 

plying the area of the base by one- 
third the height or length. Ex. 
V 0" x & 0" = 36 7 0" x 6' 0" = 
216' 0" content. 

Arriving now at the cylinder, 
this is measured by multiplying 

the area of the base or end by the 
length. Ex. 12' 0" x 12' 0" = 
144'0"x -7854 = 113-0976 x 20' 0" 
= 2260'0". 

The cone is also measured by 
multiplying the area of the base by 
one-third the perpendicular height, 
Ex. 12' 0" x 12' 0" = 144' 0" x 
7854 = 113' 0" x & 8" = 753' 4". 





The next figure is the frustrum 
of a square pyramid, which also is 
a form peculiar in 
embankments and 
cuttings. Rule : 
To four times the 
area of the mean 
base add the area 
of each end, which 
divide by 6 ; mul- 
tiply the product 
by the length, you 
will find the con- 
tents. Ex. 4' 0" + 
6' 0"=10' 0"-r-2 
= 5' 0", the mean 
height of the base 
or thickness will be 
5' 0" ; 5' 0" x 5' 0" 
= 25' 0"x 4' 0" = 
100'0"+36'0" = 
136'0' / + 16'0 // =152 / 0"; 152'0" 
-f-6' 0" = 25' 4"x 20' 0" = 506' 8" 

The same rule applies to the 
frustrum of a cone. 
Elizabethan Architecture, the style 
which prevailed in England at the 
time of Queen Elizabeth, and im- 
mediately subsequent to the Tudor 
style of Henry VIII. 
Ellipse : this curve is one of the conic 
sections, and next in importance 
to the circle and the straight line 
Ellipsis, an oval figure generated from 
the section of a cone by a plane 
cutting both sides of the cone, but 
not parallel to the base, and meet- 
ing with the base when produced 
Elliptic compasses, a term given to 
any machine for describing ellipses 
Elliptoffraph, an instrument for draw- 
ing ellipses 

Elm, atiraber-tree, of European growth, 
and of which there are five species : 
mean size, 44 feet long, 32 inches 
diameter : it is not liable to split, 
and bears the driving of nails, bolts, 
&c. : much used in building ; also 
for the keels of vessels, and for wet 

Elongation, the act of lengthening 
Elutriation, the separation of foul sub- 
stances from pure, by pulverization 


Elvan, (in Cornish), a hard close- 
grained stone, said to be a bastard 

Embankments, raised mounds or dykes 
to preserve the proper and useful 
course of rivers, &c. ; and also for 
forming a level line of railway 

Embankments (some) executed on the 
Continent. On the banks of the 
Po, two sorts of dykes are used to 
prevent the river from overflowing 
during the winter, or the flood 
season. They are called ' in froldi' 
when immediately upon the banks 
of the river, and 'in golene' when 
at any considerable distance, as it 
is sometimes found advisable to 
allow the river to spread over a 
large surface of the adjacent valley, 
either for the purpose of admitting 
it to deposit the mud in suspension, 
or to allow it to lose its torrential 
character. The maintenance of 
the works of these dykes is con- 
fided to the Government engineers, 
who are under the control of a 
syndicate of the proprietors of the 
property most liable to be affected 
by inundations. When the river 
passes from one state to another, 
as from Piedmont to Modena, a 
mixed commission is charged with 
the joint superintendence. 

The Haarlem lake, besides the 
very remarkable steam engines de- 
scribed by Mr. Dempsey, merits 
observation for the extensive works 
executed for the defence of the 
land, and for the canals reserved 
for the navigation. The enclosure 
dyke is 50,000 metres long, or 
rather more than 31 miles. It has 
two outfall dykes, which serve for 
the navigation, 9000 metres, about 
5^ miles ; one-half of which is 40 m - 
(131 ft. 2 in.) wide at the bottom 
or floor line; the other 43 m> 20 
(141ft. 10 in.) 

The ordinary tides are, at the 
flux, 2 ft. 4 in. above the scale or 
datum line at Amsterdam ; at the 
reflux, 2 ft. 8 in. below the same 
datum : the difference between 
high and low water is then, on the 




average, about 5 feet. With vio- 
lent winds from the N. w. however, 
the tides rise sometimes 6 ft. 6 in. 
above the average. The tides of 
the Y, near the lake, are + 16 C- (or 
6 1 in.) and 23 C> (or 9 in.), giving 
a total variation of 1 ft. 3^ in. 

The estimated cost of reclaiming 
the 18,000 hectares was 8 millions 
of florins, or 667,000 English, 
nearly, about 13 per acre. Pre- 
viously to undertaking this colos- 
sal work, the Zind Plas, of 4600 
hectares superficial (nearly 11,500 
acres), had been reclaimed at a cost 
of 3 millions of florins, or 250,000; 
not far from 22 per acre. 

The heights of the enclosure 
dyke are + or the datum line 
at Amsterdam, or the mean level of 
the sea in that port. 

Embankment of the flooded part of 
the Amsterdam and Haarlem Rail- 
way. The bottom part consists of 
treble ranges of fascines, tied down 
by longitudinal poles 1 metre apart 
from centre to centre, and 0'25 C< 
diameter; two double stakes at 
each end of the poles, and two ties 
in the intermediate distances. The 
interstices of the fascines and the 
space between the rows are filled in 
with sand. The upper part, form- 
ing the encasement for the ballast, 
is made of three rows of treble fas- 
cines, well staked, and wattled to- 

A core of sand or clay, faced with 
step fascines, is made up to low- 
water mark. Upon this a bed of 
rushes, fastened down by stakes 
and wattles, is laid ; and the upper 
portion of the bank is faced with 
fascines of a regular slope of 1 to 1. 

Embattled, a term applied to any 
building with a parapet, and having 
embrasures to resemble a battery 

Emblema, an emblem, or inlaid orna- 
ment of divers colours 

Embolus, in mechanics, a wedge ; an- 
ciently, among the Greeks, the prow 
or beak of a vessel, or a body of 
soldiers in the form of a wedge 

Embossing, forming work in relievo, 


whether cast or cut with a chisel ; 
or in modern times, the art of pro- 
ducing raised figures upon wood or 
other materials by means of pressure, 
either applied by a sudden blow, as 
in a stamping press, or in a more 
gradual manner, as by an ordinary 
screw or hydraulic press, orbymeans 
of revolving cylinders 

Embrasure, the crenelles or intervals 
between the merlons of a battlement 

Embroidery, a mode of working de- 
vices on woven substances 

Emerald green is a new colour of cop- 
per green upon a terrene base : it is 
the most vivid of this tribe of 
colours, being rather opaque, and 
powerfully reflective of light : it 
appears to be the most durable pig- 
ment of its class 

Emissarium, a sluice, flood-gate, or 
channelby which an outlet is formed 
to carry off stagnant or foul water : 
accordingto Pliny, an artificial canal 
formed for the draining of stagnant 

Emplecton, a method of constructing 
walls introduced by the Greeks and 
copied by the Roman architects, in 
which the outside surfaces on both 
sides were formed of ashlar laid in 
regular courses, and the central 
space between them filled in with 
rubble-work, layers of cross stones 
being placed at intervals in regular 
courses, and of sufficient size to ex- 
tend through the entire thickness 
of the wall from side to side, and 
so act as girders to bind the whole 

Emporium, a mart or factory, a large 
building containing ranges of bond- 
ing warehouses, in which foreign 
merchandise brought by sea is de- 
posited for sale 

Enamelling, the art of using enamel, 
which is divided into transparent 
and opaque. The first is employed 
for the purpose of ornamenting gold 
and silver ; the second, commonly 
in the manufacture of watch and 
clock dials, and of plates for pic- 
tures, &c. 

Encarpa, according to Vitruvius, fes- 




toons of carved fruit and flowers, 
employed as decorative ornaments 

Encarpus, a festoon of fruit, flowers, 
&c.,used as ornaments on friezes 

Encaustica, the art of encaustic paint- 
ing, i. e. in colours mixed with wax, 
and afterwards hardened by the ac- 
tion of fire 

Encaustic painting, a kind of painting 
in which, by heating or burning in, 
the colours are rendered permanent 
in all their original splendour 

Enchasing, the art of enriching and 
beautifying gold, silver, and other 
metal work, by some design or 
figure represented thereon in low 

Enclosure, a fence, a wall, or hedge, or 
other means of protection and se- 
curity surrounding land 

Endecagon, in geometry, a plane figure 
of eleven sides and angles 

End-irons, andirons or dogs, articles 
of household furniture in earlier 
times, used in fire-places to sustain 
the ends of logs of wood 

Engineering, Civil. This profession 
may be said to have originated in 
England about the middle of the 
last century. Before that period, 
whenever the prospects of great 
profit induced individuals or bodies 
to incorporate themselves for the 
purpose of undertaking extensive 
systems of drainage, or for the 
supply of water, requiring the as- 
sistance of an engineer, recourse 
was generally had to those great 
masters of hydraulic engineering, 
the Dutch. True it is that some so- 
litary exceptions bave occasionally 
beenfound; men who, like Sir Hugh 
Myddelton, combined a speculative 
turn of mind with some mechanical 
knowledge, and to tbese two quali- 
ties added an untiring energy of pur- 
pose, leading them to persevere in 
any undertaking, even under the 
most discouraging circumstances. 
But these men were rare instances 
of a peculiar talent, which, though 
it thus displayed itself occasionally, 
was far too uncommon a gift to 
allow the possessors of it to form a 


class or profession. The case is very 
different now : a demand for this 
peculiar talent has been created of 
late years by the extraordinary de- 
velopment of our system of internal 
communication, as well as by the 
application of steam to the purposes 
of our manufactures ; and employ- 
ment is now found for hundreds 
where one was sufficient, not fifty 
years since, for the whole business of 
the country. So great indeed has 
been the demand, that the profes- 
sion may be said to be divided into 
two distinct bodies, viz. those who 
turn their attention to subjects 
which come more particularly within 
the scope of the duty of a civil en- 
gineer, such as docks, bridges, 
canals, railroads, &c., and those 
who devote themselves altogether 
to the manufacture of machinery. 
The duties which are involved in 
the practice of these two branches 
of the profession, though apparently 
dissimilar in character, are yet 
founded upon the same general 
principles ; and the acquirements 
which are necessary to enable the 
individual of one class to distin- 
guish himself, or even to practise 
his profession with a moderate 
chance of success, will be found 
equally necessary for those of the 
other class. 

These acquirements are partly 
abstract and theoretical, and partly 
experimental or practical. A civil 
engineer should, in addition to the 
knowledge required to fit him as 
well as others for the active duties of 
life, have such a knowledge of ma- 
thematics as will enable him to in- 
vestigate as well as to apply the 
rules laid down by writers on those 
branches of the mixed sciences to 
which his attention will most fre- 
quently be drawn. He should be 
well acquainted with the principles 
of mechanics,hydraulics,and indeed 
with all the branches of natural 
philosophy; an da certain amount of 
chemical knowledge will be found 
very valuable : he should be able to 




draw neatly, and should understand 
the principles of projection upon 
which all engineering drawings are 
constructed: a general knowledge 
of the principles of architecture will 
also be essential. Having acquired 
the requisite amount of theoretical 
information, the next step is to gain 
that practical knowledge which is 
essential in order to the proper ap- 
plication of this information. The 
best mode of gaining this experience 
is to enter into the employment of 
some eminent man in the profession, 
in whose office there will be every 
opportunity offered to the young 
beginner of witnessing the mode in 
which the various descriptions of 
work are carried on. He will there 
be employed, first as a draughtsman, 
in copying drawings : as he becomes 
more acquainted with practical de- 
tails, he will have more responsi- 
bility thrown upon him, and be 
placed in charge of works, at first 
of small importance, but, by degrees, 
of those of such magnitude as will 
require all his theoretical know- 
ledge, and all the practical expe- 
rience he may have gained, to enable 
him to carry out the work to the 
satisfaction of his employers : he 
should cultivate a habit of observa- 
tion, and make a point of taking 
ample notes and sketches of what- 
ever he may see which in any way 
bears upon his profession. Having 
thus by degrees acquired a sufficient 
amount of information to give him 
a confidence in his own judgment 
upon any subject which may be 
submitted to him, and having be- 
come known as an active and intel- 
ligent agent of others, he will very 
possibly be called upon to plan and 
execute a work himself, and then, 
by degrees, with industry and ac- 
tivity, may work his way upwards 
in a profession where merit alone 
can lead to distinction. 

The course of the man who de- 
votes himself to the machinery 
branch of the profession differs but 
little, up to a certain point, from 


that just described : his theoretical 
acquirements should be the same, 
but the practical part of his edu- 
cation will commence at the bench, 
where he will learn the use of all 
the tools and machinery by working 
at them with his own hands : he 
will then be placed in the drawing 
room, and go through much the 
same routine of instruction as before 
described, and will by degrees work 
his way up to the position of fore- 
man ; then, distinguishing himself 
by a power of applying general prin- 
ciples to particular cases, he will 
show himself capable of assuming 
the direction of an establishment 
for the manufacture of machinery, 
Engineer, Steam-boat. A steam-boat 
engineer is a person employed for 
the purpose of keeping the engine 
or engines of a steam vessel in as 
efficient a state as possible, and to 
superintend their working. 

He must set the engines to work, 
regulate their speed, and stop them 
as may be required. His duties 
while the engines are at work are 
various. He must take care that 
every moving part is properly lu- 
bricated ; that no steam is allowed 
to pass through valves or joints that 
ought to be steam-tight ; that no 
air is permitted to enter into any of 
the parts of the engine where it is 
essential that a vacuum should be 
kept up ; and that none of the bolts, 
or pins, or keys, work loose by the 
vibration, and shift their position, 
or come out of their places. He 
must also take care that none of the 
working parts become overheated 
by any undue amount of friction, 
arising from any want of proper lu- 
brication, any excessive tightness, or 
any other disturbing cause ; and if 
they should become overheated, he 
must take prompt and energetic 
measures to remedy the evil, and 
prevent any serious consequences 
arising therefrom. He must from 
time to time carefully observe the 
effect produced by the gradual wear 
of the working parts, so that if the 




truth or accuracy of any of these 
seems to be materially affected, he 
may take steps to rectify the defects 
when lying up in harbour. He must 
also be careful to observe if the 
frame of the engine ever begins to 
move or work iu any way, and en- 
deavour to discover the cause, in 
order that it may be remedied when 
the engines are "at rest. One of the 
most important of his duties is to 
take care that the engines are kept 
clean, and any grit or dirt prevented 
from getting into the bearings or 
moving parts : he must wipe away 
all oil and grease most carefully 
and completely as soon as they have 
passed through the bearings, and 
prevent them from running down 
the rods or remaining about the 

The boiler requires his unremit- 
ting and particular attention, in 
order that the proper supply of 
steam, neither too much nor too 
little, may be generated for the en- 
gine. To insure this, the manage- 
ment of the fires must be duly at- 
tended to, both in the supply of coal 
in the proper quantities at the pro- 
per intervals, and in the periodical 
clearing of the fires from the earthy 
matters of the coal, which may have 
become vitrified in the furnace, and 
formed what are called clinkers. 
By due attention to the former, the 
smoke in all well-proportioned boil- 
ers maybe very greatly abated; and, 
by due attention to both, the con- 
sumption of fuel (when the engines 
are prevented by a strong head 
wind, or by the deep immersion of 
the paddle-wheels on the commence- 
ment of a long voyage, from making 
the proper number of strokes, and 
thus using the proper amount of 
steam,) may be reduced in an equal 
or greater degree than has taken 
place in the consumption of steam. 
The due and constant supply of 
water to the boiler, to compensate 
for the constant evaporation of the 
water in the formation of the steam, 
must be assiduously attended to. 


Another of the most important of 
the duties of a steam-boat engineer, 
during the time that the engines 
are at work on a voyage at sea, 
is to attend to the degree to which 
the water in the boilers may be- 
come saturated with salt by the con- 
tinued evaporation which is going 
on, and to take care that this satu- 
ration is not allowed to be carried 
to such an extent as that a deposi- 
tion of the salt and other matters 
contained in sea-water should take 
place. After the boilers have been 
in operation for three or four hours 
in salt water, so that the water in 
them has become brine, he ought to 
test the strength of it, that is, he 
ought to ascertain the degree of sa- 
turation to which it has reached, 
and continue this examination pe- 
riodically, whether the engines are 
fitted with an apparatus for the con- 
tinuous discharge of a portion of 
the brine, to be exchanged for a 
portion of sea- water, or whether this 
system of exchange is left entirely 
at his discretion, to be attended to 
by means of the common blow-off 
cocks. The best test is the common 
hydrometer, though the thermome- 
ter has hitherto been more com- 
monly applied to this purpose, as 
the brine is considered to be of a 
proper strength when it boils under 
atmospheric pressure at a tempera- 
ture 2 higher than that at which 
the common sea-w r ater will boil at 
the same time, under the same cir- 

Before coming into port, it may 
occasionally be advantageous to take 
indicator diagrams, to see whether 
the action of the valves continues 
to be correct. 

The duties of a steam-boat en- 
gineer, on arriving in port after a 
long voyage, are also various, and 
equally important with those he has 
to perform when out at sea. Im- 
mediately on coming to anchor, it 
is a good practice to test the tight- 
ness of the steam -valves and pistons, 
by putting them in such a position 




that it can be seen if they allow any 
steam to pass when it ought not to 
do so. If any imperfections in these 
the most vital parts of the engines 
are discovered, he mustdrawout the 
valves, or lift the cylinder covers, to 
get at the pistons, and rectify the 
defects in the best manner that he 
can with the means within his 
power. He should also occasionally 
examine all the interior parts of the 
engines, and rectify any incipient 
defects. He must now also rectify 
any want of truth in the parallel mo- 
tion or in any of the shafts or work- 
ing parts caused by wear, and tighten 
or make good any of the fastenings 
of the frame if he has found them 
to be loose, and put to rights any 
other such defects. Any parts sub- 
ject to corrosion should be carefully 
examined, cleaned, and dried, and 
painted if need be. The water 
should be blown off out of the 
boilers as completely as possible, 
and all ashes and soot thoroughly 
cleaned out of the furnaces and 
ffoaes as soon as possible. The fur- 
naces and flues must then be tho- 
roughly examined, and the slightest 
leak or defect that can be discovered 
made good ; as it is especially im- 
portant in a boiler to stop these 
defects at the first, as otherwise 
they spread very rapidly. No pains 
should be sparedto discover any sus- 
pected leak of steam on the top of 
the boiler, as nothing tends more to 
corrode and destroy a boiler than 
this. Inside the boilers, any scale 
that may have been deposited from 
the brine having been allowed to be- 
come too strong must be removed, 
and the whole thoroughly cleaned 
out from every part of the boiler, 
from below as well as from the tops 
and sides of the furnaces and flues. 
The take-up, the inside of the steam- 
chests, and of theroofs of the boilers, 
which are the parts most subject to 
corrosion from the interior, should 
be very carefully examined, and 
after being duly scraped and cleaned 
and dried, they should be well 


painted with two or three coats of 
red lead, or done over with some 
other preservative. 

The paddle-wheels should also be 
thoroughly examined, and any bro- 
ken floats or hook -bolts replaced by 
new ones. The whole of the iron- 
work should be thoroughly scraped 
and cleaned, and, when dry, painted 
with three coats of red lead, or 
done over with black varnish, once 
every four months at least. When 
in harbour, especially if lying in a 
stream or tideway, the wheels ought 
to be turned round every three or 
four days, to change the parts ex- 
posed to the action of the water, and 
thus prevent corrosion. 

He must now also get his supply 
of stores made good, so as to be 
ready for another voyage. 

To qualify an engineer to per- 
form these duties, he should be 
trained as a mechanic, and be a fair 
workman in iron, brass, and wood. 
He should be able to work not only 
at the lathe or vice, but also at a 
smith's forge. His education should 
be such as to make him able to keep 
accounts, and make notes in his log 
of all that occurs in the engine- 
room. He should have sufficient 
knowledge of mechanical drawing 
to enable him, in the event of any 
important part of the engines being 
broken when at a distance from any 
manufactory, to make such a draw- 
ing of it as would enable a manu- 
facturer to replace it. He should 
have some knowledge of the first 
principles of mechanics, a general 
knowledge of the leading principles 
of hydrostatics, hydraulics, and 
pneumatics, without which he can- 
not fully understand many of the 
principles carried on in the engine, 
and on which its power depends. 
Some knowledge of heat, of the 
theory of combustion, of ebullition, 
and of evaporation, may also be 
reckoned as almost indispensable : 
to which should be added, if pos- 
sible, an acquaintance with the sub- 
ject of steam, especially as regards 




its temperature, pressure, and latent 

Engineer, Mechanical, one who is effi- 
cient in the invention, contrivance, 
putting together, and the adjustment 
of all kinds of machinery ; who is 
acquainted with the strength and 
quality of the material used, and who 
also possesses a thorough knowledge 
of the power of steam andthe engine 
in all its modifications, andthe uses 
for which this motive power is ap- 
plied : he should also be duly ac- 
quainted with mill-work of the 
several kinds, whether impelled by 
steam, water, or wind. 

English School of Painting. This 
school, which is but of recent date, 
is connected with the Royal Aca- 
demy in London, instituted in 1 766 ; 
and although as a school it did not 
exist before that period, yet since 
the revival of the arts, and the con- 
sequent encouragement given to 
them by the sovereigns of Europe, 
England has possessed portrait- 
painters of no inconsiderable ability; 
and it is probably owing to the re- 
markable partiality of the nation 
for this branch of the art, that 
historical painting has been, until 
recently, comparatively neglected. 
Latterly, however, painters of the 
highest eminence in this superior 
branch of the art have distinguished 
themselves, and given earnest of the 
rise of a school that may, ere long, 
surpass others of the present age. 

Entablature, those members of a por- 
tico which were constructed upon 
the columns, consisting of the epi- 
stylium, zophorus, and corona. Vi- 
truvius uses the words ornamenta 
columnarum to signify these mem- 
bers; and sometimes he includes 
the three several parts in the term 

Entablature, the superstructure that 
lies horizontally upon the columns 
in the several orders or styles of 
architecture. It is divided into 
architrave, the part immediately 
above the column ; frieze, the cen- 
tral space ; and cornice, the upper 

projecting mouldings. Each of the 
orders has its appropriate entabla- 
ture, of which both the general 
height and the subdivisions are regu- 
lated by a scale of proportion derived 
from the diameter of the column. 

Entablatures, and their subdivision. 
The entablature, though architects 
frequently vary from the proportions 
here specified, may, as a general 
rule, be set up one-fourth the height 
of the column. The total height 
thereof thus obtained is in all the 
orders, except the Doric, divided 
into ten parts, three of which are 
given to the architrave, three to the 
frieze, and four to the cornice. But 
in the Doric order the whole height 
should be divided into eight parts, 
and two given to the architrave, 
three to the frieze, and three to the 
cornice. The mouldings which form 
the detail of these leading features 
are best learned by reference to re- 
presentations of the orders at large. 
Palladio and Vignola, the restorers 
of genuine architecture, are the 
authors whose works may be con- 
sulted with greatest advantage by 
those who desire to make any 
advance in the science, and most 
particularly by those who wish to 
obtain further knowledge on the 
use and abuse of its details. 

Entail, a term used in the middle ages 
to signify elaborated sculptured or- 
naments and carvings 

Entasis, the swell of the shaft or co- 
lumns of either of the orders of ar- 

Enterclose, a passage between two 
rooms in a house, or that leading 
from the door to the hall 

Entresol, in architecture, a floor be- 
twe'en two other floors. The en- 
tresol consists of a low apartment 
usually placed above the first floor: 
in London, frequently between the 
ground floor and the first floor. 

Ejihebeum, an apartment in the pa- 
lestra appropriated to wrestling 
and other athletic exercises 

Epicycle, a little circle whose centre 
is in the circumference of a greater 






Epicycloid, a curve generated by the 
revolution of the periphery of a 
circle along the convex or concave 
part of another circle 

Epicycloidal wheel, a wheel for con- 
verting circular into alternate mo- 
tion, or alternate into circular 

Episcenium, a division of the scene of 
a Greek theatre : it sometimes con- 
sisted of three divisions made by 
ranges of columns one above the 
other: the lower was termed scena, 
and the others episcenia 

Epistomium, the cock or spout of a 
water-pipe, or of any vessel contain- 
ing liquids to be drawn off in small 
quantities when required 

Epistylium,ihe lower of three divisions 
of an entablature or superstructure 
upon the columns of a portico, 
formed by pieces etxending from 
centre to centre of two columns 

Epistylium, the architrave or hori- 
zontal course resting immediately 
upon columns. Epistylar arcuation 
is the system in which columns sup- 
port arches instead of horizontal 
architraves and entablatures. 

Epitithidas, a term applied by some 
writers, by way of distinction, to the 
cymatium on the sloping or raking 
cornices of a pediment, which su- 
perimposed moulding (as its name 
implies) was frequently largely de- 
veloped, and enriched with an or- 
namental pattern 

Epitithides, the upper members of the 
corona surmounting the fastigium 
of a temple, which was also con- 
tinued along the flanks 

Equation, an equal division : in alge- 
bra, a mutual comparing of things 
of different denominations : in as- 
tronomy, the difference between the 
apparent and mean motion of the sun 
' Equilateral, having all sides equal 
i Equilibrium, equipoise, equality of 

Equilibrium valve, the valve in the 
steam passage of a Cornish engine 
for opening the communication be- 
tween the top and bottom of the 
cylinder, to render the pressure 
equal on both sides of the piston 


Era. The year 5611 of the Jewish 
era commences September 7, 1850 ; 
Ramadan, the month of abstinence 
observedbytheTurks, July 11, 1850; 
the year 1267 of the Mohammedan 
era, Nov. 6,1850 ; and the Christian 
era, 1849 since the birth of Jesus 
Christ, for 1850 years, on the 1st 
of January, 1850. 

Ergastulum, a sort of prison or house 
of correction contiguous to the farms 
and country villas of the Romans 

Ergata, a capstan or windlass 

Ermine, in heraldry, a white field or 
fur, powdered and interspersed with 
black spots, resembling the skin of 
an animal so named 

Escape, the scape of a column in ar- 

Escutcheon, a shield charged with 
armorial bearings 

Etching, a branch of engraving in 
which the lines are drawn by a 
stylus or etching-needle, on copper, 
steel, or stone, prepared by a che- 
mical process 

Eudiometer, an instrument used to 
ascertain the purity of air, or rather 
the quantity of oxygen contained 
in any given bulk of elastic fluid 

Euripus, any artificial canal or water- 
course, of greater or lesser extent, 
such as were made, according to 
Pliny, to ornament a Roman villa ; 
also an arm of the sea 

Eustyle, that intercolumniation which, 
as its name would import, the an- 
cients considered the most elegant, 
viz. two diameters and a quarter of 
the column. Vitruvius says, this 
manner of arranging columns ex- 
ceeds all others in strength, con- 
venience, and beauty 

Evaporation, the transformation of a 
liquid into a gaseous state by the 
action of heat 

Evolute, a particular species of curve 

Evolution, in geometry: the equable 
evolution of the periphery of a 
circle, or any other curve, is such 
a gradual approach of the circum- 
ference to rectitude as that all the 
parts meet together, and equally 
evolve or unbend 




Ewry, an office of household service, 
where the ewers, &c., were formerly 

Examen, the tongue on the beam of a 
balance, rising perpendicularly from 
the beam, and moving in an eye 
affixed to the same, by which it 
serves to point out the equality or 
inequality of weight between the 
objects in the scale 

Exedra, an assembly-room or hall of 
conversation ; according to Vitru- 
vius, a large and handsome apart- 
ment ; also a by-place, or jutty 

Exedra, or Exhedra, the portico of the 
Grecian palaestra, in which dispu- 
tations of the learned were held : 
so called from its containing a num- 
ber of seats, generally open, like the 
pastas or vestibule of a Greek house 

Exemplar, a pattern, plan, or model ; 

Exhaust-port, the exit passage for the 
steam from a cylinder 

Exhaust -valve, the valve in the educ- 
tion passage of the steam cylinder 
of a Cornish engine, placed between 
the cylinder and air-pump, and 
worked by the tappet motion, so as 
to open shortly after the equili- 
brium valve, and admit the steam 
to the condenser 

Expansion joint, a stuffing-box joint 
connecting the steam pipes, so as 
to allow one of them to slide 
within the enlarged end of the 
other when the length increases 
by expansion 

Expansion valve, an auxiliary valve 
placed between the slide-valve and 
the steam cylinder: it is worked 
by a cam or other contrivance, so 
as to cut off the steam at a given 
period, and cause the remainder of 
the stroke to be performed by ex- 

Expansive steam. The expansive pro- 
perties of steam are now well under- 
stood, and extensively applied to 
practice in manufacturing districts. 
In Cornwall, and in some other 
parts ofthekingdom,the application 
is attended with highly beneficial 
results. But it should be stated 


that this system can be introduced 
with much greater advantage in en- 
gines that are employed in raising 
water, than in those which are en- 
tirely devoted to manufacturingpur- 
poses. In these last, the power is 
opposed to a continually varying 
resistance ; while, in the former, the 
resistance is commonly the same, 
or of equal intensity. 

To pumping engines, the adop- 
tion of the expansive system to an 
almost unlimited extent is recom- 
mended, even to the exclusion of 
any further ingress of steam to the 
cylinder after the piston has passed 
through but one-eighth or one- ; 
ninth of its stroke. 

Expansive steam may be thus ! 
explained : If we allow steam to 
flow into the cylinder of a steam 
engine until the piston be de- 
pressed to one-half of the stroke, 
and then prevent the admission of 
any further quantity, the piston 
will, if the engine be properly 
weighted, continue its motion to 
the bottom. The pressure of the 
steam, so long as the supply is 
continued from the boiler, will 
be equal, it is presumed, to ten 
pounds upon the inch. With this 
force it will act upon the piston 
until it completes one-half of the i 
stroke : the further supply of steam i 
will then be excluded, and that ( 
which is in the cylinder will ex- 
pand as the piston descends, so 
that when the stroke is completed 
it will occupy the entire capacity. 
The pressure of the steam will then 
be half of its former amount, or 
five pounds upon the inch. 

During the descent of the piston, 
the pressure of the steam does not 
suddenly decrease from ten pounds 
to five ; but it gradually declines, 
through the successive intervals, 
until at the final point it yields that 
force. It is by this gradual expan- 
sion and diminution of pressure that 
the superior action is produced. 
Experiments on Brass. Dr. Young 
made some experiments on brass, 




from which he calculated the 
height of the modulus of elasticity 
of brass plate to be 4,940,000 feet, 
or 18,000,000fts. for its weight to 
a base of 1 square inch. For wire 
of inferior brass he found the 
height to be 4,700,000 feet. 

As cast brass had not been sub- 
mitted to experiment, a cast bar 
of good brass was procured, with 
which the following experiment was 
made : 

The bar was filed true and regu- 
lar : its depth was 0*45 inch, and 
breadth 07 inch ; the distance be- 
tween the supports was 12 inches, 
and the scale suspended from the 

tbs. inch.. 

12 bent the bar 0-01 
23 .. . . 0-02 

f~ The bar was 
n f.,, I relieved seve- 
" r; <> ral times, but 
[_ ceptible set. 
n n ^ f relieved, the 

D 1 set was -01. 
. . 0-1S 

C slipped between the 
, r.,y I supports, bent more 

| than 2 inches, but did 
t not break. 

Hence 52 tbs. seems to be about 
the limit which could not be 
much exceeded without permanent 
change of structure. It is equiva- 
lent to a strain of 6 700 tbs. upon a 
square inch, and the corresponding 
extension is 13 1 33 of its length. Ab- 
solute cohesion above 21, 000 tbs. 
per square inch. The modulus of 
elasticity according to this experi- 
ment is 8,930,000 tbs. for a base of 
an inch square. The specific gra- 
vity of the brass is 8 '3 7, whence 
we have 2,460,000 feet for the 
height of the modulus. 
Expression principally consists in, re- 
presenting the human body and alt 
its parts in the action suitable to 
it ; in exhibiting in the face the 
several passions proper to the 
figures, and marking the motions 




they impress on the other external 

Expression, in painting, consists in 
the representation of those atti- 
tudes of the body, and variations 
of the countenance, which always 
accompany and indicate the imme- 
diate influence of the passions on 
the mind 

Expression of colour. Every pas- 
sion and affection of the mind has 
its appropriate tint ; and colour- 
ing, if properly adapted, lends its 
aid, with powerful effect, in the 
just discrimination and forcible ex- 
pression of them : it heightens joy, 
warms love, inflames anger, deep- 
ens sadness, and adds coldness to 
the cheek of death itself. 

External thermometer (the) should be 
a mercurial one, well exhausted of 
air, and the graduated scale divided 
to tenths of a degree, or into quar- 
ters of a degree, or with whole 
divisions large enough to be di- 
vided into as many parts by the 
eye. Choose a locality for the 
instrument, where it will be well 
exposed to the ambient air, apart 
from the reflection of sunbeams, 
&c., and where it may be dis- 
tinctly read off without inconve- 
nience. It should be read off as 
quickly as possible. For uniformity 
of system, it should be read off at 
stated periods, the same time at 
which the barometer, &c., are 
noted:, and carefully watched in 
the interim, to see whenever any 
remarkable change occurs ; before 
and after storms, during eclipses of 
the sun and moon, or the passage 
of dense clouds of vapour, &c. 

Extract of gamboge is the colouring 
matter of gamboge separated from 
its greenish gum and impurities by 
solution in alcohol and precipita- 
tion, by which means it acquires a 
powdery texture, rendering it 
miseible in oil, &c., and capable 
of use in glazing. It is at the 
same time improved in colour, and 
retains its original property of 
working well in water and gum. 




Extrados, the exterior curve of an 
arch, measured on the top of the 
voussoirs, as opposed to the soffit 
or intrados 

Eye, a name given to certain circular 
parts and apertures in architecture, 


FABER, a name given by the Romans 
to any artisan or mechanic who 
worked in hard materials 

Fabrica, according to the Romans, 
the workshop of any mechanic 

Fabrilia, according to Horace, me- 
chanics' tools 

Fapade, the face or front of any con- 
siderable building to a street, court, 
garden, or other place 

Face-jriece, in ship-building, a piece 
wrought on the fore-part of the 
knee of the head, to assist the con- 
version of the main-piece, and to 
shorten the upper bolts of the 
knee of the head 

Fahrenheit, a native of Dantzic, was 
born in 1686 : he invented the scale 
so called after his name : he also im- 
proved the thermometer by substi- 
tuting mercury instead of spirits of 
wine, and formed a new scale for 
the instrument,founded on accurate 
experiments, fixing the freezing 
point of water at 32, and that of 
boiling at 212 

Faldstool, or folding stool, a portable 
seat made to fold up in the man- 
ner of a camp stool : it was made 
either of metal or wood, and some- 
times covered with rich silk 

FaUe roof, the space between the 
ceiling and the roof above it, whe- 
ther the ceiling is of plaster or a 
stone vault, as at King's College 
chapel, Cambridge, and St. Jaques' 
church, Liege 

Fan-tracery vaulting : this was used 
in late Perpendicular work, in 
w r hich all the ribs that rise from 
the springing of the vault have the 
same curve, and diverge equally in 
every direction, producing an effect 
like the bones of a fan : very fine 
examples of it exist in Henry the 


but more especially to the central 
circle of the Ionic volute ; to the 
circular or oval window in a pedi- 
ment ; to a small skylight in a 
roof, or the aperture at the sum- 
mit of a cupola 


Tilth's chapel, Westminster, St. 
George's chapel, Windsor, and 
King's College chapel, Cambridge 

Fanal, a pharos or lighthouse, or the 
lantern placed in it 

Fanum, a Roman temple or fane, usu- 
ally consecrated to some deity 

Fang, in mining, a niche cut in the 
side of an adit, or shaft, to serve 
as an air course : sometimes a main 
of wood pipes is called a fanging 

Fanners, vanes or flat discs revolving 
round a centre, so as to produce a 
current of air ; generally used in- 
stead of bellows for forges 

Farm. Vitruvius says "The mag- 
nitude of the buildings must de- 
pend wholly upon the quantity of 
land attached to them, and upon 
its produce. The number of courts 
and their dimensions must be pro- 
portioned to the herds of cattle 
and the quantity of oxen employed. 
The kitchen should be situated in 
the warmest part of the court, and 
the stable for the oxen contiguous 
to it: the stalls should be made 
to face the hearth and the east ; 
because when oxen are constantly 
exposed to light and heat, they be- 
come smooth -coated. No hus- 
bandman, however ignorant, will 
suffer cattle to face any other 
quarter of the heavens than the 
east. The width of the stables 
ought not to be less than ten nor 
more than fifteen feet, their length 
proportioned to the number of 
yokes, each of which should oc- 
cupy an extent of seventeen feet. 
The scalding-rooms should adjoin 
the kitchen, in order that the ope- 
ration of cleaning the utensils may 
be performed upon the spot. The 
courts for sheep, &c., should be 




so spacious as to allow not less 
than four and a half nor more 
than six feet to each animal. 

" The granaries should be above 
ground, and made to front either 
the north or the north-east, in order 
that the grain may not be liable 
to ferment; but, on the contrary, 
by exposure to a cold atmosphere, 
may be preserved a long time : all 
other aspects encourage the pro- 
pagation of worms and insects de- 
structive to grain. The stables 
should be built in the warmest 
part of the villa, most distant from 
the hearth; because when horses 
are stalled near fire they become 
rough-coated. It is likewise ex- 
pedient to have stalls for oxen at a 
distance from the kitchen, in the 
open air : these should be placed 
so as to front the east, because if 
they are led there to be fed in 
winter, when the sky is unclouded 
they will improve in appearance. 
The barns, the hay-yards, the corn- 
chambers, and the mills, ought to 
be without the walls ; so that the 
farm may be less liable to accidents 
from fire." 

Farm, in Cornish mining, that part 
of the lord's fee which is taken for 
liberty to work in tin mines only 
that are bounded, which is gene- 
rally one-fifteenth of the whole 

Fascia, a flat architectural member in 
an entablature or elsewhere; a 
band or broad fillet. The architrave 
in the more elegant orders of archi- 
tecture is divided into three bands, 
which are called fasciae : the lower 
is called the first fascia, the middle 
one the second, and the upper one 
the third fascia. 

Fasciae, the bands of which the epi- 
stylium of the Ionic and Corinthian 
orders are composed. The ante- 
pagments of Ionic doorways were 
generally divided into three fasciae 
or corsae. Fasciae were bands 
which the Romans were accus- 
tomed to bind round the legs. 

Fast and loose pulleys, two pulleys 
placed side by side on a shaft 


which is driven from another shaft 
by a band: when it is required to 
stop the shaft, the band is trans- 
ferred to the loose pulley 

Fastigium, the pediment of a portico ; 
so called because it followed the 
form of the roof, which was made 
like a triangle, the sides being 
equally inclined to carry off the 

Fastiffium, in architecture, the sum- 
mit, apex, or ridge of a house or 

Faux, according to Vitruvius, a nar- 
row passage which formed a com- 
munication between the two prin- 
cipal divisions of a Roman house, 
the atrium and peristylium 

Fay, in ship-building, to join two 
pieces of timber close together 

Feathering, or foliation, an arrange- 
ment of small arcs or foils sepa- 
rated by projecting points or cusps, 
used as ornaments in the mould- 
ings of arches, &c. in Gothic 

Feed-head, a cistern containing water 
and communicating with the boiler 
of a steam engine by a pipe, to 
supply the boiler by the gravity of 
the water, the height being made 
sufficient to overcome the pressure 
within the boiler 

Feed-pipe, the pipe leading from the 
feed-pump, or from an elevated 
cistern, to the bottom of the 
boiler of a locomotive engine 

Feed-pipe cocks, those used to regulate 
the supply of water to the boiler of 
a locomotive engine, and the handle 
of which is placed conveniently to 
open and shut at pleasure 

Feed-pipe strainer, or strum, a perfo- 
rated half-spherical piece of sheet 
iron, after the manner of the rose 
end of a watering pot : it is placed 
over the open end of the feed-pipe 
in the locomotive tender tank, to 
protect it 

Feed-pipes, the copper pipes reaching 
from the clack-box to the pump 
and from the pump to the tender, 
to convey water to the boiler of a 
locomotive engine 




Feed-pump, a forcing-pump, worked 
by the steam engine, for supplying 
the boiler with water 

Feed-pump plunger, the solid piston, 
or enlarged end of the pump-rod, 
fitting the stuffing-box of the 
pump of a steam engine 

Felling timber, the act of cutting 
down a full-grown tree, which 
doubtlessly should be done late in 
the autumn, when less moisture 
exists in all trees, and which ren- 
ders the timber less liable to dry- 

Felspar, a mineral of foliated struc- 

Felucca, in navigation, a little vessel 
used in the Mediterranean, capable 
of going either stem or stern fore- 
most ; also a small open boat, row- 
ed with six oars 

Femerell, a lantern, louvre, or covering 
placed on the roof of a kitchen, 
hall, &c. for the purpose of venti- 
lation or the escape of smoke 

Femur, in architecture, the long flat 
projecting face between each chan- 
nel of a triglyph ; the thigh, or a 
covering for the thigh 

Fender-piles, those driven to protect 
work either on land or in water 

Fenestella, the niche at the side of an 
altar containing the piscina ; a ves- 
sel for holding water to wash the 
hands of the officiating priest ; also 
a little window 

Fenestra, a window, an entrance 

Fenestral : window-blinds or case- 
ments closed with paper or cloth, 
instead of glass, are so termed 

Fenestration, termed by the Germans 
Fenster-architektur, is, in contra- 
distinction to columniation, the 
system of construction and mode of 
design marked by windows. Fenes- 
tration and columniation are so far 
antagonistic and irreconcileable, 
that fenestration either interferes 
with the effect aimed at by colum- 
niation with insulated columns, as 
in a portico or colonnade, or re- 
duces it, as is the case with an 
engaged order, to something quite 
secondary and merely decorative. 


Astylar and fenestrated ought, there- 
fore, to be merely convertible terms ; 
but as they are not, that of co- 
lumnar -fenestrated has been in- 
vented, to denote that mode of 
composition which unites fenestra- 
tion \vith the semblance, at least, of 
the other. Employed as a collec- 
tive term, fenestration serves to 
express the character of a building 
or design with regard to the win- 
dows generally : thus it is said, the 
fenestration is excellent, or the con- 
trary, ornate or meagre, well 
arranged or too crowded, which 
last circumstance is a very common 
fault, and is destructive both of 
grandeur and of repose. 

Feretory, a bier, or coffin; a tomb, or 

Ferrule, a metal ring fixed on the 
handle of a tool to prevent the wood 
from splitting 

Fesse, in heraldry, a band or girdle 
possessing the third part of the 
escutcheon over the middle 

Festoon, an ornament of carved work, 
representing a wreath or garland 
of flowers or leaves, or both inter- 
woven with each other: it is thick- 
est in the middle, and small at each 
extremity, a part often hanging 
down below the knot 

Festoon, in architecture, an ornament 
of carved work, in the form of a 
wreath or garland of flowers, or 
leaves twisted together 

Fictile, an earthen vessel or other 
article, moulded and baked 

Fie tor, among the Romana, an artist, 
a deviser, or potter 

Field, in heraldry, the whole surface 
of the shield 

Fiyulus, an artist who makes figures 
and ornaments 

Filagree, in the arts, a kind of en- 
richment in gold and silver 

File, a well-known instrument having 
teeth on the surface for cutting 
metal, ivory, wood, &c. 

File, a strip or bar of steel, the sur- 
face of which is cut into fine points 
or teeth, which act by a species of 
cutting closely allied to abrasion. 




When the file is rubhed over the 
material to be operated upon, it cuts 
or abrades little shavings or shreds, 
which, from their minuteness, are 
called file-dust, and, in so doing, the 
file produces minute and irregular 
furrows of nearly equal depth, leav- 
ing the surface that has been filed 
more orless smooth, accordingto the 
size of the teeth of the file, and more 
or less accurately shaped, according 
to the degree of skill used in the ma- 
nipulation of the instrument. The 
files employed in the mechanical 
arts are almost endless in variety. 

Finial, sometimes called a pinnacle, 
but more truly confined to the 
bunch of foliage which terminates 
pinnacles, canopies, pediments, &c. 
in Gothic architecture 

Finite force, a force that acts for a 
finite time, such as the force of 

Fillet, a small flat face or band, used 
principally between mouldings to 
separate them from each other in 
classical architecture: in the Gothic, 
Early English, or Decorated styles 
of architecture, it is also used upon 
larger mouldings and shafts 

Finlayson's Tables of the value of life 
assurance and annuities differ in 
several respects widely from either 
the Northampton or the Carlisle cal- 
culated Tables. In framing them for 
Government annuities from obser- 
vations made on the mortality in 
tontines and amongst the holders 
of Government annuities, Mr. Fin- 
layson, in his calculations, is in- 
clined to take a favourable view of 
the duration of human life, and his 
Tables coincide very nearly with 
the Carlisle, except that he makes 
a distinction between males and 
females, the latter being consi- 
dered rather longer lived than the 
former. As regards annuities, these 
observations may be thus illustrat- 
ed : the present value of an an- 
nuity of 1 for the life of a person 
aged twenty-five, calculated at 4 
per cent, interest, would be, ac- 
cording to the 


Northampton Tables, 15 4 
Carlisle do. ... 17 6 
Government, Male . 16 9 
Do. . . .Female. 18 1 

Fire-bar frame, in alocomotive engine, 
a frame made to fit the fire-box on 
which the fire-bars rest : a plan of 
dropping all the bars at once by a 
moveable frame, acted on by a lever 
and handle outside the fire-box, has 
been frequently tried, but the action 
of the intense heat soon puts it out 
of working order 

Fire-bars, in a locomotive engine, 
wedge-shaped iron bars fitted to 
the fire-box with the thick side 
uppermost, to support the fire : the 
ends rest on a frame : they are in- 
clined inwards, with an air space 
between each, to promote combus- 
tion, and are jointed at one end, 
and supported by a rod at the other, 
so that the rod being withdrawn, 
the bars fall, and the fire-box is 

Fire-box, in a locomotive engine, the 
box (usually made of copper) in 
which the fire is placed. The out- 
side is of iron, separated from the 
copper fire-box by a space of about 
3 inches all round for water 

Fire-box door, the door opening into 
the fire-box, facing the locomotive 
tender, by which coke is supplied 
to the fire 

Fire-box partition: in large fire-boxes 
a division is made in the box, into 
which water is admitted: this di- 
vision is about the height of the 
fire-box door, and divides the fire 
into two parts in a locomotive en- 
gine, thereby increasing the heating 
surface of the fire-box 

Fire-box stays, in a locomotive engine, 
deep strong iron stays bolted to 
the top of the copper fire-box, to 
enable it to resist the pressure of 
the steam : round copper or iron 
stays are also used to connect the 
outside shell to the inside box, in 
the proportion of about one stay to 
every 4 square inches of flat surface 

Fire-brick or Fire-bricks are used for 




lining furnaces, and for all kinds of 
brick-work exposed to intense heat 
which would melt common bricks. 
They are made from a natural com- 
pound of silica and alumina, which, 
when free from lime and other 
fluxes, is infusible under the great- 
est heat to which it can be subjected. 
Oxide of iron, however, which is 
present in most clays, renders the 
clay fusible when the silica and 
alumina are nearly in equal pro- 
portions, and those fire-clays are 
the best in which the silica is 
greatly in excess over the alumina. 
When the alumina is in excess, 
broken crucibles, glass-house pots, 
and old fire-bricks, ground to pow- 
der, are substituted for the common 

silicious sand used in the ordinary 
processes of brick -making, but 
which, in this case, would be in- 
jurious, as having a tendency to 
render the clay fusible. 

Fire-clay being an expensive ar- 
ticle, it is usual, when making fire- 
bricks at a distance from mines, 
to mix with it burnt clay, for the 
sake of economizing the clay and 
diminishing its contraction. Mr. 
Pellatt states that Stourbridge clay, 
when carefully picked, ground, and 
sifted, will bear, for brick-making, 
two proportions (by weight) of 
burnt clay to one of native clay. 

The following Table shows the 
constituents of several infusible 
clays : 

Authority . . 

Dr. Ure. 




Kaolin, or 

Plastic clay of 
forge les eaux. 

Sagger clay, from 
the Staffordshire 

Silica . . . 




Alumina . . 




Iron .... 




Lime . . . 


Carbonic acid . 


Water . . . 






Remarks . . 


Used for making 
glass-house pots 
and pottery. 

Used for making 
saggars and fire- 

Fire-clay is found throughout the 
coal formation, but that of Stour- 
bridge is considered the best. The 
fire-clays of Newcastle and Glasgow 
are also much esteemed. Fire- 
bricks are brought to London from 
Stourbridge and from Wales ; the 
latter, however, will not stand such 
intense heat as the Stourbridge 

Fire-bricks are also made at the 
village of Hedgerly, near Windsor, 
of the sandy loam known by 
the name of Windsor loam, and 
these are much used in London 


for fire-work, and also by chemists 
for luting their furnaces, and for 
similar purposes. 

The relative merits of Windsor, 
Welsh, and Stourbridge fire-bricks 
are best shown by their value in 
the market. 

The following prices are from 
the ' Contractor's Pocket-Book for 
1850.' They include carriage to 
London and delivery on the works : 
Fire-bricks per M. . s. d. 
Windsor ... 5 8 
Welsh ... 8 12 
Stourbridge . .11 6 




Fire-bricks. The parts of furnaces 
exposed to heat are built of bricks 
made of a description of clay which 
is to different extents infusible, the 
qualities chosen for use being regu- 
lated by the degree of heat to which 
they are to be exposed. They are 
known in commerce by the names 
of Bristol, Stourbridge, Newcastle, 
Welsh, and Windsor bricks. The 
first of these are composed almost 
entirely of silex, and are infusible 
at the greatest heat of the blast- 
furnace ; but they are very costly, 
and seldom used. The second 
quality are made from clay found 
in the neighbourhood of Stour- 
bridge, lying in a stratum of con- 
siderable thickness between the 
upper soil and the coal formations : 
they are used in the construction of 
furnaces required to resist great 
heat, such as those for smelting 
iron ores, glass-making, &c., and 
sometimes for the linings of retort 
ovens : for this latter purpose they 
are considered too expensive, except 
for the arch immediately over the 
furnace, as the heat is not intense. 
The third variety are composed of 
the clay lying above the coal mea- 
sures in Northumberland, and for 
the construction of retort furnaces 
and ovens are the most desirable. 

Fire-damp, in coal mines, is impure 
carburetted hydrogen 

Fire-place, a space within a chimney- 
piece for the burning of fuel to 
warm the temperature of the air, 
and in communication with a shaft 
or chimney-flue 

Fire-tubes, or tube-flues, are those 
through which the fire passes, for 
obtaining a large heating surface, 
fixed longitudinally in the middle 
compartment of a locomotive en- 
gine, between the fire-box and 

Fires of the Ancients. Palladio says, 
" Finding that this subject about 
fires of the ancients had not been 
treated of distinctly by any body, 
I resolved to compose something 
about it. We are ignorant of most 


things delivered thereupon by the 
ancients which might give us some 
light upon the matter: we must 
have recourse to the inventions of 
later times, thereby gradually to 
obtain a more ample knowledge of 
it. The Romans were sensible that 
a continual flame and a great heat 
from live coals were hurtful to the 
eyes ; they therefore went very 
wisely about finding out a remedy. 
They found how dangerous it was 
to carry fire about the house from 
one room to another. Stoves are 
an abominable invention : they 
cause a continual stench, swell the 
head, and make men drowsy, dull, 
and lazy. Most people that use 
them grow tender and weak : some 
cannot stir out of those rooms all 
the winter. The ancients used to 
light their fire in a small furnace 
under the earth. Thence they 
conveyed a great many tubes of 
different sizes into all the different 
stories and rooms of the house, 
which tubes or pipes were invisi- 
ble, but laid in the thickness of the 
walls and ceilings, just like water- 
pipes. Each of these opened at 
that part of the furnace which 
joined to the very wall of the house, 
and through these ascended the 
heat, which was let in whenever they 
had a mind it should, whether in 
dining-rooms, bed-chambers, or 
closets, much in the manner as we 
see the heat or steam of water 
contained in an alembic to ascend 
and warm the parts most distant 
from the fire-place. The heat in 
that manner used to spread so 
equally that it warmed the whole 
house alike. It is not so with 
chimneys or hearths; for if you 
stand near, you are scorched; if at 
any distance, you are frozen ; but 
here a very mild warm air spreads 
all around, according as the fire 
that warms the pipes laid along the 
wall opposite to the hearth is more 
or less burning. Those pipes which 
dispensed the heat did not open 
into the very furnace, on purpose 




that neither smoke nor flame should 
get into them, but only a warm 
steam should enter, which they let 
out again ; thereby creating a con- 
tinual moderate heat. The fire 
needed not to be large, provided 
it was continual, to supply those 
confined and enclosed pipes with a 
sufficient power of warming. They 
dressed their meat at the mouth of 
the furnace; and all along the 
walls were disposed kettles, or 
other vessels, filled with hot water, 
to keep the meat warm." 

Fir-poles, small trunks of fir-trees, 
from 10 to 16 feet in length ; used 
in rustic buildings and out-houses 

Fish, a machine employed to hoist 
and draw up the flukes of a ship's 
anchor towards the top of the bow, 
in order to stow it after it has 
been catted 

Fissure, or Gulley, is that crack or 
split in the strata of the earth 
which is the receptacle of mineral 
particles, whose contents are styled 
a 'lode' 

Fistuca, among the Romans, an in- 
strument used for ramming down 
pavements and threshing-floors, 
and the foundations of buildings 

Fistula, a water-pipe, according to 
Yitruvius, who distinguishes three 
modes of conveying water : by 
leaden pipes, by earthen pipes, and 
by channels of masonry 

Five species of temples (the). There are 
five species of temples : namely, the 
pycnostyle, in which the columns 
are placed far apart; the systyle, 
in which they are more remote ; 
the diastyle, whose columns are at 
an ample distance from each other; 
the araeostyle, in which the inter- 
vals between the columns are too 
great ; and the eustyle, whose inter- 
columniations are justly propor- 
tioned. In the pycnostyle species 
the interval between the columns 
is equal to one diameter and a half: 
there is an instance of this in the 
temple of Julius, and another in 
the temple of Venus, which is 
erected in the forum of Caesar : in 


all temples of this species the same 
interval between the columns is 
observed. In the systyle species 
there should be an interval between 
the columns equal to two diameters : 
this arrangement would leave the 
space between the plinths of the 
bases of the columns equal to the 
extent of the plinths themselves. 

Flake white is an English white lead, 
in the form of scales or plates, some- 
times grey on the surface. It takes 
its name from its figure, is equal or 
sometimes superior to crems white, 
and is an oxidized carbonate of 
lead, not essentially differing from 
the best of the above. Other white 
leads seldom equal it in body ; and 
when levigated, it is called ' body- 

Flamboyant Style of Architecture, 
the decorated and very ornamental 
style of architecture, of French in- 
vention and use, and contemporary 
in France with the Perpendicular 
style in England. One of the most 
striking and universal features is 
the waving arrangements of the 
tracery of the windows, panels, &c. 
The foliage used for enrichments 
is well carved, and has a playful 
and frequently a good effect. 

Planning, the internal splay of a win- 

Flaring, in ship-building, over-hang- 
ing, as in the topside forward 

Flatting, in house-painting, a mode 
of painting in oil in which the 
surface is left, when finished, with- 
out gloss. The material is pre- 
pared with a mixture of oil of tur- 
pentine, which secures the colours, 
and, when used in the finishing, 
leaves the paint quite dead. 

Flemish bricks are used for paving : 
seventy-two will pave a square 
yard : they are of a yellowish co- 
lour, and harder than the ordinary 

Flemish School of Painting. This 
school is highly recommended to 
the lovers of the art by the disco- 
very, or at least the first practice, 
of painting in oil. It has been 




generally attributed to John Van 
Eyck, who was, it is said, accus- 
tomed to varnish his distemper 
pictures with a composition of oils, 
which was pleasing on account of 
the lustre it gave them. In the 
course of his practice he came to 
mix his colours with oil, instead of 
water, which he found rendered 
them brilliant without the trouble 
of varnishing. From this and sub- 
sequent experiments arose the art 
of painting in oil ; and this w r on- 
derful discovery, whether made by 
Van Eyck or not, soon acquired 
notice all over Europe. The atten- 
tion of the Italian painters was soon 
excited. John of Bruges was the 
founder of painting as a profession 
in Flanders. Peter Paul Rubens 
was the founder of the art. 

Float, a flat piece of stone or other 
material attached to a valve in the 
feed-pipe of the boiler of a steam 
engine, and supported upon the sur- 
face of the water by a counter- 
weight ; used either for showing 
the height of the water, or regu- 
lating the supply from the cistern 

FlooJcan, in Cornish, an earth or clay 
of a slimy glutinous consistence ; 
in colour, for the most part blue or 
white, or compounded of both 

Floor-hollow, in ship-building, an 
elliptical mould for the hollow of 
the floor timbers and lower fut- 

Floors, in early English domestic ar- 
rangements, were generally covered 
with rushes, carpets being seldom 
used for such purposes even at the 
close of Elizabeth's reign, although 
instances occur of tapestry cloths 
for the feet to rest upon as early 
as Edward I. It does not, indeed, 
appear to have been the custom at 
any time to leave floors bare, 
whether boarded or paved. Our 
poets, and particularly Shakespeare, 
all speak of rushes and other vege- 
table substances being strewed in 
the principal apartments. 

Floor-timbers, in ship-building, are 
those placed immediately across 


the keel, and upon which the bot- 
tom of the ship is framed 

Floran, an exceedingly small-grained 
tin, scarcely perceivable in the 
stone, though perhaps very rich 

Florentine lake colour is extracted 
from the shreds of scarlet cloth: 
the same may be said also of 
Chinese lake 

Florentine School of Painting. This 
school is remarkable for greatness ; 
for attitudes seemingly in motion ; 
for a certain dark severity ; for an 
expression of strength by which 
grace is perhaps excluded ; and for 
a character of design approaching 
to the gigantic. The productions 
of this school may be considered 
as overcharged ; but it cannot be 
denied that they possess an ideal 
majesty which elevates human na- 
ture above mortality. The Tuscan 
artists, satisfied with commanding 
the admiration, seem to have con- 
sidered the art of pleasing as be- 
neath their notice. This school 
has an indisputable title to the 
veneration of all the lovers of the 
arts, as the first in Italy which cul- 
tivated them. 

Flower-garden (the) " should be an 
object detached and distinct from 
the general scenery of the place ; 
and whether large or small, whe- 
ther varied or formal, it ought to 
be well protected from hares and 
smaller animals by an inner fence : 
within this enclosure rare plants 
of every description should be en- 
couraged, and a provision made of 
soil and aspect for every different 
class. Beds of bog-earth should 
be prepared for the American 
plants : the aquatic plants, some of 
w r hich are peculiarly beautiful, 
should grow on the surface or 
near the edges of water. The nu- 
merous class of rock-plants should 
have beds of rugged stone pro- 
vided for their reception, with- 
out the affectation of such stones 
being the natural production of the 
soil; but, above all, there should 
be poles or hoops for those kinds 




of creeping plants which sponta- 
neously form themselves into grace- 
ful festoons, when encouraged and 
supported hy art." 

Tlower-garden. There is no orna- 
ment of a flower-garden more ap- 
propriate than a conservatory or 
greenhouse, where the flower- 
garden is not too far from the 
house ; but amongst the refine- 
ments of modern luxury may be 
reckoned that of attaching a green- 
house to some room in the man- 

Fluccan, in mining, a soft clayey sub- 
stance, generally found to accom- 
pany the cross courses and slides 

Fluke, in mining, the head of a 
charger ; an instrument used for 
cleansing the hole previous to 

Flush, a term common to workmen, 
and applied to surfaces which are 
on the same plane 

Flutings or Flutes, the hollows or 
channels cut perpendicularly in 
the shafts of columns, &c., in clas- 
sical architecture : they are used 
in the Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and 
Composite orders 

Flux, in metallurgy, saline matters 
which facilitate the fusion of ores 
and other substances which are not 
easily fusible in assays; used also in 
the reduction of ores 

Fly, in mechanics, that part of a 
machine which, being put in mo- 
tion, regulates the rest 

Fly-wheel, a wheel with a heavy rim, 
fixed upon the crank-shaft of a 
land engine, for the purpose of 
equalizing the motion by the cen- 
trifugal force absorbing the sur- 
plus force at one part of the ac- 
tion, to distribute it again when 
the action is deficient 

Flyers, stairs that go straight and do 
not wind, the fore and back part 
of each stair and the ends respect- 
ively being parallel to each other 

Focus, among the Romans, an altar, 
a fire-place or hearth : hence the 
Latin motto, ' pro aris et focis,' 
' for our altars and fire-sides ' 


Fodina, a mine or quarry 

Foye, Cornish, a forge or blowing- 
house for smelting tin 

Foils, foliation ; the spaces between 
the cusps of the featherings of 
Gothic architecture 

Fons, a font, or a natural spring of 
water, frequently converted into 
ornamented fountains by the Greeks 
and the Romans. The latter also 
erected edifices of various degrees 
of splendour over natural springs, 
such as the Grotto of Egeria, near 
Rome, where the natural cave is 
converted by the architect into a 

Font, the vessel which contains the 
water for the purposes of baptism. 
The font is the only relic of our 
ancient architecture which in its 
form is at all analogous to the 
Grecian and Roman vases. The 
shape which has at different pe- 
riods been given to it is a subject 
of some interest. Norman fonts 
are generally square or circular; 
the first frequently placed on five 
legs ; but which may be the older 
form, the square or circle, is not 
yet known. The circular form 
continued to be much used during 
the Early English period ; so occa- 
sionally was the square. Through- 
out the continuance of the Deco- 
rated style, the octagon was gene- 
rally used, sometimes the hexagon. 
During the Perpendicular style, the 
octagon was almost always used. 
Until the Reformation, and occa- 
sionally after, dipping was prac- 
tised in this country. Pouring 
or sprinkling was not unusual pre- 
vious to the Reformation ; for as 
early as the year 754, pouring, in 
cases of necessity, was declared by 
Pope Stephen III. to be lawful; 
and in the year 1311, the Council 
of Ravenna declared dipping or 
sprinkling indifferent : yet dipping 
appears to have been in this coun- 
try the more usual mode. The 
Earl of Warwick, who was born in 
1381, was baptized by dipping : so 
Prince Arthur (eldest son of Henry 




VII.), King Edward VI., and Queen 
Elizabeth, were all baptized in a 
similar manner. 

Font of the time of Edward II. 

Foot, an ancient measure of tin, con- 
taining two gallons ; now a nominal 
measure, but in weight 60 tbs.; also 
a lineal measure of twelve inches 

Foot-pace, the dais or raised floor at 
the upper end of an ancient hall 

Foot-plate, the platform on which the 
engine-man and fire-man of a loco- 
motive engine attend to their duties 

Foot-stall, the plinth or base of a 

Foot-valve, the valve in the passage 
between the condenser and air- 
pump of an engine, opening towards 
the air-pump 

Foot-waleing, the plank withinside 
a ship, below the lower deck 

Force of the wind. Air, when in 
continuous motion in one direction, 
becomes a very useful agent of 
machinery, of greater or less energy 
according to the velocity with which 
it moves. Were it not for its vari- 
ability in direction and force, and 
the consequent fluctuations in its 
supply, scarcely any more appro- 
priate first mover could generally 
be wished for ; and even with all 
its irregularity, it is still so useful 
as to require a separate considera- 


The force with which air strikes 
against a moving surface, or with 
which the wind strikes against a 
quiescent surface, is nearly as the 
square of the velocity; or, more 
correctly, the exponent of the ve- 
locity varies between 2-03 and 2-05 ; 
so that in most practical cases the 
exponent 2, or that of the square, 
may be employed without fear of 

Forceps, tongs used by smiths to take 
the hot metal from the fire 

Force-pumps, the plunger pumps for 
supplying the boiler of a locomo- 
tive engine : the plunger rods are 
connected to the piston-rods of the 
steam cylinder 

Forcer, in Cornish, a small pump 
worked by hand, used in sinking 
small simples, dippas, or pits 

Forcing-pump (the) differs but little 
from a syringe : the latter receives 
and expels a liquid through the 
same passage, but the former has a 
separate pipe for its discharge, and 
both the receiving and discharging 
orifices are covered with valves. 
By this arrangement it is not ne- 
cessary to remove a pump from the 
liquid to transfer the contents of its 
cylinder, as is done with the sy- 
ringe, but the operation of forcing 
up water may be continuous, while 
the instrument is immoveable. A 
forcing-pump, therefore, is merely 
a syringe furnished with an induc- 
tion and eduction valve, one 
through which water enters the 
cylinder, the other by which it es- 
capesfromit. The ordinary forcing- 
pump has two valves : the cylinder 
is placed above the surface of the 
water to be raised, and consequently 
is charged by the pressure of the 
atmosphere: the machine, there- 
fore, is a compound one, differing 
from that described, which is 
purely a forcing-pump, the water 
entering its cylinder by gravity 

Forecastle, a short deck at the fore- 
part of a ship, above the upper 
deck, on which castles were for- 




merly erected, or places to shelter 
the men in time of action 

Fore-foot, the foremost piece of the 
keel of a vessel 

Fore-ground, the front of a picture 

Foreyn, an ancient term to signify a 
drain or cesspool 

Forge, a smith's furnace for heating 
metals, to render them soft and 
more malleable 

Fork, a short piece of steel which fits 
into one of the sockets or chucks 
of a lathe, and is used by wood- 
turners for carrying round the piece 
to be turned : it is flattened at the 
end, like a chisel, but has a pro- 
jecting centre point, to prevent the 
wood from moving laterally 

Formosity, beauty, fairness, &c. 

Form-peys, an ancient term for form- 
pieces ; the lower terminations of 
mullions which are worked upon sills 

Forms and motions of tools. The 
principles of action of all cutting 
tools, and of some others, whether 
guided by hand or by machinery, 
resolve themselves into the simple 
condition, that the work is the 
combined copy of the form of the 
tool and of the motion employed : 
thus the geometrical definitions em- 
ployed convey the primary ideas of 
lines, superficies, and solids; that is, 
the line results from the motion of 
a point, the superficies from the 
motion of a line, and the solid from 
the motion of a superficies. 

Formula (pi. Formula), a prescribed 
rule in arithmetic or mathema- 
tics ; a maxim : in law, an action, 
process, or indictment 

Formulary, a book containing set 
forms, rules, or models 

Fornax, among the Romans, a kiln 
for baking pottery 

Forum, a large open space used by the 
Romans for the sale of merchan- 
dise, and for public assemblies ; also 
a court of justice 

Forum and Basilica. The Greeks 
built their forum with spacious 
porticoes, two tiers in height, ar- 
ranged in a square form : the co- 
lumns of the porticoes were placed 


at small intervals from each other, 
supporting stone or marble enta- 
blatures ; and galleries were made 
over the lacunaria of the lower 
porticoes, or places of exercise. 
In Italy, the mode of constructing 
the forum was different; because, 
by a custom sanctioned by its anti- 
quity, the show of gladiators was 
exhibited there ; and therefore the 
intervals between the columns sur- 
rounding the area were greater. 
The lower porticoes were occupied 
as the offices of bankers, which si- 
tuation was calculated to facilitate 
the management of the public re- 
venue : the upper contained seats 
for the spectators of the diversions 
practised in the forum. 
Fortification, the science of military 
architecture ; a defensive building 
Forward, the fore-part of a ship 
Fosses d'aisances : the cesspools of 
Paris are so called; and they are 
usually made 3 m *00 long in the 
clear by l m< 70, by l ni -50, to the 
springing of the semicircular head 
(9 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 11 
in. English, nearly): a man-hole, 
l m -00 by O m> 35 is left for the pur- 
poses of emptying and visiting them 
(3 ft. 3 T 7 x 1 ft. 2 in.) The walls 
which surround them, as well as 
the bottom, are exclusively formed 
of such materials as are most effica- 
cious in preventing the filtration 
of the matters contained within 
them. Of late years the usual 
custom has been to employ the 
meuliere, or mill-stone, bedded 
in mortar composed of lime and 
cement ; the inside being well 
pointed, and rendered throughout 
with this mortar. No cesspool is 
allowed to be used until after an 
examination, to be certified by the 
municipal authority. Any infil- 
tration to a neighbour's property 
gives a title to damages, and the 
architect and builder are both re- 
sponsible for ten years to the pro- 
prietor, as also to the neighbours, 
in case any nuisance arises from de- 
fects in the execution of the works. 




When the cesspools require clean- 
ing, notice is given to the Board 
of Public Health (aux agents de la 
salubrite publique), who authorize 
and direct the operations. In win- 
ter these are carried on between 
10 P.M. and 7 A. M. ; and in sum- 
mer, between 11 P.M., and 6 A.M. 
The carts, as well as all the other 
material of the nightmen, are under 
the inspection of the above-named 
officers, and must be, as nearly as 
possible, both water-tight and air- 
tight. They contain not more than 
2 m -00 cube each, or nearly 71 ft. 
cube English. 

The contents of the cesspools are 
usually (especially in the modern 
houses) sufficiently fluid to allow 
of their extraction by pumps. In 
this case a small furnace is placed 
over the bung of the cart, to burn 
the gas as it rises : the bung itself 
is plastered over directly the cart 
is filled. When the contents are too 
solid to be pumped out, they are 
conveyed from below in small vessels 
of wrought iron, called ' tinettes/ 
holding about 3| feet (t^th of 
a metre cube) each ; and the 
lids are plastered over before the 
vessels are removed from the cess- 

Of late years a system of what 
are called ' fosses mobiles' has been 
introduced into the better class of 
houses. It consists of air-tight 
tubs, placed in a vault (rendered 
also as air-tight as possible), which 
receive the ends of the soil-pipes. 
These tubs are removed at stated 
intervals, the openings plastered 
over, and may in that state be 
transported at any time of the day. 
This system obviates the terrible 
infection of the old kind of cesspool, 
and is gaining rapidly. Indeed, as 
the French people are fond of gilt 
ornaments in their dwellings, and 
the gases from the cesspools turn 
them black at once, unless great 
precautions be observed in covering 
them, whenever a cesspoolis opened, 
it is easy to understand that the 


nles,' which obviate this 
inconvenience, should become of 
general use. 

Until of late, all the carts were 
obliged to pass through the Bar- 
riere du Combat to deposit their 
contents at the laystalls of Mont- 
faucon ; but some new works have 
been constructed at Bondy, so as 
to allow the suppression of this 
gigantic nuisance at the immediate 
gates of Paris. 

The cleaning of the cesspools of 
Paris is executed by several private 
companies, the most important of 
which is 'La Compagnie Richer,' 
who do at least one-half of this 
business : their capital was about 
.200,000, in land, plant, and build- 
ings. They employ 150 horses and 
300 men, of whom 60 are for the 
repairs of the plant. Their charge 
is 8f., 9f., and lOf. per metre cube 
(35|feet English, nearly), according 
to the distance. 

No cesspool is allowed to be used 
after being emptied until it has 
been visited by an ' agent de la 
salubrite,' to ascertain whether it 
be water-tight. 

The laystalls of Montfaucon con- 
sist of two large reservoirs, at a 
high level, into which the carts are 
emptied. These reservoirs are about 
2 acres superficial, and apparently 
12 feet deep, with a dam between 
them, to allow of one being used 
when the other is being emptied. 
An overflow drain, with sluice-gates 
at each end, allows the liquid matter 
to run off to a large basin on a 
lower level, where it deposits any 
thing which may be merely in a 
state of mechanical suspension. On 
the banks of this reservoir are some 
important sal-ammoniac works. In 
the centreisalso a sluice-gate, which 
allows the surplus liquid matters to 
pass into two smaller reservoirs, 
where deposition takes place with- 
out any interference from the pump- 
ing apparatus of the chemicalworks. 
From thence the waters pass off into 
four other basins, in which any 




fertilizing properties they may con- 
tain are precipitated by means of 
straw, dead leaves, &c., and the 
water, comparatively pure, is at 
length let off into the main sewer, 
which discharges itself into the 
Seine, below Paris. The surface 
of the intermediate basins is about 
250 ra - by 60 m - (or 3f acres) ; that 
of the four last basins is about 350 m ' 
by 110 m> (or nearly 9^ acres). 

These reservoirs do not belong 
to the city of Paris, and some diffi- 
culties have arisen from the pro- 
posal to remove them : all the carts 
containing the night-soil -being 
obliged to discharge at Montfau- 
con, the farming of the contents 
of the basins became a source of 
considerable profit. They were let 
on the last occasion for a sum of 
500,500francs per annum (20,020 
sterling) ; the previous letting hav- 
ing been 166,000 francs (6640 
sterling). The increased rent and 
the exorbitant w^ages paid during 
the republican excitement of 1848 
proved injurious to the company. 
The ground occupied by the town, 
moreover, is not sufficiently exten- 
sive for the operations connected 
with the manipulation of the ' pou- 
drette,' and the company were 
obliged to rent about 7^ acres more 
land for the purpose of spreading 
and drying the compost. The land 
necessary for this operation had 
been taken on lease by the out- 
going company, and they succeed- 
ed in obtaining a sum of 60,000 
for the remainder of their term, as 
no other land was to be had in the 

The rent and labour in conversion 
costs the company from 12,000 
to 16,000 per annum. The 'pou- 
drette' is sold to agriculturists at 
8 francs le setier, a measure equal 
to 12 bushels English. 

In one plan adopted for empty- 
ing the cesspools, the carts are 
made of strong boiler plate; they 
are placed under an air-pump, 
and exhausted ; the pipes are con- 


nected with the carts and the cess- 
pools, and the atmospheric pressure 
on the latter forces up the liquid 

Investigations have been made 
respecting the general health of 
the workmen employed at Mont- 
faucon, the reservoir of all the ex- 
crementitious matter of a city which 
contains about 1,000,000 inhabi- 
tants, and it has been ascertained, 
that although they were' not af- 
fected by the cholera in 1849, they 
are very short-lived men : acute 
fevers, and gangrene on the slightest 
accident, carry them off in a fright- 
ful manner. Unfortunately the 
dwellers in the neighbourhood also 
are subject to the same action, and 
the mortality from these causes is 
very great. 

The action of the 'poudrette' 
upon agriculture is somewhat ex- 
traordinary. In the time of Henri 
Quatre, the wines of Suresnes were 
highly esteemed: the vines pro- 
duced little, but of a superior 
quality: since the poudrette has 
been used to force them, the quan- 
tity of their produce has been in- 
creased, but the quality has totally 
changed: from a superior rank, the 
wines of the neighbourhood of Paris 
have fallen to that of what is vul- 
garly called ' du petit bleu.' 

Fossil, a mineral, many kinds of which 
are peculiarly and elegantly shaped 

Fossiliferous, a geological term ap- 
plied to a district abounding in 

Foundations, according to Palladio, 
ought to be twice as thick as the 
walls to be raised upon them, so 
that both the quality of the earth 
and the greatness of the building 
are to be regarded, making the 
foundations larger in a soft and 
loose ground, or where there is a 
great weight to be supported. The 
plane of the trench must be as level 
as possible, so that the weight may 
press equally, and not incline more 
on one side than the other, which 
occasions the cleaving of the walls. 




For this reason the ancients were 
accustomed to pave the plane with 
Tivertine ; but we most commonly 
lay planks or beams to build on. 
The foundations ought to be made 
sloping, that is to say, to diminish 
as they rise ; but yet in such a 
manner that the middle of the wall 
above may fall plumb with the mid- 
dle of the lowest part ; which must 
be also observed in the diminution 
of walls above ground, because by 
that means the building becomes 
much stronger than by making the 
diminution any other way. 

Sometimes, to avoid charges, 
(especially in marshy grounds, 
where there is a necessity to use 
piles,) foundations are arched like 
a bridge, and the walls are built 
upon those arches. In great build- 
ings it is very proper to make 
vents through the body of the 
walls from the foundations to the 
roof, because they let forth the 
winds and other vapours, which 
are very prejudicial to buildings : 
they lessen the charges, and are 
of no small convenience, espe- 
cially when there is occasion for 
winding-stairs from the bottom to 
the top. If it be necessary to 
construct vaults below ground, 
their foundations must be more 
substantial than the walls of the 
buildings which are to be raised 
upon them. The walls, pillars, 
and columns of the latter must 
be placed immediately over those 
below them, so that solid may bear 
upon solid ; for if walls or columns 
project beyond the substructure, 
their duration must necessarily be 

The value of concrete in founda- 
tions was rendered obvious in a 
building erected by Mr. Clegg at 
Fulham, in 1829. The foundation 
was a quicksand. After the exca- 
vation was got out to the depth of 
15 feet, an iron rod sunk, with 
little more than its own weight, 
15 feet more; it was, in fact, as 
bad a foundation as could possibly 

occur. In about twelve days after 
it was built, it had settled bodily 
down IG-g inches, without a crack, 
or deviating in the least from the 
plumb. It therefore follows, that 
the only disadvantage attending a 
bad natural foundation is the ex- 
pense of making an artificial one. 
The following extract relates to the 
erection of an extensive building 
upon bad ground. 

"The building for the Albion 
Mills was erected upon a very soft 
soil, consisting of the 'made ground' 
at the abutment of Blackfriars' 
Bri'dge : to avoid the danger of 
settlement in the walls, or the ne- 
cessity of going to a very unusual 
depth with the foundations, Mr. 
Rennie adopted the plan of forming 
inverted arches upon the ground 
over the whole space upon which 
the building was to stand, and for 
the bottom of the dock. For this 
purpose the ground upon which all 
the several walls were to be erected 
was rendered as solid as is usual 
for building by driving piles where 
necessary, and then several courses 
of large flat stones were laid to 
form the foundations of the several 
walls ; but to prevent any chance 
of these foundations being pressed 
down in case of the soft earth 
yielding to the incumbent weight, 
strong inverted arches were built 
upon the ground between the foun- 
dation courses of all the walls, so 
as to cover the whole surface in- 
cluded between the walls ; and the 
abutments or springings of the in 
verted arches being built solid into 
the lowercourses of the foundations 
they could not sink unless all the 
ground beneath the arches hac 
yielded to compression, as well as 
the ground immediately beneath the 
foundation of the walls. By this 
method the foundations of all the 
walls were joined together so as to 
form one immensebase, which woulc 
have been very capable of bearing 
the required weight, even if th 
ground had been of the consistency 




of mud; for the whole building 
would have floated upon it as a 
ship floats in water ; and whatever 
sinking might have taken place, 
would have affected the whole 
building equally, so as to have 
avoided any partial depressions or 
derangement of the walls ; but the 
ground being made tolerably hard, 
in addition to this expedient of 
augmenting the bases by inverted 
arches, the building stood quite 

When the foundation has been 
properly disposed of, the brickwork 
may be commenced. The bricks 
should be well burned, and set with 
a thin joint, four courses not occu- 
pying more depth than llf inches. 
Foundations of Temples. In preparing 
foundations for works of this kind, 
it will be first necessary to dig down 
to a regular stratum, if such is to 
be met with; and upon this the 
foundations, constructed with great 
attention to their strength, are to 
be laid: their solidity must be pro- 
portioned to the magnitude of the 
building in contemplation. The 
piers above ground, below the co- 
lumns, should be thicker than the 
diameter of the columns they are 
to support by one-half, that these 
substructures, which are called ste- 
reobatae, on account of their sus- 
taining the whole weight, may be 
enabled by their greater solidity to 
support what is built upon them. 
The bases of the columns, when 
fixed, ought not to project before 
the face of the stereobatse on either 
side. The intervals between the 
piers should either be made solid 
by means of piles, or arched over, 
BO as to connect the piers. 

If no compact stratum is to be 
found, but the ground, on the con- 
trary, is loose or marshy to a great 
depth, trenches must be dug, and 
piles of charred alder, olive, or oak, 
placed close together, be driven in 
by means of machines : the inter- 
vals between them should be filled 
up with charred timber, and upon 


this substratum the foundations 
should be formed with solid ma- 
sonry. Thefoundationsbeingreared 
to the same level all around, th:; 
stylobate is next to be constructed. 
Upon this the columns are to be 
arranged, in the manner already 
described, at intervals which are 
determined by the species of temple 
intended to be built, whether pyc- 
nostyle, systyle, diastyle, or eustyle. 
In the araeostyle species the co- 
lumns may be placed at any dis- 
tance asunder. 

Foundations of a Bridge : these con- 
sist, properly, of the underground 
work of the piers and abutments, 
which it is within the province of 
a civil engineer to construct : the 
necessity of firmness and solidity 
in the execution of such works 
will be deemed of importance just 
in proportion to the intended ex- 
tent and magnificence of the struc- 
ture they are designed to support 

Foundry, a place where masses of 
metal are melted and run into 
moulds, so as to assume the re- 
quired form 

Four-way ^cock, a cock having two 
separate passages in the plug, and 
communicating with four pipes 

Fox-tail wedging, in carpentry. This 
is done by sticking into the point 
of a wooden bolt a thin wedge of 
hard wood, which, when the bolt 
reaches the bottom of the hole, 
splits, expands, and secures it. 

Frame, the strong frame-work, out- 
side the wheels, which supports the 
boiler and machinery on the axles 
of a locomotive engine 

Frame, inside, in locomotive engines. 
Some engines have the supporting 
frames within the wheels, and are 
called inside-framed engines. Be- 
sides this frame, resting on the 
axles, there are also other strong 
stays from the fire-box to the 
smoke-box, called inside framing 
or stays, for supporting the works 
and strengthening the boiler. 

Frames, the bends of timbers that are 
bolted together: in small ships there 




are two bolts in every shift of tim- 
ber, and three in large ships. The 
bolts should be disposed clear of 
the chain and preventer -bolts, 
scupper, lodging knee-bolts, and 
port cells. 

Frankfort -black is said to be made of 
the lees of wine from which the 
tartar has been washed, by burning 
in the manner of ivory-black. Fine 
Frankfort-black, though almost con- 
fined to copper-plate printing, is 
one of the best black pigments we 
possess, being of a fine neutral 
colour, next in intensity to lamp- 
black, and more powerful than that 
of ivory. 

Frater-house, the refectory or hall of 
a monastic establishment 

Fredstole, a seat near the altar 

Freedom, in drawing, is a bold and 
spirited manner, with evident li- 
berty of the pencil ; i. e. where the 
drawing is apparently accomplish- 
ed with ease 

Freemason, as applied to ancient ar- 
chitecture : a person learned in the 
art of building, more particularly 
in ecclesiastical construction, and 
who, by his learning in the science 
and his taste in constructions of 
edifices, travelled from one country 
to another, and executed models of 
everlasting renown. The term may 
also be applied to a free-stone 
mason, or a cutter and worker in 
stone, without reference to the so- 
ciety called Freemasons. 

Free-stone, building stone which may 
be easily cut into blocks and worked 
with a chisel; so called from having 
no grain : it may therefore be cut 
in any direction 

Free-stuff, that timber or stuff which 
is quite clean or without knots, 
and works easily, without tearing 

French chalk is an indurated mag- 
nesian mineral, employed to remove 
grease stains 

French School of Painting. This 
school has been so different under 
different masters, that it is difficult 
to characterize it. Some of its 
artists have been formed on the 


Florentine and Lombard styles, 
others on the Roman, others on 
the Venetian, and a few of them 
have distinguished themselves by a 
style which may be called their own. 
In speaking in general terras of this 
school, it appears to have no pe- 
culiar character, and can only be 
distinguished by its aptitude to 
imitate easily any impressions; and 
it may be added, speaking still in 
general terms, that it unites in a 
moderate degree the different parts 
of the art, without excelling in any 
one of them. 

Fresco, a kind of painting performed 
on fresh plaster, or on awall covered 
with mortar not quite dry, and with 
water colours. The plaster is only 
to be laid on as the painting pro- 
ceeds, no more being done at once 
than the painter can despatch in a 
day. The colours, being prepared 
with water, and applied over plaster 
quite fresh, become incorporated 
with the plaster, and retain their 
beauty for a great length of time. 
The Romans cut out plaster paint- 
ings on brick walls at Sparta, packed 
them up in wooden cases, and trans- 
ported them to Rome. 
Fret, an ornament used in classical 
architecture, formed by small fil- 
lets intersecting each other at right 

Friars (the orders of) in England and 
Wales, previous to their abolition, 
including the Nuns Minoresses, 
amounted to 

Black or Dominican friars . 54 
Grey or Franciscan friars . 62 
Minoresses or nuns of the 

order of St. Clare ... 4 
Friars of the order of the 
Holy Trinity for the re- 
demption of captives . . 12 
Order of the Carmelites or 

White friars .... 50 
Crutch ed or Crossed friars 10 

Austin friars 32 

Friars de pcenitentia or of 
the sac ...... 9 

Bethlemite friars ... 6 
Friction, the act of rubbing two bodies 




together, or the resistance in ma- 
chines caused by the contact of 
different moving parts. Friction is 
proportional to the pressure ; that 
is, every thing remaining the same, 
the friction increases as the pres- 
sure increases. 

Friction-clutch, a shell or box fixed 
on the end of a driving shaft, fitted 
by a conical piece which slides on 
a feather, or raised part, at the end 
of another shaft, so that it can be 
engaged at pleasure by the cone 
being forced into the shell by a 
lever or screw. This apparatus is 
very useful for driving machines, 
the parts of which are subjected to 
violent strains, as the pressure upon 
the clutch can be regulated so as 
to allow it to slide when the strain 
is too great to be borne safely by 
the machine. 

Frieze, the middle division of an en- 
tablature, that which lies between 
the architrave and the cornice 

Frigidarium, the cold bathing-room 
in the baths of the ancients, as well 
as the vessel in which the cold water 
was received 

Frigidarium, the cold bath : the re- 
servoir of cold water in the hypo- 
caustum, or stove-room, was termed 
ahenum frigidarium 

Frithstool or Freedstool, a seat or 
chair near the altar, for those espe- 
cially who sought the privilege of 

Frontal or Fronter, the hanging with 
which the front of an altar was 
formerly covered 

Fronton, a French word to express 
an ornament over a door or pedi- 

Frowy stuff, short or brittle and soft 

Fucus, a name given by the Romans 
to certain false dyes and paints 

Fuel, the matter or aliment of fire 

Fulcrum, the prop or support by which 
a lever is sustained 

Fullers' -earth, a soft unctuous marl, 
used by fullers in the process of 
cleansing cloth, &c. 

Fulling-mill, an engine, or mill, in 


which cloth is cleansed by being 
beaten with hammers 

Fulminating gold or silver, in che- 
mistry, ammonia combined with 
the oxides of gold or silver 

Fumarium, a chimney ; an upper 
room used among the Romans for 
collecting the smoke from the 
lower apartments : used also for 
smoking or ripening wines 

Furling, in navigation, the wrapping 
up and binding of any sail close to 
the yard 

Furlong, a measure of length; the 
eighth part of a mile 

Furnace. The furnace is one of the 
most important parts of the high- 
pressure engine. The whole action 
and power of the machine depend 
on its construction, and on the 
effect obtained from it, inasmuch 
as fire is the prime agent. Too 
much industry, exactitude, and in- 
timate knowledge of the subject, 
cannot be brought to bear on the 
construction of the furnace, in order 
to attain the two great objects of 
its action ; namely, first, to produce 
as perfect a combustion of the fuel 
as possible ; and secondly, to apply 
as much as possible of the heat so 
developed effectively to the boiler. 
These two requirements for a good 
furnace are, however, not so easily 
satisfied. Much remains to be ac- 
quired as to the conditions under 
which the whole of the caloric may 
be perfectly developed from the fuel, 
although the best manner of apply- 
ing the heat to the boiler is well 

Furniture : anterior to the Tudor age, 
household furniture was in general 
of a rude, substantial character ; 
the tables were formed of boards 
or trestles, the seats of massive oak 
benches or stools, and the floors 
strewed with straw 

Furniture of the hall: this consisted 
of but few articles, such as clumsy 
oak tables covered with carpet, 
benches or joined forms of the same 
material, and cupboards for plate, 
pewter, ' treene,' leather jugs, glass, 




&c., with a reredos or fire-iron in 
the centre of thefloor, against which 
fagots were piled and burned, the 
smoke passing through an aperture 
in the roof; the fender, formed by 
a raised rim of stone or tile, and a 
' fier forke' and tongs 

Furrings, slips of timber nailed to 
joists or rafters, in order to bring 
them to a level, and to range them 
into a straight surface, when the 
timbers are sagged, either by casting, 
or by a set which they have ob- 
tained by their weight in the course 
of time 

Fusarole, in architecture, a moulding 
or ornament placed immediately 
under the echinus in the Doric, 
Ionic, and Composite capitals ; the 
shaft of a column, pilaster or pillar, 
or that part comprehended between 
the shaft and the capital 


GABLE, the upright triangular end of 
a house, from the cornice or eaves 
to the top of the building, some- 
times called a sloped roof; the up- 
per part of a wall, above the level 
of the eaves. Examples in English 
and foreign Domestic and Gothic 
architecture are various, and gene- 
rally have a most picturesque effect. 

Goblets, small ornamental gables or 
canopies formed over tabernacles, 
niches, &c. 

Gaff, a sort of boom used in small 
ships to extend the upper edge of 
the mizen, and employed for the 
same purpose on those sails whose 
foremost edges are joined to the 
masts by hoops or lacings, and 
which are usually extended by a 
boom below: such are the main- 
sails of sloops, brigs, and schooners 

Gage or Gauge, an instrument used for 
measuring the state of rarefaction in 
the air-pump, variations in the baro- 
meter, &c. ; a measure, a standard 

Gal, in Cornish, rusty iron ore 

Galilee, a porch or chapel at the en- 
trance of a church. The galilee at 
Lincoln cathedral is a porch on the 


Fustic, a wood of a species of mul- 
berry growing in most parts of 
South America, the United States, 
and the West Indies : it is a large 
and handsome tree, principally used 
for dyeing greens and yellows, and 
also in mosaic cabinet-work and 

FattocJc, in ship-building. Every 
single timber is called a futtock, 
and distinguished by the terms 
lower, or first, second, third, &c., 
except the floors, long and half- 
timbers, top timbers, stern tim- 
bers, &c. 

Futtocks, the lower timbers raised 
over the keel, and which hold the 
ship together 

Futtock shrouds, in ship rigging, small 
shrouds that go from the main- 
mast, fore-mast, and mizen-mast 
shrouds to those of the top-mast 


west side of the south transept : at 
Ely cathedral it is a porch at the 
west end of the nave : at Durham 
it is a large chapel at the west end 
of the nave, which was built for the 
use of the women, who were not 
allowed to advance further into the 
church than the second pillar of 
the nave. 

Gallery, an apartment generally of 
greater length in proportion to the 
width, applied for the purpose of 
exhibiting pictures or sculpture : 
used formerly in early English Do- 
mestic architecture, in large houses, 
as a place of resort for dancing and 
other amusements 

Galliot, a Dutch vessel, carrying a 
main and a mizen mast, and a large 
gaff main-sail 

Gall-stone (colour), an animal calcu- 
lus formed in the gall-bladder, 
principally of oxen. This concre- 
tion varies a little in colour, but is 
in general of a beautiful golden 
yellow, more powerful than gam- 
boge, and is highly reputed as a 
water colour : nevertheless, its co- 
lour is soon changed and destroyed 




by strong light, though not subject 
to alteration by impure air. 

Galvanism comprises all those elec- 
trical phenomena arising from the 
chemical agency of certain metals 
with different fluids 

Galvanometer, an instrument con- 
trived to measure minute quanti- 
ties of electricity 

Gamboge, or, as it is variously written, 
Gumboge, Gambouge, Cambogia, 
Gambadium, &c., is brought from 
Cambaja, in India, and is the pro- 
duce of several kinds of trees. It 
is, however, principally obtained 
from the tree called Gokathu, which 
grows in Ceylon and Siam. From 
the wounded leaves and young 
shoots the gamboge is collected in 
a liquid state, and dried. Gam- 
boge is a concrete vegetable sub- 
stance, of a gum-resinous nature, 
and beautiful yellow colour, bright 
and transparent, but not of a great 
depth. When properly used, it is 
more durable than generally re- 
puted, both in water and oil, and 
conduces, when mixed with other 
colours, to their stability and dura- 
bility, by means of its gum and 
resin. It is deepened in some de- 
gree by ammoniacal and impure 
air, and somewhat weakened, but 
not easily discoloured, by the ac- 
tion of light. 

Gammoning, in navigation, seven or 
eight turns of a rope passed over 
the bowsprit, and through a large 
hole in the stem or knee of the 
head, alternately, and serving to 
bind the inner quarter of the bow- 
sprit close down to the ship's stem, 
in order to enable it the better to 
support the stays of the fore-mast : 
after all the turns are drawn as 
firm as possible, the opposite ones 
are braced together under the bow- 
sprit by a frapping 

Gammoning -hole, a hole cut through 
the knee of the head, and some- 
times one under the standard in 
the head, for the use of gammon- 
ing the bowsprit 

Garboard strake, the strake in the 


bottom that is wrought into the 
rabbet of the keel of a ship 

Gardens. The ancient plans of gar- 
dens show that the Egyptians were 
not less fond than our ancestors of 
mathematical figures, of straight 
walks, architectural decorations, 
and vegetable avenues ; and that 
they as thoroughly entered into 
the idea of seclusion and safety 
suggested by enclosures within en- 
closures. It has been remarked, 
that in some old English places 
there were almost as many walled 
compartments without as apart- 
ments within doors : the same may 
be said of Egyptian country houses. 
This principle of seclusion, and an 
excessive love of uniform arrange- 
ment, are remarkably displayed in 
the plan of a large square garden 
given in Professor Rosellini's great 

As a subject for the painter, the 
materials which form the scenery 
of a garden are provided by Nature 
herself: the artist must therefore 
be satisfied with the degree of ex- 
pression which she has bestowed, 
and give the best possible disposi- 
tion to those scanty and intractable 
materials. In a landscape, on the 
contrary, the painter has the choice 
of the objects he intends to repre- 
sent, and can give whatever force 
or extent he pleases to the expres- 
sion he wishes to convey, as the 
whole range of scenery is before 
his eye. 

Gargoyle or Gurgoyle, a projecting 
spout used in Gothic architecture, 
to throw the water from the gutter 
of a building off the wall 

Garland, an ornamental band used in 
Gothic work 

Garnet, a hinge, now called a ' cross 
garnet ;' a red gem of various sizes 

Garret, an upper apartment of a 
house, immediately under the roof 

Garretting, small splinters of stone 
inserted in the joints of coarse 
masonry : they are stuck in after 
the work is built : flint walls are 
very frequently garretted 


Gas. All substances, whether animal, 
vegetable, or mineral, consisting of 
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, 
when exposed to a red heat, pro- 
duce various inflammable elastic 
fluids capable of furnishing artificial 
light. The evolution of this elastic 
fluid may be perceived during the 
combustion of coalin a common fire. 
The coal, when heated to a certain 
degree, swells and kindles, and 
frequently emits remarkably bright 
streams of flame, and after a cer- 
tain period these appearances cease, 
and the coal glows with a red light. 

The flame produced from coal, 
oil, wax, tallow, or other bodies 
which are composed of carbon and 
hydrogen, proceeds from the pro- 
duction of carburetted hydrogen 
gas, evolved from the combustible 
body when in an ignited state. 

If coal, instead of being burnt 
in the ordinary way, be submitted 
to the temperature of ignition in 
close vessels, all its immediate -con- 
stituent parts may be collected: 
the bituminous part is distilled 
over, in the form of coal-tar, &c., 
and a large quantity of an aqueous 
fluid is disengaged at the same 
time, mixed with a portion of es- 
sential oil and various ammoniacal 
salts. A large quantity of carbu- 
retted hydrogen, carbonic oxide, 
carbonic acid, and sulphuretted 
hydrogen, also make their appear- 
ance, together with small quantities 
of cyanogen, nitrogen, and free 
hydrogen, and the fixed base of the 
coal alone remains behind in the 
distillatory apparatus, in the form 
of a carbonaceous substance called 
coJce. An analysis of the coal is 
effected by the process of destruct- 
ive distillation ; and the products 
which the coal furnishes may be 
separately collected in different 

The carburetted hydrogen, or 
coal-gas, when freed from the ob- 
noxious foreign gases, may be pro- 
pelled in streams out of small 
apertures, which, when lighted, 



form jets of flame, now called gas- 

Mr. Croll has patented an in- 
vention for the purification of gas 
from ammonia, which is effected 
by means of dilute sulphuric acid 
applied between the condensers 
and the ordinary lime purifiers. 
The vessels are made either of wood 
or iron, and lined with lead, having 
a wash-plate similar to the wet-lime 
purifiers. The radiating bottom is 
formed of wooden bars, for the pur- 
pose of supporting the wash-plate 
and distributing the gas. In com- 
mencing the process, these vessels 
are charged with water and sulphu- 
ric acid in the proportion of 7 fts. 
of the latter to 100 gallons of the 
former. As the acid is neutralized 
by the ammonia contained in the 
gas passing through the vessels, 
the above proportion is kept up by 
a continuous dropping or running 
of acid, regulated according to the 
quantity of ammonia contained in 
the gas, from a reservoir placed on 
the top of the saturator. This 
mode of supplying the acid is con- 
tinued until the specific gravity of 
the solution is at 1170, or near the 
point of crystallization; after which 
the supply of acid is discontinued, 
and the liquor retained in the vessel 
until neutralized : it is then drawn 
off and evaporated, and yields a 
pure sulphate of ammonia. 
Gas (distribution of, through mains}. 
There is no branch of science con- 
nected with the subject of gas en- 
gineering so highly important as 
that which relates to its conveyance 
and distribution through pipes ; 
there is none in which theory af- 
fords more assistance, and there is 
hardly any branch to which so lit- 
tle attention has been paid. The 
interests of a gas company are not 
best served by simply increasing 
the quantity of gas from the same 
quantity of coal, or improving the 
lime machinery, &c. The laying of 
street-mains forms the most consi- 
derable item in the outlay; and by 




a judicious arrangement in the first 
instance, much may be saved hoth 
at first and last. 

It is for the purpose of rendering 
this branch of the science, and that 
of the passage of gas through pipes, 
perfectly plain, that the following 
observations are here given. 

When it is proposed to light any 
town, or district of a town, with 
gas, the first step to be taken is to 
ascertain the number of lights, 
both public and private, that will 
be required, with as much accu- 
racy as circumstances will permit ; 
the length of time such lights will 
have to burn, and the quantity of 
gas consumed by them per hour, 
making allowances for the increase 
of lamps that will probably be re- 
quired by the extension of the town. 
The size of the works themselves 
may be easily ascertained from this 
calculation. It will then remain 
to fix upon a proper situation in 
w r hich to erect them : the best local 
position is upon the banks of a na- 
vigable river or canal, and at the 
lowest available level, and the near- 
est approach to such a situation is 
advisable for obvious reasons. A 
map of the town must be obtained, 
or a survey made of the different 
streets and thoroughfares : running 
levels must be taken through them 
at several points, and their respect- 
ive heights marked with reference 
to the level of the works as a da- 
tum : upon this map all the mains 
must be drawn, also their branches, 
valves, and governors. Their ar- 
rangement must be such as to allow 
of a perfect circulation of the gas, 
and a nearly uniform pressure at 
the highest and lowest point. All 
the pipes upon the same level 
should be joined into one another, 
and no valves used but such as are 
necessary to shut off the gas for 
repair of mains. To supply a higher 
level, a governor should be placed 
at the summit of the lower level, 
with the lower main leading into 
it. The pipe or pipes for supplying 


the higher parts should proceed 
from the regulating vessel. A cel- 
lar may be appropriated for the 
reception of this vessel. One lead- 
ing main should be taken direct 
from the works to an equilibrium 
cylinder situated at some point 
from which several streets diverge, 
and no supply taken from this main 
until it has reached the cylinder. 
Branches suitable to the supply 
of each division of the district 
should lead from this cylinder. 
The supply of gas to the cylinder 
should be so regulated as to cause 
the gas to flow along the branches 
at an even pressure of about five- 
tenths of an inch. If the cylinder 
be at any considerable distance 
from the works, a smaller main, 
with increased pressure, may lead 
to it, its size being sufficient to 
equalize the discharge. 

Supposing a district to be lighted 
requiring 1000 public or street 
lamps, and 7000 private burners : 
it is usually considered that each 
lamp on an average will consume 
5 cubic feet of gas per hour, there- 
fore 40,000 cubic feet will be re- 
quired to light the district for an 
hour; and the leading main must 
be capable of delivering that quan- 
tity into the equilibrium cylinder 
in that time. To determine the 
size of this main, the probable in- 
crease of lamps must be taken into 
consideration ; and as that will de- 
pend so much upon circumstances 
in every instance, the judgment of 
the engineer alone can serve to re- 
gulate the additional area. If the 
increase should be beyond that 
which was expected, the gas must 
be forced through the leading main 
at a greater pressure. 

In the above example, if the 
diameter of main for a present con- 
sumption be 12 inches, and to se- 
cure an adequate supply at any 
future period its diameter be in- 
creased to 15 inches, the present 
working pressure may be reduced 
to 1-5 of an inch instead of 3 inches; 

i 5 




and as the leakage will also be 
decreased, the extra-sized main 
will not be found disadvantageous 
even in the first instance. 

Gasometer, a reservoir of gas, with 
conveniences for measuring its 
volume. The simplest and most 
general in use consists of an iron 
vessel, open at the bottom, and 
inverted into a tank of water below 
the surface of the ground, having 
perfect freedom to rise and fall, 
and guided by upright rods fixed at 
several points in the circumference. 
The diameters and numbers of the 
vessels will vary according to the 
magnitude of the works to which the 
gasometer is attached, and the space 
to be occupied by it. If the works 
are situated in a town, where the 
ground is too valuable to allow an 
increased extent, a 'telescope gaso- 
meter' is employed. 

Gas-tar, commonly called coal-tar. 
When the manufacture of gas 
from coal was in its infancy, great 
advantages were expected to be 
derived from the coal-tar which 
distilled over with the inflammable 
gas. It was considered to be a 
substance possessing even superior 
properties to the vegetable tar for 
the preservation of timber and other 
perishable materials exposed to the 
influences of the weather. 

In the year 1665 a German 
chemist proposed to distil coal for 
the sole purpose of obtaining this 
tar, and in 1781 the Earl of Dun- 
donald took out a patent for col- 
lecting the tar which appeared 
during the formation of coke. Nei- 
ther scheme answered. After a 
few years' trial, coal-tar as a sub- 
stitute for vegetable tar fell into 
disuse. It was tried in the navy, 
and was found to give the timber a 
considerable degree of hardness, 
but not of durability. Its smell is 
extremely offensive ; and since that 
time it has been used only in 
places where that is of little conse- 
quence. The exposed part of the 
machinery of a gas establishment 


may be protected by being coated 
with coal-tar. 

Gasket, plaited cord fastened to the 
sail-yards of a ship, and used to 
furl or tie up a sail firmly to the 
yard, by wrapping it round both six 
or seven times, the turns being at a 
competent distance from each other 

Gatchers, the after-leavings of tin 

Gate-house, or park entrance, a struc- 
ture designed rather to produce an 
agreeable and picturesque effect, 
than to accord with any fixed rules 
or customs of art : such, indeed, 
was the practice towards the latter 
end of the sixteenth century, when 
it would appear, that most men 
wished to display their taste and 
learning in architecture. The gate- 
house also forms an entrance to a 
private mansion, to any public, 
municipal, or collegiate building, 
or to a palace, &c. In the early 
English architecture, gate-houses, 
now sometimes called Lodr/es, were 
large and imposing structures, of 
great elegance. 

Gates and doors are generally, whe- 
ther arched or square, twice their 
breadth in height. The former 
may be ornamented with columns, 
pilasters, entablatures, pediments, 
rustics, imposts, archivolts, &c. ; 
the latter with architraves round 
the sides and top of the opening, 
and crowned with a frieze and cor- 
nice. The cornice in this case is 
very frequently supported with a 
console on each side. Columns, 
pilasters, and other ornaments are 
also sometimes employed in the 
decoration of doors. 

Inside doors should not be nar- 
rower than 2 feet 9 inches, nor is 
it needful that they exceed 6 feet 
in height ; entrance doors, 3 feet 
6 inches to 6 feet 6 inches broad 
in private dwellings : but in public 
buildings, where crowds assemble, 
they must be considerably enlarged. 
The smallest width for a gate should 
be 8 feet 6 inches. 

As some general rule for the pro- 
portion of the architraves of com- 




mon dressings to doors may be 
useful, the following directions may 
be safely followed : Supposing the 
height of the aperture to represent 
the height of a column; then, if an 
architrave, frieze, and cornice, or 
the first only, he desired, take them 
in the proportion that would serve 
for the order itself, and return the 
architrave down the sides of the 
door. The whole entablature over 
a square-headed door should never 
exceed one-third the height of such 

Gauge (pronounced gage), a measure 
by which the capacity or contents 
of a cask or vessel may be ascer- 
tained. Gauging is a term used in 
mensuration, and applied by engi- 
neers in their several operations. 
The gauge, as applied to railways, 
became a familiar term during the 
antagonistic discussions respecting 
the proper distance between the 
lines of rail ; and the battle of the 
gauges, which raged fiercely and ex- 
pensively, ended, like many similar 
contentions, in both parties spend- 
ing enormous sums of money, with- 
out the result of victory on either 

Gauge, a mixture of fine stuff and 
plaster, or putty and plaster, or 
coarse stuff and plaster; used in 
finishing the best ceilings and for 
mouldings, and sometimes for set- 
ting walls 

Gauge-cocks, two or three small cocks 
fixed in front of the boiler of a steam 
engine, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the height of the water 

Gauge-glass, in locomotive engines, a 
strong glass tube, connected with 
the boiler by two cocks attached 
to the gauge-cock pedestal. The 
water is admitted to this tube by 
the lower cock, the steam by the 
upper cock. It thus becomes an 
index to what is going on inside 
the boiler, exhibiting the height 
or agitation of the water in it. A 
small cock is placed below the 
glass for blowing out any sediment 
which may be deposited in it. 


Gauge-lamp, in locomotive engines, 
a small lamp placed beside the 
gauge-glass at night, that the state 
of the water in the boiler may be 
seen by the engine-man 

Gauntlet, in heraldry, an iron glove : 
in challenges, the gauntlet was 
thrown down in defiance 

Gear, furniture, dress, harness : the 
term is also applied to the several 
working parts of a locomotive steam 

Generating surface, the heating sur- 
face of a boiler, or that on which 
heat is applied to generate steam 

Gentese, in early English architecture, 
cusps or featherings in the arch of 
a doorway 

Geometry, the science of quantity, 
extension, or magnitude 

Geoscopy, a knowledge of the different 
kinds of earth 

German School of Painting. In early 
times, a school of painting can 
hardly be said to have existed in 
Germany : it was merely a suc- 
cession of single artists, who de- 
rived their manner from different 
sources of originality and imitation. 
There were some German painters 
of emimence when the art, emerg- 
ing from its barbarous state, first 
began to be cultivated in Europe ; 
but as they were totally unac- 
quainted with the ancients, and had 
scarcely access to the works of their 
contemporaries in Italy, they copied 
Nature alone, with the exception 
of somewhat of that stiffness which 
forms the Gothic manner. This 
is by no means the case with their 
successors, some of whom were edu- 
cated in Flanders, and others in 
Italy. But if Mengs or Dietrich 
were comprehended in this school, 
there would be nothing peculiar to 
its manner discovered in their 
works. Albert Durer was the first 
German who corrected the bad 
taste of his countrymen : he ex- 
celled in engraving as well as in 
painting ; his genius was fertile, his 
compositions varied, his thoughts 
ingenious, and his colours brilliant. 




His works, though numerous, were 
finished with great exactness. For 
an account of this great man and 
his productions, see the 'Works of 
Divers Ancient Masters/ in two vols. 
folio, 1846. 

Geology (a treatise or discourse on 
the earth) "is a term which admits 
of a very wide interpretation, and 
naturally suggests to the mind in- 
quiries, 1st, into the formation 
and original condition of the earth; 
2ndly, into the successive modifica- 
tions which it has undergone, and 
the agencies by which they have 
been effected ; and Srdly, into its 
present condition, and the agencies 
by which changes in that condition 
are still effected. The first object 
of the geologist is to establish, on 
the principles of inductive reason- 
ing, the science as it depends on 
each of these inquiries, and then to 
apply it to the practical purposes 
of life. It may be premised that a 
science is practicably valuable just 
in proportion as its facts have been 
discovered, and its laws established 
and studied ; for so long as we are 
uncertain whether a known result 
has proceeded from a definite cause, 
we are unable to apply the fact or 
circumstance to the elucidation of 
other facts or circumstances ; and 
so long as we are unacquainted 
with the properties of any sub- 
stance under our examination, we 
cannot declare with certainty what 
share it may have had in the phe- 
nomena we have observed. This 
may be illustrated by a reference 
to gunpowder. Its explosive qua- 
lity is the result of its composition, 
and we can only depend upon the 
results when we know that the 
compound has been accurately 
formed: to insure, therefore, cer- 
tainty in the operations depending 
on it, we must take care that a 
proper standard of composition has 
been adhered to. In a similar man- 
ner we can only apply geology as a 
practical science when we have as- 
certained and made ourselves fami- 


liar with those facts which prove 
the first principles on which it has 
been founded to be correct and 

Gib and key, the fixed wedge and the 
driving wedge for tightening the 
strap which holds the brasses at 
the end of a connecting-rod in 
steam machinery 

Gimlet, a piece of steel of a cylin- 
drical form, having a transverse 
handle at the upper end, and at the 
other, a worm or screw, and a cy- 
lindric cavity, called the cup, above 
the screw, forming, in its trans- 
verse section, a crescent. Its use 
is to bore small holes : the screw 
draws it forward in the wood, in 
the act of boring, while it is turned 
round by the handle: the angle 
formed by the exterior and interior 
cylinders cuts the fibres across, 
and the cup contains the core of 
wood so cut : the gimlet is turned 
round by the application of the 
fingers, on alternate sides of the 
wooden lever at the top. 

Girders, the longitudinal beams in a 
floor. Girders are the chief sup- 
port of a framed floor: their depth 
is often limited by the size of the 
timber, but not always so ; there- 
fore the method of finding the scant- 
ling may be divided into more than 
in one case. Girders of wrought 
and cast iron are now extensively 
used for bridges, to girt railroads, 
canals, &c., many of which are of 
considerable span : the following 
will give a better explanation of 
the importance of testing their 

Experiments on an open cast-iron 
girder. Figures 1 and 2, in the an- 
nexed diagrams, show the eleva- 
tion and section of a cast-iron open 
girder, which was intended to act 
as a bressummer between the co- 
lumns which supported an iron sheet 
roof of 40 feet span. These columns 
were 20 feet apart from centre to 
centre, and the principals of the 
roof being 6 feet 8 inches apart, two 
of them were of course supported 



by the iron girder at the points a 
and b. 

The maxi- Fig. 1. 

mum weight 
thus thrown <*"" 
on the girder, 
according to 
a calculation 
made at the 
time, would 
amount to 2 
tons at each 
of the points 
where the 
upon it ; giv- 
ing a total 
pressure of 5 
tons : this was 
on the sup- 
position that 
the weight of 
the roof it- 
self, and the 
action of the 
wind upon it, 
would prove 
equivalent to 
a weight of 
40 fos. on the 
foot superfi- 

The roof 
was erected 
by the con- 
tractor who 
furnished the 
plan, and had 
the work at 
his own risk. 
When it ar- 
rived on the 
ground, the 
slightness of 
the girders 
was such as 
to render it 
advisable to 
subject them 
to necessary 
proof before 
proceeding to place them in the 
work. Accordingly, two girders 




Fig. 2. 

4. 8 -> 

< - 5 > 

were placed at a short distance 
apart, and properly fixed ; baulks 
were then laid across from one to 
the other, at the two points a and 
l\ and upon these, planks were laid, 
which carried pigs of iron. They 
did not show much symptom of 
weakness until 4 tons were placed 
on the platform ; but with this load, 
which was less than one-half of what 
the two should have carried, the two 
vertical braces, c and d, were broken 
by a tendency of the under flange of 
the girder to rise at those points in a 
direction perpendicularto the curve, 
and the whole very soon gave way, 
and was completely smashed. In 
this case, not only was the metal too 
thin, but the connecting pieces be- 
tween the upper and lower flanges 
were too slight, and too far apart ; 
the top flange was made wider than 
the bottom, in order to give a bed 
for the shoe of the principal : had 
the openings been filled in, the 
girder might have stood the test, 
though even then it would have 
been but slight. 

Fig. 3 shows two links of a chain 
guy for supporting a pair of shears, 
erected for lifting heavy weights, 
such as boilers, &c. : these links 
were about 6 feet 6 inches long, 
and were made of 2-inch round 
iron : they were subjected to the 
following proof by means of an 
hydraulic press. 

With 35 tons, these "I t ,. . , 
two links stretched | ^ Ofanmch ' 




With 40 tons, these! 3 , . , 

f i A i- j r T? i an men. 

two links stretched J e 

and had then a permanent set. 

"With 60 tons they stretched 
3 inches and broke, the metal 
being clean and sound. In 
this case the breaking weight Fig. 3. 
was about double that which 
might have been fairly placed 
upon the chain, viz. about 
31 tons, which would have 
been at the rate of 10 tons 
upon the square inch ; for 
although 35 tons did not ap- 
parently cause any set during 
the time the experiment 
lasted, yet it is impossible to 
say that that weight might 
not have caused such an ef- 
fect, if left for a sufficient 
length of time. 

The following formula is 
deduced from Mr. Hodgkin- 
son's experiments. " As the 
distance between the sup- 
ports in feet is to the depth 
in feet of the beam in the 
middle of its length, so is 
the area in inches of the 
bottom flange to a fourth 
quantity, which, when mul- 
tiplied by a constant number 
to be determined by experi- 
ment, will give the breaking 
weight in tons." 

This given number may be 
taken at 27'3 for common 
beams ; then half of this quantity 
will be the weight which the girder 
will bear, if distributed equally 
over its length. The ratio of the 
area of the middle section of the 
top flange to that of the bottom 
should be about 1 to 4, or 4 '5. 

The diagram (fig. 4) represents 
a girder of 18 -feet bearing: the 
maximum weight which would ever 
be thrown upon it, including the 
weight of a fire-proof floor, was 
considered to amount to about 
200 ibs. on the foot, or 14 tons 
spread over its length: two of these 
girders were placed at but a short 
distance apart from each other, and 


loaded uniformly over their whole 
surface with iron ballast ; a hori- 
zontal line was struck upon one of 
the girders, and the deflection 
measured when each weight was 

Twenty tons of ballast gave a 
deflection of inch. 

184 . Deflec- 

April Tons. Tons. tion. 

13. 4 added, making 24 ; f . 

15. 2 do. 26; f. 

16. 2 do. 28; f. 

17. 2 do. 30; }. 

18. 2 do. 32; f. 
20. 4 do. 36; T V 

April 23. Deflection still the 
same, the weight having remained 

April 29. No alteration had 
taken place in the deflection, and 
the weights being removed, the 
girder resumed its original form, 
showing no trace of a set or per- 
manent alteration. 

The section annexed shows the 
relative proportions of the upper 
and under flanges of the girder: 
the top and bottom of the girder 
were parallel, but the lower flange, 
being 8 inches broad at the middle, 
diminished to 4 inches at the point 
of support. 

The computed breaking weight, 
according to Mr.Hodgkinson's rule, 
would be 

16 ^'^x 27-3 = 28-28 tons: 
half of this, viz. 14 tons, distributed 




over the whole length, should be 
its maximum load; whereas it car- 
ried 18 tons, or 36 tons placed on 
two girders, without showing any 
symptoms of giving. 

The average weight of a large 
number of these girders amounted 
to about 16f cwt. 

Gland, the pressing piece of a stuffing- 
box of a steam-engine 

Glass: this artificial transparent sub- 
stance was introduced very early. 
Hollinshed says, an Englishman 
named Benedict Biscop, who had 
taken upon him the habit of a 
monk in Italy, came here with the 
Archbishop of Rome, in the year 
670, and brought painters, gla- 
ziers, and other such curious crafts- 
men into England for the first time. 

Glasses superseded small drinking- 
bowls ; they were of Venetian 
manufacture, and probably first 
brought here in the 16th century. 
Earlier they do not appear to have 
been used in England ; nor to have 
come into much fashion till the 
time of Elizabeth. 

Glass water-gauge. See Gauge-glass. 

Glazing, the art of affixing glass to the 
sashes of windows, casements, &c., 
for the purpose of admitting the 
light of day ; anciently applied 
to the affixing to windows deco- 
rative, stained, and painted glass. 
A great many beautiful examples 
exist in this and other countries, 
of early designs, and of examples 
in the cinque-cento style : for the 
latter, see ' Divers Works of Early 
Masters,' 2 vols. folio, 1846. 

Glazing is also a term applied to 
the finishing of a drawing with 
some thin, transparent, and glossy 
tint, through which the first co- 
lours appear, and are heightened 
in their effect 

Glebe, turf, soil; land possessed as 
part of the revenue of an ecclesias- 
tical benefice 

Glist, a shining black or brown mine- 
ral, of an iron cast 

Glue, a tenacious viscid matter, which 
is used as a cement by carpenters, 


joiners, &c. Glues are found to 
differ very much from each other 
in their consistence, colour, taste, 
smell, and solubility. Some will 
dissolve in cold water, by agitation ; 
while others are soluble only at the 
point of ebullition. The best glue 
is generally admitted to be trans- 
parent, and of a brown yellow co- 
lour, without either taste or smell. 
It is perfectly soluble in water, 
forming a viscous fluid, which when 
dry preserves both its tenacity and 
transparency in every part, and 
has solidity, colour, and viscidity, 
in proportion to the age and the 
strength of the animal from which 
it is produced. To distinguish 
good glue from bad, it is necessary 
to hold it between the eye and the 
light ; and if it appears of a strong 
dark brown colour, and free from 
cloudy or black spots, it may be 
pronounced to be good. The best 
glue may likewise be known by 
immersing it in cold water for 
three or four days, and if it swells 
powerfully without melting, and 
afterwards regains its former di- 
mensions and properties by being 
dried, the article is of the best 

A small portion of finely levi- 
gated chalk is sometimes added to 
the common solution of glue in 
water, to strengthen it and fit it for 
standing the weather. 

A glue that will resist both fire 
and water may be prepared by 
mixing a handful of quicklime with 
four ounces of linseed oil, thorough- 
ly levigated, and then boiled to a 
good thickness, and kept in the 
shade, on tin plates, to dry. It 
may be rendered fit for use by 
boiling it over a fire in the ordi- 
nary manner. 

Glyphs, perpendicular flutings or 
channels used in the Doric frieze 

Gobbets, stones ; a measure or quan- 
tity, so called in the time of Ed- 
ward III. 

Gola, the Italian term for cyma 

Gold, a well-known valuable metal 




found in many parts of the world, 
but the greatest quantity of which 
is obtained from the coast of 
Guinea. The produce of California 
remains to be determined. Gold 
seems to be the most simple of all 
substances. It is spoken of in Scrip- 
ture, and the use of it among the 
ancient Hebrews, in its native and 
mixed state, and for the same pur- 
poses as at present, was very com- 
mon. The ark of the covenant 
was overlaid with pure gold ; the 
mercy seat, the vessels and utensils 
belonging to the tabernacle, and 
those also of the House of the 
Lord, as well as the drinking- 
vessels of Solomon, were formed 
of this metal. 

Gold occurs, in the metallic state, 
mixed with several metals, but 
more commonly with silver and 
copper, and sometimes pure. 

Golden sulphur of antimony, golden 
yellow,is the hydro-sulphuret of an- 
timony, of an orange colour, which 
is destroyed by the action of strong 
light. It is a bad dryer in oil, 
injurious to many colours, and in 
no respect an eligible pigment 
either in oil or water. 

Gold purple, or Cassius's purple preci- 
pitate, the compound oxide which is 
precipitated upon mixing the solu- 
tions of gold and tin. It is not a 
bright, but a rich and powerful 
colour, of great durability, varying 
in degrees of transparency, and in 
hue from deep crimson to a mur- 
rey or dark purple: it is princi- 
pally used in miniature painting, 
and may well be employed in ena- 
mel painting. 

Gondola, a Venetian barge much or- 
namented, used in the canals of 
Venice for the convenience of the 
inhabitants : the common dimen- 
sions are 30 feet by 4 feet : each 
end is terminated by a very sharp 
point, which is raised perpendicu- 
larly to the full height of a man 

Goniometer, an instrument for mea- 
suring angles and crystals 

Gorged, in heraldry, the bearing of a 


crown, coronet, or the like, about 
the neck of a lion, swan, &c. 

Gossan, an imperfect iron ore, com- 
monly of a tender rotten substance, 
and of a red or rusty iron colour 

Gothic Architecture, usually so called. 
Both Mr. Britton and Mr. Pugin 
have treated of it by the name 
of ' Christian Architecture.' It had 
its rise from the Romanesque : this 
took its origin from Roman remains 
at the declension of that empire. 
It became Saxon, then Norman, 
and varied in its character with the 
maturity of years. It was Early 
English, Perpendicular, Decorated, 
Flamboyant, &c., till it lost its ec- 
clesiastical and monastic character 
in the Domestic, which prevailed 
in the Tudor style (Renaissance), 
followed by the Elizabethan, &c. 

Gouge, in carpentry, an instrument 
like a round hollow chisel 

Governor, the apparatus for regulating 
the supply of steam to the cylinder 
so as to give a constant velocity to 
the engine. It consists of two balls 
suspended from a vertical spindle, 
and revolving with it : the suspend- 
ing rods are connected by arms to 
a sliding-piece which fits the spindle 
and acts upon a lever attached to a 
throttle-valve in the steam-pipe : 
the balls rise by the centrifugal 
force as the velocity increases, and 
close the valve : when the velocity 
diminishes, the balls fall, and open 
the valve. 

Governor, a contrivance for equalizing 
the motion of mills and machinery, 
as well as being used as above de- 

Governor balls, the solid metal balls 
fixed on the ends of the suspending 
rods of the governor 

Governor (gas). The governor is a 
machine for regulating and equal- 
izing the flow of gas from the gaso- 
meters to the street-mains, and is 
much more perfect in its action 
than any slide-valve applied for 
that purpose requiring attendance. 
Its use is no where sufficiently ap- 
preciated. Had it been a compli- 




cated piece of machinery, or ex- 
pensive in its first cost and after- 
application, objections to its adop- 
tion would not have been surprising, 
but it is perfectly simple, its ac- 
tion is certain and unvarying, and 
its first cost inconsiderable. 

The velocity of gas in the mains 
and pipes of supply is, in the first 
instance, as various as there are 
differences in their altitudes and 
extent. A main at one place will 
furnish, with a certain pressure of 
gas, a flame one inch high ; while 
at a different altitude it will furnish 
a flame double that height. If, 
again, in the direction of the main 
there are many bends, angles, or 
contractions in its diameter, the 
velocity of the gas through it will 
vary considerably more than if it 
were direct and uniform. If the 
pipe be of any great length, and of 
uniform bore, but unequally fur- 
nished with branches, the burners 
will be unequally supplied with gas : 
those which are near its head will 
be supplied with a fuller stream of 
gas than those which are situated 
towards its termination. 

Independently of these differ- 
ences, arising from diversity of 
local positions, there will always be 
one great variation in the velocity 
of the gas, occasioned by the va- 
riety of periods during which lights 
are required by different consumers 
supplied from the same main or 
system of pipes : for example, when 
a certain number of burners is to 
be supplied, and it happens that 
one-half are shut off sooner than 
the rest, the velocity of the gas in 
the mains will be materially in- 
creased, and the remaining lamps 
should be turned down ; but many 
would not be reduced, and much 
gas would be lost. 

Gowan, decomposed granite ; but the 
term is sometimes applied to the 
solid rock 

Gozzan, oxide of iron and quartz 
Grace is taken for beauty, graceful 
form or agreeableness of person; 


for form, friendship, and kindness; 
for certain gifts of God, which He 
bestows freely, when, where, and 
on whom He pleases : such are the 
gifts of miracles, prophecy, lan- 
guage, &c. 

Grace principally consists in the turn 
that a painter gives to his objects, 
to render them agreeable, even 
those that are inanimate. It is 
more seldom found in the face than 
in the manner ; for our manner is 
produced every moment, and can 
create surprise. A woman can be 
beautiful but one way, yet she can 
be graceful a thousand. Grace is 
neither found in constrained nor in 
affected manners, but in a certain 
freedom and ease between two ex- 

Gradation, in painting and drawing, 
implies the gradual receding of 
objects into the remote distance, 
by a proper strength or due dimi- 
nution of light, shade, and colour, 
according to their different dis- 
tances, the quantity of light which 
shines upon them, and the medium 
of air through which they are seen 

Gradient, a deviation from a level 
surface to an inclined plane 

Graduation, the division of philo- 
sophical instruments into degrees 
and other minute parts 

Grain tin, the finest tin, smelted with 
charcoal ; also the ore of very rich 
tin sometimes found in the form of 
grains or pebbles 

Grange, a monastic farming establish- 
ment : in ancient times it was com- 
mon to attach farm-houses and 
granaries to the estates of religious 

Granite, a natural stone of great 
strength, hardness, and durability ; 
much used in building: it is a 
primary and unstratified rock, con- 
sisting of quartz, mica, and felspar, 
each crystallized and cohering, but 
without any base or cement 

Grapnel, in navigation, a sort of small 
anchor with four or five flukes or 
claws, commonly used for boats 
and small vessels 




Gravel, a geological term applied to 
those sabulous soils, or assemblages 
of worn and rounded stones, which 
are found scattered on the surface 
of the earth 

Graver, the burin of an engraver ; a 
square piece of steel fixed in a 
handle, and bevelled diagonally at 
the end: an instrument used for 
turning iron, after it has been 
roughed out by the 'heel tool,' is 
so called 

Gravity is that power or force which 
causes bodies to approach each 
other. This universal principle, 
which pervades the whole system 
of nature, may be enunciated as 
follows : the mutual tendency of 
two bodies towards each other in- 
creases in the same proportion as 
their masses are increased, and the 
square of their distance is decreased ; 
and it decreases in proportion as 
their masses are decreased, and as 
the square of their distance is in- 

Gravity is also the force wherewith a 
body endeavours to descend to- 
wards the centre of the earth : this 
is called absolute gravity when the 
bodytends downwards in free space, 
and relative gravity is the force it 
endeavours to descend with in a 
fluid. Terrestrial gravity is that 
force by which bodies are urged 
towards the centre of the earth, 
and it is measured by the velocity 
generated in a second of time. Ex- 
periments show that a falling body 
describes 16-^ feet in one second, 
and it has then acquired a velocity 
of 32 feet, which is therefore the 
true measure of the force of gravity. 

Gray colour is the third and last, 
being the nearest in relation of co- 
lour to black. In its common ac- 
ceptation, gray denotes a class of 
cool cinerous colours, faint in hue ; 
whence we have blue-grays, olive- 
grays, green-grays, purple-grays, 
and grays of all hues, in which 
blue predominates ; but no yellow 
or red grays, the predominance of 
such hues carrying the compounds 


into the classes of brown and mar- 
rone, of which gray is the natural 

Graywacke, a coarse slate; in geo- 
logy, a secondary rock 

Grease-cock, a short pipe fixed in the 
cylinder cover of a steam engine, 
with two stop-cocks inserted at a 
short distance apart, and a funnel at 
the top for holding tallow. When 
the upper cock is opened, the tallow 
falls into the intermediate space ; 
the cock is then closed, and the 
lower one opened for the melted 
grease to enter the cylinder, and 
lubricate the piston without allow- 
ing the steam to escape. 

Green verditer is the same in substance 
as blue verditer, which is converted 
into green by boiling it 

Green ebony wood, imported from the 
West Indies, is used for round 
rulers, turnery, marquetry -work, 
&c. ; it is also much used for dyeing, 
and contains resinous matter 

Greenheart wood, from the West In- 
dies, resembles cocoa wood in size 
and bark, and is used for turnery 
and other works 

Grees, steps ; also a staircase 

Gregorian Chant: Cantus Gregoria- 
nus, Cantus Firmus, Cantus Plan us 
or Plenus, in Latin ; Canto Firmo, 
in Italian; Plein Chant, in French; 
Plain Chant, inEnglish; andChoral, 
in German. This species of music 
is the most ancient of all, and is 
still the only one properly adapted 
to the ritual services of the Chris- 
tian churches. 

The Gregorian chant consists of 
a few notes, on which the words 
of the Liturgies are recited. The 
earliest specimens in existence con- 
sist of only one or two notes, and 
were used by St. Ambrose, at Milan, 
in the fourth century. The origin 
of this chant is traced to the earlier 
churches of Egypt, Thebes, Pales- 
tine, Arabia, Phosnicia, Syria, &c., 
from whence it was introduced into 
the church of Constantinople by 
St. John Chrysostom. St. Ambrose 
is said to have brought it into use 




in Milan, " after the custom of the 
inhabitants of the East," and from 
Milan it came to Rome " long be- 
fore the time of St. Gregory." But 
as, in the course of time, various 
mutations had taken place, St. Gre- 
gory, in order to reform and settle 
the music for the church, made a 
compilation of such as was fit for 
its use, and formed the first ritual 
book of music, or Roman Anti- 
phonarium. From the order which 
he gave it, and in consequence of 
this work of Gregory being after- 
wards established in the other (the 
Western) churches, it received the 
name Gregorian. We have very 
little of the music ascribed to Gre- 
gory himself, a specimen of which 
is given by Mr. Spencer in his work 
on the church modes, and is very 
grand. A portion of the old Gre- 
gorian chant is still used in our 
cathedrals in the so-called 'intoning 
the service' by the minor canons, 
and also in the responses by the 
choir, but in a very mutilated form. 
But in the chanting of the prose 
Psalms, it is almost entirely aban- 
doned; the only specimen (and 
that somewhat mutilated) being 
the grand and well-known 'Tallis's 
chant.' There is a remarkable 
difference between the Gregorian 
melodies for the Psalter and Can- 
ticles (and which are called the 
eight tones) and those of a more 
modern date. No such thing as a 
double chant exists in Gregorian 
music, and the ' tones ' are formed 
on one general law ; i. e. a ' tone ' 
consists of one principal note, called 
the Dominant, i. e. the predominant 
or reciting note, upon which the 
principal part of each half-verse is 
chanted, the remainder being in- 
flected in cadences of one or several 
notes revolving (as it were) above 
and below the dominant, or ter- 
minating on the final of the mode ; 
and it is a law that the reciting 
parts are always (when the tone is 
regular) on the same note, viz. the 
dominant. There are very few 

instances of any deviation from 
this rule. In the modern system 
there seems to be a total absence 
of any rule of this sort, and the 
cadences, both in the middle of the 
verse and at the end, consist of a 
greater number of notes, and these 
of unequal value. Moreover, in the 
Gregorian chant no attention is 
paid to time ; it is regulated entirely 
by emphasis and syllabic quantity, 
not by time and accent, as in mo- 
dern chanting. On Sundays and 
the greater festivals it is a rule to 
commence the ' tone ' with a few 
preliminary notes, called the into- 
nation, which serve as an inchoa- 
tion, or induction to the dominant, 
or reciting note : on other occa- 
sions, these initial notes are not 
used. For specimens of the adap- 
tation of these Gregorian tones or 
chants to the Canticles, &c. of the 
English church, see the 'Hymnal,' 
by Mr. Spencer. 

Gregorian music requires a nobler 
and more rigid harmony than can 
be given in the modern system; 
and its effects in the divine offices, 
when properly harmonized and 
performed, are far superior to any 
other kind of church music. 

Greut, or Grit, a kind of fossil body, 
consisting of sandy, rough, hard, 
earthy particles 

Grey. See Gray. 

Griddle, a large wire sieve, used in- 
stead of a hurdle, for sifting and 
sorting copper ore as it rises from 
the mine 

Griffin, in heraldry, a fabulous animal, 
feigned to be between the lion and 
eagle, and to have the paws and 
head of the first, with the beak and 
wings of the last ** 

Grindstone, a cylindrical stone, on 
which, being turned round its axis, 
edge-tools are sharpened by apply- 
ing their edges to the convex surface 

Gripe, the lower part of the knee of 
the head that connects with the 
foremost end of the keel of a vessel 

Grit, coarse sand; rough hard par- 
ticles of sandstone 




Groin, the angle formed by an inter- 
section of vaults : most of the 
vaulted ceilings of the buildings of 
the middle ages were groined, and 
therefore called groined ceilings. 
During the early part of the Nor- 
man style the groins were left pur- 
posely plain, but afterwards they 
were invariably covered with ribs. 
Groins, in coast engineering. A groin 
is a frame of wood-work, con- 
structed across a beach, between 
high and low water, perpendicular 
to the general line of it, either to 
retain the shingle already accumu- 
lated, to recover it when lost, or to 
accumulate more at any particular 
point ; also to break and check the 
action of the waves. 

The component parts of a groin 
are piles, planking, land-ties, land 
tie-bars, blocks, tail-piles, and keys 
and screw-bolts. 

The length of a groin depends 
on the extent, and the requisite 
strength of its component parts on 
the nature of the beach on which 
it is to be constructed. 

Those at Eastbourne, on the coast 
of Sussex, of which the following 
is more particularly a description, 
are from 150 to 250 feet in length, 
and the beach at that place being 
very rough, consisting of coarse 
heavy shingle and large boulders, 
they require to be composed of 
proportionably strong materials to 
resist its force. 

The piles are from 1 2 to 25 feet 
long, and 8 by 6^ inches scantling, 
shod with iron. 

The planking is in lengths of 8, 
12, and 16 feet, 2| inches thick, 
and with parallel edges. 

The land- ties are of rough timber 
from 20 to 25 feet long, and large 
enough at the but-end to receive 
the bars. 

The land tie-bars are 13 ft. 6 in. 
long, and 12 by 5 in. scantling. 

The land tie-bar blocks are about 
2 feet long, and of the same scant- 
ling as the piles. 

The land-tie tail-keys are about 


2 feet 6 inches long, and 6 by 2 
inches scantling. 

The above materials are of oak 
or beech. 

The screw-bolts are of inch round 
iron, 2 feet 9 inches and 2 feet 
1 inch long, in equal proportions. 

The relative proportions of the 
component parts are, four piles, one 
land-tie with tail-piles and keys, 
one land tie-bar with two blocks, 
two long and two short bolts, about 
180 square feet of planking, and 
about 140 six-inch spikes for every 
16 feet in length ; and the expense 
of a groin, constructed with mate- 
rials of the above dimensions, may 
be calculated at about 30 for the 
same length. 


When the object, in constructing 
a groin, is to recover shingle, or 
accumulate more, the first pile is 
driven, at the high-water mark of 
neap-tides, leaving its top level with 
that of spring-tides. The next is 
driven at the point on the sands, 
beyond the bottom of the shingle, to 
which the groin is to extend, leaving 
about 4 feet of it out of the beach. 

The tops of these two piles may 
be taken for the general slope of 
the groin, unless the beach should 
be very steep, and much curved, 
in which case it becomes necessary 
to follow its curvature in some 

From the high-water mark of 
neap-tides, the piles are carried 
back nearly level to that of spring- 
tides, and as much further as may 
be considered necessary. 

The piles are driven 4 feet asunder 
from centre to centre, and so as to 
admit the planking between them 
alternately, and they should be sunk 
about two-thirds of their length. 

The longest piles are placed be- 
tween the high-water mark of neap- 
tides and the bottom of the shingle, 
particularly from 20 to 40 feet 
below the former point. 

The planking is, if possible, car- 




ried down to about two-thirds from 
the tops of the piles, and kept 
parallel with them. 

The land-ties are placed about 
one-third from the top of the plank- 
ing (supposing the latter to com- 
mence from the tops of the piles), 
and their tails are sunk to the level 
of the bottom of the planking, or 
as nearly so as possible. 

Grotesque. This term, which is now 
familiar among all the lovers of the 
art of painting, was by the Italians 
appropriated to that peculiar man- 
ner of composition and invention 
observed among the antique mo- 
numental paintings which were 
discovered in the subterraneous 
chambers that had been decorated 
in the times of the ancient Romans ; 
and as the Italians apply the word 
Grotto to express every kind of' 
cave or grot, all paintings which 
were in imitation of the antique 
designs discovered in those cham- 
bers, which for ages had been 
covered with ruins, are grotesqued 
or grotesque, which is now applied 
to English subjects of a quaint and 
anomalous character. 

Grotesque, a name given to the light 
and fanciful ornaments used former- 
ly to characterize persons and things 

Grotto, a natural or artificial cavern 
or cave 

Grouan lode, any tin lode which 
abounds with rough gravel or sand 

Ground-plate orffround-sill,the lowest 
plate of a wooden building for sup- 
portingthe principal and other posts 

Grounds, pieces of wood fixed to walls 
and partitions, with their surfaces 
flush with the plaster, to which the 
facings or finishings are attached 

Ground table stones, the projecting 
course of stones in a wall above the 

Ground-ways, large pieces of timber 
laid across a ship or dock, and 
upon which the blocks are placed 

Grouping is the combining or joining 
objects in a picture for the satis- 
faction of the eye, and also for its 
repose; and although a picture may 


consist of different groups, yet those 
groups of objects, managed by the 
chiaro-oscuro, should all tend to 
unity, and one only should predo- 

Guay, Cornish. Tinners, holeing into 
a place which has been wrought 
before, call it holeing in guag 

Gudgeon, the iron piers fixed in a 
beam or wooden shaft for bearings 

Gudgeons, in ship-building, are eyes 
driven into the stern-post, to hang 
the rudder 011 

Guide-blocks, pieces of metal with 
parallel sides, fitted on the ends of 
a cross-head of a steam engine, to 
slide in grooves in the side frames, 
and keep the motion of the piston- 
rod in a direct line 

Guilloche, an ornament used in classi- 
cal architecture, formed by two or 
more intertwining bands 

Gules, in heraldry, a red colour 

Gulph of ore : a lode which throws 
up very great quantities of ore, and 
proves lasting and good in depth, is 
so called 

Gum wood, or blue gum wood, is the 
produce of New South Wales, sent 
over in large logs and planks simi- 
lar to dark Spanish mahogany : it 
is used in ship-building, &c. 

Gun-metal, a mixed metal, an alloy 
of copper and tin 

Gunnies, in Cornish, a term applied 
to breadth or width : single gunnies 
are 3 feet wide 

Gunter's chain, the chain in common 
use for measuring land: the length 
of the chain is 66 feet, or 22 yards, 
or 4 poles of 5 yards each ; it 
is divided into 100 links of 7 '92 
inches each. See Acre. 

Gunwale, or gunnel, in ship-building, 
the piece of timber which reaches 
on either side of the ship from the 
half-deck to the forecastle 

Gunwale, the plank that covers the 
heads of the timbers between the 
fore and main drifts 

Gussets, as understood in mechanical 
construction, are brackets or angular 
pieces of iron, to strengthen, to keep 
steady, and support a structure. 




In the construction of the rect- 
angular covered openings of the 
Britannia and Conway iron bridges, 
gussets are used extensively in the 
interior, consisting of double tri- 
angular plates riveted to the bot- 
tom and sides of the plates of the 
bridge, as a series of brackets (and 
at the top and either sides also), to 
add to the strength and durability 
of these extraordinary works, and 
as a counter-effort to the tendency 
of strain on the lower sides to se- 
parate or open the joints, and on 
the upper side to force them closer 

Gusto, a term used by the Italians, 
signifying taste in the design of the 
attitudes, good arrangement, and 
composition of a picture 

Guttce, ornaments resembling drops, 
placed in the epistylium of the 
Doric order below the triglyphs. 
They occur likewise in the under 


HADE, in mining, the underlay or 
inclination of the vein 

Half-pace, or Haute-pace, a raised 
floor in a bay window. 

Half-timbered houses: this mode of 
constructing domestic buildings was 
practised in England and on the 
Continent during the reigns of 
Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. It was 
peculiarly of a picturesque charac- 
ter ; the foundations and principal 
supports were of stout timber, and 
the interstices of the fronts were 
filled with plaster. In many cases 
the ornamental timber framing was 
of a dark colour, which, with the 
barge-board gable, gave the whole 
an exceedingly interesting appear- 
rance. There are yet remaining 
some very fine examples in England, 
particularly in the western and 
north-western counties. 

Half-timbers, in ship-building, those 
timbers in the cant bodies which 
are answerable to the lower fut- 
tocks in the square body 


face of the mutules in the Doric 
corona. They are supposed to have 
originated from the intention to 
represent drops of water running 
off the roof, adhered to the under 
surface of the canterii or rafters of 
early buildings. 

Gybing, in navigation, the shifting of 
any boom-sail from one side of the 
mast to the other 

Gymnasium, a public building used 
by the Greeks for the practice and 
exercise of gymnastics, or mus- 
cular development ; also a place, 
according to Vitruvius, for amuse- 
ments and scientific recreation 

Gynceceum, in Greek architecture, the 
apartment of the females in the 
interior of the house ; the nursery 

Gypsoplaste, a cast taken in plaster of 
Paris or white lime 

Gypsum, sulphate of lime, called also 
plaster of Paris, selenite, and ala- 


Hall, the principal apartment in the 
domestic houses of the middle ages; 
a place of assembly; a spacious 
building attached to inns of court 

Halliards, in navigation, the ropes or 
tackles usually employed to hoist or 
lower any sail on its respective mast 

Hallyings, the hangings of a hall 

Halvans, in Cornish, the refuse ore 

Ham, in Saxon, a house, farm, or vil- 

Hamburgh lake is a colour of great 
power and depth ; rather purpleish, 
or inclining to crimson : it dries 
with extreme difficulty, but differs 
in no other essential quality from 
other cochineal lakes 

Hammer-beams, horizontal pieces of 
timber, frequently used in the roofs 
of old English buildings, in pairs 
on the opposite sides of the same 
roof; often used also in the prin- 
cipals of Gothic roofs, to strengthen 
the framing and to diminish the 
lateral pressure that falls upon the 




Hances, in architecture, ends of ellip- 
tical arches, which are arcs of 
smaller circles than the scheme or 
middle part of the arch 

Hand-brace, a tool for boring, con- 
sisting of a cranked spindle, at one 
end of which a broad head or 
breast-plate is attached by a swivel, 
so that it may remain stationary 
while the crank is turned ; at the 
other end is a socket, into which 
a drill can be fixed 

Hand-drilling machine, a small drilling 
machine turned by manual labour 

Hand-gear, in a locomotive engine, 
the handles of the working gear, 
placed conveniently to the foot- 
plate, so as to be within reach of 
the engine-man when he requires 
to use them for regulating the dif- 
ferent parts of the engine 

Hand-pump, in a locomotive engine, 
the pump placed by the side of the 
fire-box, to be worked by a hand- 
lever when the engine has to stand 
with steam up 

Hand-railing, in a locomotive engine, 
the railing along the sides of the 
engine, to protect persons passing 
to the front of the engine for any 
necessary purpose 

Hand-saw, a saw from 12 to 15 inches 
in length, fixed in an iron frame, 
with a handle at one end; used 
for cutting wood or metal 

Harmony is the general accordance of 
the objects in a painting with one 
another, and their subordination to 
the principal object ; so that all 
unite to constitute a pleasing whole. 
It is effected by a due combination 
of lights and shades, by the union 
and colour, or by such constrasts 
as are sufficient to relieve the dis- 
tant groups. 

Harmony of colours. Lessons in 
colouring have ever been given, 
notwithstanding it is a part so 
principal in painting, that it has 
its rules founded on science and 
reason. Without such study, it is 
impossible that youth can acquire 
a good taste in colouring, or un- 
derstand harmony. 


Harpings, pieces of oak which hold 
the timbers of the fore-and-aft 
cant-bodies till a ship is planked 

Hatches, the coverings for the hatch- 
ways of a ship, made with ledges, 
and laid with oak or deal, and 

Hatching is shadowing with a black- 
lead pencil or pen : it is done 
either in straight lines or zigzag 
strokes, such as are seen in pencil 
drawings, or in pencilled back- 
grounds. It is used by engravers 
in etching. 

Hatchment, in heraldry, an armorial 
escutcheon placed over a door in 
memory of a deceased person of 

Hatchways, places in the middle of 
the decks of a vessel, for the con- 
venience of lowering down goods 

Haul the wind, in navigation ; to direct 
the ship's course nearer to the 
point of the compass from which 
the wind blows 

Haunch of an arch, the part between 
the vertex and the springing 

Hawse, in navigation, the situation of 
the cables before the ship's stern 
when she is moored with two an- 
chors forward from the starboard 
and larboard bow 

Hawse-pieces, the timbers in the bow 
of a ship whose sides are nearly 
parallel to the middle line 

Hawthorn, a wood not much used, is 
hard, and of a whitish colour, with 
a tinge of yellow 

Hazel, a small underwood which is 
very elastic, used for turning, for 
the handles of blacksmiths' chisels, 
for the hoops of casks, &c. 

Head-ledges, the thwartship pieces 
which frame the hatch -ways or 
ladder-ways of ships 

Head-stocks, the frames which sup- 
port the centres of a lathe; viz. 
the mandril-frame and the poppet- 
head, or back centre frame 

Health of Toums, a phrase recently 
coined to express the general purpose 
of public sanatory measures. These 
measures are based upon the prin- 
ciples of animal physiology, but 




had been recognized only in the 
curative policy of the physician, 
until the evils of their neglect were 
traced by statistical inquiries into 
the causes of disease ; and they are 
therefore now properly regarded as 
essential objects in the social eco- 
nomy of life. 

The human constitution is so 
formed that its health depends on 
an adequate supply of pure air, 
water, and light. Every circum- 
stance, therefore, which vitiates the 
quality, or reduces the due quan- 
tity, of these essentials, is injurious 
to health, and demands amendment 
or extinction. 

Thus the efficient supply of pure 
and attemperated air requires pro- 
per drainage and ventilation, warm- 
ing or cooling of all places in which 
human beings live or congregate : 
it also limits the minimum of size 
for the healthy habitations of men. 

The plentiful supply of pure wa- 
ter necessitates suitable provision 
for obtaining and treating it, and 
the proscription of all arrangements 
which limit the service or injure its 
purity. Equally important with 
these conditions is the third one 
enumerated, which suggests the ne- 
cessity of so arranging and con- 
structing streets and buildings, that 
abundance of light may at all times 
be admitted into them. 

As measures auxiliary to these 
objects, and of great importance in 
the combined arrangements of so- 
ciety, public exercising and plea- 
sure grounds, baths and wash- 
houses, cooking apparatus, medical 
and remedial establishments, street 
accommodations, &c., command 
adoption, and, when adequately 
carried out, will tend to complete 
the physical requisites of the health 
of towns. 

Heat, in the ordinary application of 
the word, signifies, or rather im- 
plies, the sensation experienced 
upon touching a body hotter, or 
of a higher temperature, than 
the part or parts which we bring 


into contact with it : in another 
sense, it is used to express the 
cause of that sensation. To avoid 
any ambiguity that may arise from 
this double use of the same expres- 
sion, it is usual and proper to em- 
ploy the word caloric to signify the 
principle or cause of the sensation 
of heat. On touching a hot body, 
caloric passes from it, and excites 
the feeling of warmth : when we 
touch a body having a lower tem- 
perature than our hand, caloric 
passes from the hand to it, and 
thus arises the sensation of cold. 

Caloric is usually treated of as 
if it were a material substance ; 
but, like light and electricity, its true 
nature has yet to be determined. 


Caloric passes through different 
bodies with different degrees of ve- 
locity. This has led to the division 
of bodies into conductors and non- 
conductors of caloric : the former 
includes such bodies as metals, 
which allow caloric to pass freely 
through their substance ; and the 
latter comprises those that do not 
give an easy passage to it, such as 
stones, glass, wood, charcoal, &c. 
Table of the relative conducting 
power of different bodies. 
Gold. . . . 1000 
Platinum . . .981 
Silver . . .973 
Copper . . .898 
Iron . . . .374 
Zinc .... 363 
Tin . . . . 304 
Lead . . .180 
Marble ... 24 
Porcelain . . . 12-2 
Fire-brick . . . 11 
Fire-clay . . . 11 '4 

With Water as the standard. 
Water ... 10 
Pine. ... 39 
Lime ... 39 
Oak .... 33 
Elm .... 32 
Ash . . . . 31 
Apple ... 28 
Ebony ... 22 




Relative conducting power of dif- 
ferent substances compared with 
each other. 

Hares' fur . . 1-315 

Eider-down . . 1-305 

Beavers' fur . . 1-296 

Raw silk . . . 1-284 

Wool . . . 1-118 

Lamp-black . . 1*117 

Cotton . . . 1*046 

Lint B jyfa .: . . 1-032 

Charcoal . . . : *937 

Ashes (wood) . . '927 

Sewing silk . . *917 

Air . . . . > A * -576 
Relative conducting power of fluids. 

Mercury . . . 1*000 

Water ... *357 

Proof Spirit . . -312 

Alcohol (pure) . . '232 


When heated bodies are exposed 
to the air, they lose portions of 
their heat, by projection in right 
lines into space, from all parts of 
their surface. 

Bodies which radiate heat best, 
absorb it best. 

Radiation is affected by the na- 
ture of the surface of the body; 
thus black and rough surfaces ra- 
diate and absorb more heat than 
light and polished surfaces. 
Table of the radiating power of 

different bodies. 
Water . 100 

Lamp-black 100 

Writing-paper 100 

Glass . 90 

Indian ink 88 

Bright lead 19 

Silver . 12 

Blackened tin 100 

Clean do. 12 

Scraped do. 16 

Ice . 85 

Mercury . 20 

Polished iron 15 

Copper . 12 

Professor Leslie has proved, by a 
variety of experiments, that the 
heat which is propagated by radi- 
ation from different bodies varies 


with the nature of their external 
surfaces ; the quantity which flows 
in a given time from a body with a 
polished surface being much less 
than would flow from the same 
body with a rough surface. It 
therefore follows that the external 
surfaces of the steam-pipes of steam 
engines and steam cylinders should 
be as smooth as possible, and should 
be covered with any body which is 
a bad conductor of heat. 

Heel tool, a tool used by turners for 
roughing out a piece of iron, or turn- 
ing it to somewhat near the intend- 
ed size : it has a very acute cutting 
edge and an angular base or heel 

Height of columns. The height of a 
column is measured by its diameter 
immediately above the base. 

Diameters high. 

The Tuscan column . 7 
The Ionic ... 9 
Corinthian and Composite 10 
In the above heights are included 
the capitals and bases, which are 
esteemed parts of the columns with 
which they are used. 
Heights and Distances. Trigonometry 
receives its principal practical ap- 
plication in the operations of sur- 
veying, and measuring heights and 
distances; as, however, the methods 
of its application (depending on the 
peculiar circumstances of each case) 
are exceedingly various, no general 
rules can be specified. 

The instruments employed to 
measure angles are quadrants, sex- 
tants, theodolites, &c., the use of 
either of which may be sooner 
learned from an examination of the 
instruments themselves than from 
any description independently of 
them. For military men and for 
civil engineers, a good pocket sex- 
tant and an accurate micrometer 
(such as Cavallo's), attached to a 
telescope, are highly useful. For 
measuring small distances, as bases, 
50-feet and 100-feet chains, and a 
portable box of graduated tape, 
will be necessary. 

For the purposes of surveying, it 




is usual to employ a chain 66 feet 
in length, subdivided into 100 links, 
each 7'92 inches : the reason for 
using a chain of this length is, that 
ten of such square chains are equal 
to an acre, and therefore the acre- 
age of the several divisions of an 
estate is found with much greater 
facility when measured in chains 
and links, than when the measure- 
ments are taken in feet. 

Helix, the small volute under the 
abacus of a Corinthian capital 

Helix, any thing of a spiral form, whe- 
ther in one plane, as the spiral 
curve, or in different planes, as the 

Heptagon, in geometry, a figure with 
seven sides or angles 

Heraldry is a science intimately con- 
nected with the early history of 
Europe, its chivalry, its conquests, 
and the bearing of arms : it teaches 
how to blazon or explain in proper 
terms all that belongs to arms ; 
and how to marshal or dispose 
with extreme punctualness divers 
arms on a field. It is in its archae- 
ology and in precedent indisputable. 
It teaches whatever relates to the 
marshalling of solemn processions 
and other public ceremonies, at co- 
ronations, installations of Knights of 
the Garter, Knights Grand Cross of 
the Bath, Knights Companions, &c.; 
at the creation of peers, nuptials, 
christenings of princes, funerals, &c. 
It is, in fact, an important science, 
particularly in English history, in 
tracing the narrative of the families 
ef the nobility and commoners, 
their holdings, their distinguishing 
qualifications, in arms, in literature, 
and in the arts. 

Hermce, statues of which only the 
head is carved, and sometimes a 
portion of the bust : square or cu- 
bical figures of the god Mercury, 
without legs and arms, anciently 
placed by the Greeks and Romans 
at their cross-ways 

Herring-bone work, masonry in which 
the stones are laid aslant instead 
of being bedded flat 


Herse, a portcullis ; a frame whereon 
lighted candles were placed at the 
obsequies of distinguished persons 

Heterogeneous, opposite or dissimilar 
in nature, as opposed to homogene- 

Hewns, in Cornwall, the sides of a 
calciner or burning-house furnace ; 
so called from their being formerly 
built with hewn moor-stone 

Hexagon, in geometry, a figure of six. 
sides or angles 

Hexahedron, in geometry, one of the 
five regular solids, being the same 
with a cube 

Hexastyle, a portico of six columns in 

Hexastylos, a frontage of six columns 

Hexeres, a vessel with six banks of 
oars on each side 

Hiatus, an aperture, a breach or de- 

Hictfs mandril, an arbor for turning 
rings : at the centre of the arbor 
there is a cone, round which, at 
equal distances, wedges are fitted 
into dove-tailed grooves, and are 
expanded to the bore of the ring 
by a nut acting on a screw at the 
end of the cone 

Hickory, or white walnut, a native of 
America. The wood of the young 
trees is exceedingly tough and flex- 
ible, and makes excellent hand- 
spikes, &c. 

Hieroglyphic, an emblem, a figure by 
which a word is implied ; the 
Egyptian art of writing in picture 

High-pressure engine, a non-conden- 
sing steam engine, worked by the 
excess of the pressure of the steam 
upon the piston above the pressure 
of the atmosphere : in this engine, 
after the steam has acted upon the 
piston, it passes through the educ- 
tion-pipe into the air 

Hiling, the covering or roof of a build- 

Hinges, the joints on which doors, 
gates, &c., turn 

Hinges. The diversity of forms into 
which door furniture has been re- 
solved is almost endless. Many of 
the ancient hinges were not only 




wrought into scrolls and other flo- 
rid devices, but occasionally further 
enriched with inscriptions. 

Hip, the external angle formed by the 
meeting of the sloping sides of roofs 
whichhave their wall-plates running 
in different directions 

Hip-knob, a pinnacle, finial, or other 
similar ornament, placed on the 
top of the hips of a roof or the 
point of a gable 

Hippodrome, a large plot of ground 
laid out for the exercise of horses ; 
among the Greeks, a race-course 

Hoggan, in Cornish, a hawthorn-berry, 
the tinner's pasty 

Hogging, in ship-building, the convex 
appearance resembling the back of 
a hog, given to a ship after being 
first launched, by the dropping of 
the two extremities 

Hogshead, a measure of 63 gallons 

Hoist, an apparatus for raising bodies 
from the ground floor of a building 
to a floor above 

Hollow newett, an opening in the mid- 
dle of a staircase, the steps only 
being supported at one end by the 
surrounding wall, the ends next the 
hollow unsupported; also a hollow 
groin, pier, of brick or stone, made 
behind the lock-gates of canals 

Holly is a very clean, fine-grained 
wood, the whitest and most costly 
of those used by the Tunbridge- 
ware manufacturers : it is used for 
painted screens and a great variety 
of fancy and tasteful purposes 

Holy-water vessel, the vessel which 
contains the consecrated or holy 
water carried in religious proces- 
sions : also the receptacle for holy 
water placed at the entrances of 
Roman Catholic churches 

Holy-water stone, the stoup on which 
the holy -water vessel is placed 

Homestall or Homestead, a mansion, 
house, or seat in the country; a 
farm, with the land adjoining 

Homogeneous, a term applied to va- 
rious substances, to denote that 
they consist of similar parts, or 
parts of the same nature and kind 

Hoodings-ends, the ends of planks 


which fit into the rabbets of the 
stem and stern-post of a ship 

Hood-mould, a band or string over 
the head of a door, window, or 
other opening, in an ancient build- 
ing; so called from its enclosing, 
as within a hood, the inferior mould- 
ings and the opening itself 

Hood-moulding, a name given to the 

Hornbeam, a very tough and stringy 
European wood, used by millwrights 
for the cogs of wheels, also for 
plumbers' dressers, or mallets, &c. 

Hornblende, a conspicuous ingredient 
in the composition of rocks, divided 
into common hornblende, horn- 
blende-schist, and basaltic horn- 

Horn-stone, a conchoidal and silicious 
mineral substance, allied in compo- 
sition to flint, but of a more earthy 

Horologium, a name anciently given to 
any instrument for measuring time 

Horse, a large round bar of iron fixed 
in the head of a ship 

Horse, in navigation, the name of a 
rope reaching from the middle of a 
yard to its extremity, on which the 
sailors stand when they are loosing 
or reefing the sails 

Horse-chestnut wood is one of the 
white woods used by the Tunbridge 
turners ; it is close and soft, even 
in the grain, and is much used for 
brush-backs, &c. 

Horse -power. Although horses are 
not all of one strength, yet there is 
a certain force now generally agreed 
upon among those who construct 
steam engines, which force is de- 
nominated a horse's power, and 
hence steam engines are distin- 
guished in size by the number of 
horses' power to which they are 
said to be equal. 

The measure of a mechanical 
effect equal to a horse's power has 
been much disputed: this, however, 
can be but a matter of little conse- 
quence, if the measure be generally 
understood, since there is no such 
thing as bringing it into any real 




measure. Some horses will perform 
double the work of others, and those 
of one country will work more than 
those of another. Desaguliers' mea- 
sure is, that a horse will walk at the 
rate of 2 miles per hour, against 
a resistance of 200 fts., and this 
gives, as a number for comparison, 
44,000 ; that is, the raising of 1 ft. 
44,000 feet in a minute, or, what 
amounts to the same, the raising 
of 44,000 Ibs. 1 foot in a minute. 

Emerson's measure is the same 
as Desaguliers', and Smeaton's re- 
sult is 22,9 1 6 fts. under the same 

James Watt found from repeated 
experiments, that 33,000 fts. 1 foot 
per minute was the average value 
of a horse's power; but his engines 
were calculated to work equal to 
44,000 fts. 1 foot per minute. 
//. P., the abbreviation for horse- 

Hortus, a garden or a pleasure-ground 
Hose-pipes, in locomotive engines, 
elastic pipes made of canvas, satu- 
rated with a solution of Indian rub- 
ber, sometimes galvanized, and 
forming a good elastic connection 
between the engine and tender feed- 
pipes. They are now generally used 
in preference to ball and socket 
connections for conveying the steam 
to the tender. 

Hospitalia, anciently the doorways in 
the scene of a theatre on the right 
and left of the valvae regiae or prin- 
cipal doorway; so called because the 
moveable scenes, representing inns 
or places appropriated for the recep- 
tion of strangers, were placed near 

Hospitals were originally designed for 
the relief of poor and impotent per- 
sons, and the entertainment of tra- 
vellers upon the road, particularly 
of pilgrims, and therefore they 
were generally built upon the road- 
side ; in later time they have always 
been founded for fixed inhabitants : 
before the spoliation, there existed 
in England above 358 of these 
houses of relief ... 


Hostelry or Hostry, anciently an inn 
Hot-air blast. It was conceived that 
the presence of sulphur in the air 
was the cause of blast furnaces 
working irregularly, and making 
bad iron in the summer months. 
Subsequently it was stated that one 
of the Muirkirk iron furnaces, in 
Scotland, situated at a considerable 
distance from the engine, did not 
work so well as the others, which 
led to the conjecture that the fric- 
tion of the air, in passing along the 
pipe, prevented an equal volume 
of the air getting to the distant 
furnace as to the one which was 
situated close by the engine : it was 
considered also, that by heating the 
air at the distant furnace, its volume 
would increase in the ratio of the 
known law, that air and gases ex- 
pand to double their bulk at 448 

Example: If 1000 cubic feet, 
say at 50 of Fahrenheit, were 
pressed by the engine in a given 
time, and heated to 600 of Fah- 
renheit, it would then be increased 
in volume to 2104'4, and so on for 
every thousand feet that would be 
blown into the furnace. In prose- 
cuting the experiments which this 
idea suggested, circumstances,how- 
ever, became apparent which in- 
duced a belief, that heating the air 
introduced for supporting combus- 
tion into air furnaces materially in- 
creased its efficiency in this respect; 
and with the view of putting these 
suspicions to the test, the following 
experiments were made. 

To the nozzle of a pair of common 
smith's bellows, a cast-iron vessel 
heated is attached from beneath, in 
the manner of a retort for gene 
rating gas, and to this vessel the 
blow-pipe, by which the forge or 
furnace was blown, was also at 
tached. The air from the bellows 
having thus to pass through the 
heated vessel above mentioned, was 
consequently heated to a high tem- 
perature before it entered the forge 
fire, and the result produced, in 




increasing the intensity of the heat 
in the furnace, was far beyond ex- 
pectation, and so evident as to make 
apparent the fallacy of the generally 
received opinion, that the coldness 
of the air of the atmosphere in the 
winter months was the cause of the 
best iron being then produced. 

In overthrowing the old theory, 
new principles in the process of 
iron-making were established. 

Experiments on the large scale, 
to reduce iron ore in a founder's 
cupola, were commenced at the 
Clyde Iron Works. These experi- 
ments were completely successful, 
and in consequence the invention 
was immediately adopted at the 
Calder Iron Works, where the blast, 
being made to pass through two 
retorts placed on each side of one 
of the large furnaces before entering 
the furnace, effected an instanta- 
neous change, both in the quantity 
and quality of iron produced, and a 
considerable saving of fuel. 

The whole of the furnaces at the 
Calder and Clyde Iron Works were 
filled up on the principle of the hot 
blast, and its use at these works 
continues to be attended with the 
utmost success; it has also been 
adopted at Wilsontown and Gart- 
shirrie Iron Works in Scotland, and 
at several works in England and 

The air as at first raised to 250 
of Fahrenheit produced a saving of 
three-sevenths in every ton of pig 
iron made, and the heating appa- 
ratus having since been enlarged, so 
as to increase the temperature of 
the blast to 600* Fahrenheit and 
upwards, a proportional saving of 
fuel is effected; and an immense 
additional saving is also acquired 
by the use of raw coal instead of 
coke, which may now be adopted. 
By thus increasing the heat of the 
blast, the whole waste incurred in 
burning the coal into coke is avoided 
in the process of making iron. 

By the use of this invention, with 
three-sevenths of the fuel formerly 


employed in the cold -air process, 
the iron-maker is now enabled to 
make one -third more iron of a 
superior quality. 

Were the hot blast generally 
adopted, the saving to the country 
in the article of coal would be 
immense. In Britain, about 700,000 
tons of iron are made annually, of 
which 50,000 tons only are pro- 
duced in Scotland: on these 50,000 
tons would be saved, in the process 
of manufacture, 200,000 tons of 
coal annually. In England the 
saving would be in proportion to 
the strength and quality of the 
coal, and cannot be computed at 
less than 1,520,000 tons annually; 
and taking the price of coals at the 
low rate of four shillings per ton, a 
yearly saving of 296,000 sterling 
would be effected. 

Nor are the advantages of this 
invention solely confined to iron- 
making : by its use the founder can 
cast into roods an equal quantity 
of iron in much less time, and with 
a saving of nearly half the fuel 
employed in the cold -air process ; 
and the blacksmith can produce in 
the same time one-third more work, 
with much less fuel than he for- 
merly required. 

In all the processes of metallur- 
gical science it will be found of the 
utmost importance in reducing the 
ores to a metallic state. 

Hot-water pump, the feed-pump of a 
condensing engine, for supplying 
the boiler from the hot well 

Hot well, the vessel which receives 
the water from the air-pump 

Hour-glass stand, a bracket or frame 
of iron for receiving the hour-glass. 
See* 'Papers on Architecture,' vol. 
iii., which contains a good example. 
" By the side of the pulpit still 
remains the ancient hour-glass and 

House, a place of residence. The pur- 
pose of a house being for dwelling, 
and that of tents being the same, 
they are called by one name in the 
Hebrew; on the same principle, the 




Tabernacle of God, though only a 
tent, is sometimes called the Tem- 
ple, that is, the residence of God. 
The ordinary buildings or houses 
in the East have continued the same 
from the earliest ages, without the 
least alteration or improvement ; 
large doors, spacious chambers, 
marble pavements, cloistered courts, 
with fountains, &c., conveniences 
well adapted to the circumstances 
of these climates, where the summer 
heats are generally intense. The 
streets of these cities, the better to 
shade them from the sun, are usu- 
ally narrow, with sometimes a range 
of shops on each side. On enter- 
ing one of the principal houses, a 
porch or gateway will first be seen, 
with benches on each side, where 
the master of the family receives 
visits and dispatches business. In 
houses of better fashion, the cham- 
bers are hung with velvet or 
damask from the middle of the 
wall downwards, and covered and 
adorned with velvet or damask 
hangings of white, blue, red, green, 
or other colours. The ceiling is 
generally of wainscot, either very 
artistically painted, or else thrown 
into a variety of panels with gilded 
mouldings, and with scrolls of the 
Koran, &c. The stairs are some- 
times placed in the porch, some- 
times at the entrance into the court. 
When there is one or more stories, 
they are afterwards continued, 
through one corner or other of the 
gallery, to the top of the house, 
whither they conduct through a 
door that is generally kept shut, 
to prevent their domestic animals 
from daubing the terrace, and 
thereby spoiling the water which 
falls from thence into the cisterns 
below the court, &c. Such in 
general are the manner and contri- 
vances of the Eastern houses ; and 
if it may be presumed that our 
Saviour, at the healing of the para- 
lytic, was preaching in a house of 
this fashion, it may, by attending 
only to the structure of it, throw 


some light on one circumstance of 
that history, which has given great 
offence to some unbelievers. The 
houses of the poorer class of people 
in the East are of very bad con- 
struction, consisting of mud walls, 
reeds, and rushes. In Constanti- 
nople every thing is sacrificed to 
outside decorative show : built prin- 
cipally of wood, conflagrations are 
frequent and extensive. In earlier 
history, magnificence and refined 
luxury were combined with the 
highest and most noble examples of 
decorative art. The interior of the 
domestic residences and public edi- 
fices of Herculaneum and Pompeii 
surpassed every existing example. 
The houses of the Roman citizens 
partook also of the refinement of 
an age of art ; and modern Europe 
has noble examples of domestic 
dwellings, coeval with the wealth 
of the country in which they are 
still to be found. In England, the 
domestic residence of the noble- 
man, the merchant, and the trader 
are, besides the elegances of their 
arrangements, models of comfort 
and health. 

Houses. Before a house is planned, 
the proprietor should describe the 
kind of house he wishes to be built. 
The architect is to consider what 
must be had, and what may be dis- 
pensed with. He ought to keep 
his plan as scrupulously within the 
expense proposed, as within the 
limits of the ground he is to build 
upon ; he is, in short, to enter into 
the views, the wishes, and the ideas 
of the gentleman who will inhabit 
the house proposed to be erected. 

Houses suitable to the different ranks 
of the community. Vitruvius in- 
structs us of those parts of private 
houses which are exclusively appro- 
priated to individuals of the family, 
and in what manner these ought to 
be connected with the apartments 
into which strangers are admitted; 
for there are several parts of a house 
which may not be approached by 
those who are not of the household, 




unless expressly invited ; such as the 
sleeping-rooms, triclinia, baths, and 
those apartments which are in 
general use. The parts which are 
accessible to all, and into which 
any person may enter uninvited, 
are the vestibule, cavaedium, peri- 
style, and whatever others are built 
for similar purposes. 
Houses. Of the proportions of private 
houses, Vitruvius says, " Nothing 
ought to engage the attention of 
an architect more than the pro- 
portions of all the parts in the 
houses he constructs : after having 
determined upon such proportions 
as the necessity for the commen- 
suration of the parts with the entire 
building seems to require, the great- 
est judgment must be exercised in 
adapting them to the nature of the 
spot, the use to which the edifices 
are designed, and the appearance 
they ought to assume ; and this 
must be done by making such addi- 
tions or deductions, that, although 
the proportions are not strictly what 
they ought to be, the eye may not 
be conscious wherein they fail. The 
same objects appear differently 
under dissimilar circumstances ; if 
near the ground or at a considerable 
elevation ; if in a confined space or 
an exposed situation. Under every 
peculiar circumstance, great judg- 
ment is necessary in calculating the 
effect which will be ultimately pro- 
duced. The impression made upon 
the sense of seeing is not always 
a correct image of the object ; for, 
in painting, columns, mutules, and 
statues are made to appear pro- 
jecting and detached, when, in fact, 
every object represented is in one 
and the same place. It becomes 
necessary, in the first place, to in- 
stitute laws of proportion, upon 
which all our calculations must be 
founded. According to these, the 
ground-plan, exhibiting the length 
and breadth of the whole work 
and the several parts of it, must be 
formed. When the magnitude of 
these is once determined, the parts 


must be arranged so as to produce 
that external beauty which suffers 
no doubt to arise in the minds of 
those who examine it as to the 
want of proportion in any part." 

Houses of the Greeks. The Greeks 
had a different way of building from 
the Romans ; for, as Vitruvius says, 
"instead of making porticoes or 
galleries and halls, they made the 
entry to their houses very narrow, 
placing on one side the stables, and 
the porter's lodge on the other. 
From this first entry one passed 
into a court, which had piazzas on 
three sides, and towards that of 
the south they made anti, or abut- 
ments of pilasters, which supported 
the joists of the ceiling more in- 
wards ; because that leaving some 
space between the one and the 
other, they had very large places, 
which they appointed for lodging 
to the mistress of the house, and 
to the men and women servants. 
On the same floor with these abut- 
ments there were some rooms which 
maybe called ante-chambers, cham- 
bers and drawing-rooms, being 
every one just behind the other." 

Housing, a tabernacle, or niche for a 
statue, was formerly so called 

Huel, a work, a mine, as huel stones, 
a tin mine 

Hulk, in Cornwall, an old excavated 
working ; ' to hulk the lode ' 

Hulk or hull, the body of a ship 

Hungarian machine, an hydraulic en- 
gine, a very ingenious application 
of the Hero jet -d'eau principle 

Hydraletes, according to Strabo, a 
mill for grinding corn by water- 

Hydraulic belt, an endless double 
band of woollen cloth, passing over 
two rollers, the lower part of the 
belt being immersed in water : it is 
driven with a velocity of not less 
than a thousand feet per minute, 
and the water contained between 
the two surfaces is carried up and 
discharged, as it passes over the 
upper roller, by the pressure of the 




Hydraulic ram, a machine contrived 
to raise water by means of its own 

Hydraulics. The science of hydraulics 
teaches the method of estimating 
the swiftness and force of fluids in 
motion. The science is dignified 
by the name of hydrodynamics, or 
the application of dynamics to the 
impulsion and flow of water and 
other liquids, as well as the forces 
with which they act upon bodies 
against which they strike, or which 
move in them. 

Hydrodynamics, the science of the 
laws of the motion of fluids, con- 
sisting of two branches. The 
science of hydraulics refers princi- 
pally to the machinery for conduct- 
ing fluids ; that of hydrostatics, 
to the pressure, equilibrium, and 
cohesion of fluids. 

Hydrogen. Hydrogen gas is com- 
monly obtained for experimental 
purposes by the decomposition of 
water : its name is derived from 
the Greek words meaning water 
and to generate. 

Hydrometer, an instrument for mea- 
suring the specific gravity of various 
spirits and other liquids, by floating 
in them 

Hydroscope, an instrument intended 
to mark the presence of water in air 

Hydrostatic or Hydraulic press, a 
machine adapted for acquiring great 
pressure in cases where little mo- 
tion is required. The contrivance 
of this apparatus is due to the ce- 
lebrated mechanician, Joseph Bra- 
mah, who obtained a patent for it 
on the 31st of March, 1796, under 
the title of ' certain new methods 
of producing and applying a more 
considerable degree of power to all 
kinds of mechanical apparatus and 
other machinery requiring motion 
and force, than by any means at 
present practised for that purpose.' 
The action of this press is founded 
upon the fundamental principle in 
hydrostatics, that " when a liquid 
mass is in equilibrium, under the 
action of forces of any kind, every 


molecule or part of the mass sus- 
tains an equal pressure in all direc- 
tions." From this it follows, that 
a pressure exerted on any portion 
of the surface of a confined mass of 
fluid is propagated throughout the 
mass, and transferred undiminished 
to the entire surface in contact 
with the water. The first sugges- 
tion of the hydraulic press is con- 
sidered to have been made by Pas- 
cal in the middle of the 17th cen- 
tury ; but Bramah was the first to 
carry this suggestion into practice, 
by devising and applying apparatus 
in various forms for the purpose of 
producing pressure. . 

Since the date of its invention, 
the hydraulic press has been ex- 
tensively used in pressing goods of 
various kinds. Another of its most 
useful applications is to the testing 

Fig. i. 




of girders and beams of cast iron. 
(See article, Bramah's hydrostatic 
press.) Its latest and perhaps most 
remarkable duty is that of lifting 
the iron-work of tubular bridges en 
masse from the water level to their 
final altitude. 

Hydrostatic presses consist es- 
sentially of two distinct parts, viz. 
the press, or machine in which the 
force acquired is applied, and the 
pumping apparatus, by which the 
water is forced into the press ; these 
two parts of the entire machine 
being connected only by the pipe 

Fig. 2. 

through which the water passes 
from one to the other. Of the ac- 
companying figures, Nos. 1 and 2 


show the main parts of the press, 
viz. the cylinder, into which the 
water is admitted; the ram, or solid 
plunger or piston; and the cross- 
head by which the pressure at the 
end of the ram is distributed over 
a lengthened surface for use. The 
figures show the cylinder as sup- 
ported in a frame upon girders, in 
a manner similar to that adopted 
in raising the tubes of the railway 
bridge recently erected at Conway. 
Fig. 3 shows the section of a 
portable forcing-pump as commonly 
used for proving castings with the 
hydraulic press, for which purpose 
the press is applied horizontally, 
and mounted on an iron carriage 
for portability. But, however va- 
ried in arrangement for particular 
purposes, the pump and the press 
consist of the same essential parts, 
as follows : the pump comprises a 
cistern or kind of pail, for contain- 
ing the water, and into which a 
barrel descends nearly to the bot- 
tom. The barrel is fitted with a 
plunger, by working which, the 
water is driven through a small 
tube or pipe into the press. The 
pump is furnished with a safety- 
valve, and also with a screw for 
letting off the water as required. 
The press consists of a strong hol- 
low cylinder of cast iron, close at 
one end, and of a solid ram work- 
ing through the other end, the 
water-pipe being inserted through 
the metal of the cylinder in a water- 
tight screwed aperture. Fig. 1 is 
an elevation of the press ; fig. 2, a 
vertical section of the press, taken 
at right angles to the elevation; 
and fig. 3, a vertical section of a 
pump : a is the cast-iron cylinder ; 
6, the ram ; c, the casing or frame 
of the cylinder ; d d are two cast- 
iron girders supporting the casing ; 
e is the cast-iron cross-head ; //, 
two guide-rods ; g, the water-pipe 
from the pump, with a lever-valve 
- at h, by closing which the pressure 
will be retained, should the pipe 
burst. On fig. 3,.; shows the other 





end of the water-pipe, which is at i 
screwed into a stuffing-box on the 
pump ; k is the lever of the safety- 
valve, a', which is cylindrical, and 
finished with a conical end, which 
fits a seating of similar form ; / is 
a standard bolted at m to the cover 

of the cistern, and having an eye- 
boss at n, for guiding the plunger ; 
o p is a link pinned to the plunger; 
q is the pail or cistern for holding 
the water; r, the barrel passing 
through an opening in the cover, 
and fixed to it with bolts and nuts ; 
.9, the lower valve-seat, and conical 
three-sided valve, the former being 
screwed into the end of the barrel; 


t, a tube depending from the valve- 
seat s, and screwed upon it : this 
tube reaches nearly to the bottom 
of the cistern, and is perforated at 
the end with minute apertures, 
through which the water is ad- 
mitted without dirt or particles, 
which would injure the working of 
the pump ; u is the plunger, which 
works through a stuffing-box on 
the top of the barrel, and is made 
with a slot at v, to receive the link 
o p, which is pinned to it and also 
to the pump - handle ; w is the 
plunger-rod, screwed into the upper 
end of the plunger ; y, the pump- 
handle, jointed to the standard at x. 
During the first part of the action 
of the pump, while no great pres- 
sure is yet produced, the handle is 
pinned to the outer of 
these holes, as it makes 
a larger stroke with the 
piston, and thus saves 
time : the pin is after- 
wards removed to the 
inner hole, to have all the ad- 
vantage of the leverage, z is the 
upper or discharge valve, with a 
conical end : it is introduced from 
the top, and covered with a short 
screw, which likewise regulates the 
lift of the valve. This valve is 
formed by being simply filed flat 
out of the round. 

The rule for finding the increase 
of power commanded by the pump 
is derived, first, from the ratio of 
the areas of cross section of plunger 
of pump and ram of press ; and, 
secondly, from the ratio of the le- 
verage of the pump-handle. Thus 
suppose the plunger to be | inch and 
the ram 6 inches in diameter, and 
the arms of the lever or handle as 1 
to 4, the power will be thus found: 

5 2 : 6 2 
multiplied by 1 : 4 

25 : 144, 

that is, 1 : 576. 

And thus a power equal to 20fcs., 
applied on the end of the pump- 
handle, will produce a pressure 




equal to 11,520 fts. on the ram, or 
5 tons 2 cwt. 3 qrs. 12 ibs. 

Each of the presses applied at 
Conway was worked by a steam 
engine having a horizontal cylinder 
17 inches in diameter and 16 inches 
stroke, with piston-rods working 
through stuffing-boxes at both ends 
of the cylinder. The piston-rods 
worked two forcing-pumps, with 
plungers 1-Jg inch diameter and 16 
inches stroke. The rams of these 
presses were each 5 feet 2 inches 
long and 18| inches in diameter, 
with a space nearly | inch wide 
around. The cylinders were 37^ 
inches diameter externally, and 20 
inches internally, the metal being 
8f inches in thickness: the orifice of 
the water-tubes f inch in diameter. 

Hydrostatic paradox. This may be 
explained upon the same principles 
as the mechanical powers ; and an 
explanation conducted in this man- 
ner strips it of its paradoxical ap- 

Hydrostatics, the science which treats 
of the mechanical properties of 
fluids ; strictly speaking, the weight 
and equilibrium of fluids. The 
weight and equilibrium of fluids at 
rest are the objects of this science. 
When the equilibrium is destroyed, 
motion ensues ; and the science 
which considers the laws of fluids 
in motion is hydraulics. 

Hygrometer : this instrument is used 
to ascertain the quantity of mois- 
ture held in the atmosphere. There 
are several kinds of hygrometers 
in use, namely, De Luc's, Saussure's, 
Leslie's, and Professor Daniell's. 
The latter is considered preferable. 


ICE-HOUSE, a subterranean chamber 
for preserving ice free from mixing 
with the ordinary changes of tem- 

Ich Dien, in heraldry, ' I serve ' 
Ichnography, in drawing. The ichno- 
graphy of a building represents the 
plan or ground-work ; the ortho- 


Hyp&thral, open above : in temples 
of this description the cella was 
in part exposed to the air: they 
had a double range of columns 
within the cella, dividing it into 
three alae, or aisles. The alae on 
either side were roofed, but that in 
the middle had no covering. 

Hypaetrum, a latticed window over 
the entrance-door of a temple 

Hyperbola, a section of a cone made 
by a plane, so that the axis of the 
section inclines to the opposing leg 
of the cone, which in the parabola 
is parallel to it, and in the ellipse 
intersects it 

Hyperthyrum, that part of the frame 
of a doorway which is over the 

Hyperthyrum, in Greek architecture, 
a frieze and cornice supported by 
friezes and consoles 

Hypocastamim, or chestnut brown, is 
a brown lake prepared from the 
horse-chestnut : it is transparent 
and rich in colour, warmer than 
brown pink, and very durable both 
in water and oil : in the latter it 
dries moderately well 

Hypocausis, among the Greeks, a fur- 
nace with flues running underneath 
the pavement of an apartment, to 
increase the temperature 

Hypocaustum, the stove-room of a 
bath, in which was placed the prae- 
furnium for heating the caldaria 

Hypogceum, in ancient architecture, a 
name common to all the under- 
ground parts of a building 

Hypotrachelium, that part of the ca- 
pital of a column which occurs be- 
tween the shaft and the annulets 
of the echinus 


graphy the front ; and the sceno- 

graphy the whole building. 
Icosahedron, in geometry, a regular 

body or solid, consisting of twenty 

triangular pyramids 
Image, a term applied to a statue 
Imbowment, an arch or vault 
Impages, the horizontal parts of the 




frame -work of doors, commonly 
termed rails 

Impale, in heraldry, to conjoin two 
coats or arms, as a wife's with 
those of her husband 

Impetus, in mechanics, violent ten- 
dency to any point, violent effort, 
force, momentum, motion 

Impinge, in mechanics, to fall against, 
to strike against, to clash with 

Impluvium, the cistern in the central 
part of the court or atrium of a 
Roman house, to receive the rain- 

Impost, the horizontal mouldings or 
capitals on the top of a pilaster, 
pillar, or pier, from which an arch 
springs : in classical architecture 
the form varies in the several orders. 
Sometimes the entablature of the 
order serves for the impost of an 

Impost ,archivolt, and key-stone. The 
height of the impost should be from 
one-ninth to one-seventh of the 
width of the aperture, and the 
breadth of the archivolt not more 
than an eighth nor less than a 
tenth of it. The breadth of the 
under side of the key-stone should 
be the same as the breadth of the 
archivolt, and its sides, of course, 
concentric ; its length, once and a 
half its breadth, but not more than 
double its breadth. 

Impulsive force is that wliich acts 
during an extremely short time, 
and is so called because the forces 
that take place in any impulse, or 
impact, are speedily exhausted 

Incise, to cut ; to engrave ; to carve 

Inclined plane (the), in mechanics, is 
a plane which makes with the hori- 
zontal plane any angle whatever, 
forming one of the simplest me- 
chanical powers. The inclination 
of the plane is measured by the 
angle formed by two lines drawn 
from the sloping and the horizontal 
plane, perpendicular to their com- 
mon intersection. 

Increment, an increase ; produce 

Incrustation. If water, impregnated 
with calcareous matter, remains 


long in contact with extraneous 
substances, an earthy incrustation 
takes place that soon encloses the 
encrusted substance, which is then 
said to be petrified. 
Indian Architecture consists of two 
distinct styles, the Buddhist and 
theBrahminical, the former being 
the earliest, and consisting of topes 
or tumuli, large domical buildings 
of brick or stone, either quite solid 
or containing one or more small 
chambers, in which are deposited 
relics, coins, and other similar ob- 
jects, which the greater number of 
them were erected to enshrine. 

The principal topes are now 
found in Ceylon and Affghanistan, 
but they also exist in Burmah and 
in other neighbouring countries. 

The next class of Buddhist 
buildings are the Chaitya halls, 
similar in plan and use to the early 
basilicae : these exist principally in 
caves in India. And lastly, viharas 
or monasteries, in which the monks 
attached to the Chaitya halls re- 
sided : these also exist principally 
as caves in India, and as structural 
buildings in all countries where 
Buddhism is still practised. 

Brahminical or Hindoo architec- 
ture consists mostly of temples, pro- 
perly so called. These in almost 
every instance are towers, square in 
plan, or nearly so, built over the cell 
or sanctum of the temple. In the 
south of India, the upper part forms 
a right-lined pyramid; in the north, 
the outline is curvilinear, sometimes 
tapering to a spire. 

To these towers are attached 
porches of greater or less dimen- 
sions. In the north there are 
generally square halls without pil- 
lars in the south, as universally 
pillared sometimes attached, at 
others detached from the temple 
itself: in the latter case, in the 
south, some of the porches possess 
from 500 to 1000 pillars, though 
this is never the case in the north. 

These temples are generally sur- 
rounded by a square court : in the 




south, three, four, and sometimes 
even seven such enclosures sur- 
round the principal cell, the outer 
one being, in many instances, some 
miles in circumference. 

These Hindoo temples exist 
sometimes, though rarely, as rock- 
cut temples ; but generally they are 

Between these styles comes a 
third, the Jaina style, being a mix- 
ture of the two, possessing some of 
the characteristics of both, and 
frequently displaying more ele- 
gance than the first, and less taw- 
driness than the other. By the 
introduction of domes, whose use 
was thus brought to great perfec- 
tion, an element was added which 
was a great improvement on the 
other two styles, and from which 
that of Jaina originated. 

The absence of the arch in all 
constructions of every age is gene- 
ral throughout India, as the prin- 
ciple was quite unknown. The 
upper parts of the buildings were 
supported on square piers or pil- 
lars, and from all sides of their 
capitals brackets projected equal 
to their width, and leaving gene- 
rally a space equal to three diame- 
ters between their greatest projec- 
tion, thus leaving only one-half of 
the whole length of the architrave 
unsupported; but when a greater 
space was required, a succession of 
projecting brackets, placed above 
each other, was adopted, sometimes 
meeting in the centre, and thus 
having the effect of the horizontal 

Indian Ink : the pigment well known 
under this name is principally 
brought from China in oblong 
cakes, of a musky scent, prepared 
for painting in water, &c. 
Indian red, a colour, is brought from 
Bengal, and is a very rich iron ore, 
or peroxide of iron. It is an ano- 
malous red, of a purple-russet hue, 
of a good body, and valued, when 
fine, for the pureness and lakey 
tone of its tints 


Indian yellow is a pigment long em- 
ployed in India and subsequently 
introduced generally into painting 
in European countries. It is im- 
ported in the form of balls, is of a 
fetid odour, and is produced from 
the urine of the camel. It has 
also been ascribed, in like manner, 
to the buffalo, or Indian cow, after 
feeding on mangoes ; but the latter 
statement is incorrect. Indian yel- 
low resists the sun's rays with sin- 
gular power in water-painting. 

Indicator, the apparatus for showing 
the force of the steam, and the 
state of exhaustion in the cylinder 
during the stroke 

Indigo, or Indian blue, is a pigment 
manufactured in the East and West 
Indies from several plants, but prin- 
cipally from the anil or indigofera 

Inertia, the passiveness of matter: 
matter has not the power of putting 
itself into motion, neither has it the 
power of stopping itself when put 
into motion by the action of an ex- 
ternal force, as it requires as much 
force to stop a body as it requires 
to put it in motion 

Inflammable air, hydrogen gas 

Influx, in hydraulics, the act of flow- 
ing into any thing, as the tide into 
a bay or river 

Injection-cock, the stop-cock in the 
ejection-pipe, for shutting off the 
supply of cold water used for the 
condensation of steam 

Injection-pipe, the pipe through which 
the injection water passes to the 
condenser; in a steam vessel the 
injection-pipe is open to the sea, at 
the bottom of the vessel 

Inn or Hostel, anciently a lodging- 
house, or a house of lodging and 
refreshment for travellers : houses 
for lodging the collegians at Cam- 
bridge and Oxford were so called 

Inns of court, houses in which there 
are many lodgings for the accom- 
modation of students and practi- 
tioners at law 

Innate force, in physics, the vis inertia 

Inner-post, in ship-building, a piece 
brought in at the fore-side of the 




main-post, and generally continued 
as high as the wing-transom, to 
seat the other transoms upon 
Insertum opus, according to Vitru- 
vius, a mode of building walls used 
by the Romans, in which the stones 
were small and unhewn, similar to 
what is now called rubble-work 
Insulated columns, in architecture, 
are those which are unconnected 
with any wall or building 
Intaglio, in sculpture, &c., any thing 
that has figures engraved on it, so 
as to rise above the ground 
Intense blue, indigo refined by so- 
lution and precipitation, in which 
state it is equal in colour to Ant- 
werp blue. By this process, indigo 
also becomes durable, and much 
more powerful, transparent, and 
deep. It washes and works well in 
water ; and in other respects it has 
the common properties of indigo. 
Inter -calumniation. The spacebetween 
two columns is called an interco- 
lumniation. When columns are at- 
tached to the wall, this space is not 
under such rigorous laws as when 
they are quite insulated ; for, in the 
latter case, real as well as apparent 
solidity requires them to be near 
each other, that they may better 
sustain the entablatures which it 
is their office to carry. 

ferent intercolumniations had the 
following names bestowed on them 
by the Greeks, and they still retain 
their ancient appellations : 
Pycnostylos, when the columns are 
once and a half of 
their diameter dis- 
tant from each other. 
Systylos . . when their distance 
from each other is 
two diameters. 

Eustylos . . when their distance 
from each other is 
two diameters and a 

Diastylos . . when their distance 
from each other is 
three diameters and 
a quarter. 


Areeostylos. . when their distance 
from each other is 
four diameters. 

In the Doric, however, the in- 
tercolumniation is regulated by the 
disposition of the triglyphs in the 
frieze ; for the triglyph ought al- 
ways to be placed over the centre 
of a column^ and the metope should 
be square. In the Tuscan inter- 
val, the architraves being of wood, 
the space may be considerably ex- 

A strict adherence to the above- 
named intervals between the co- 
lumns produces some irregularity 
in the arrangement of the modil- 
lions and dentils of the Corinthian, 
Ionic, and Composite cornices, 
which, though not offensive, is 
better avoided. Vignola therefore 
has, with some propriety, made his 
eustylos intercolumniation equal to 
two diameters and one-third in all 
but the Doric order. 
Intercolumniations. Columns maybe 
said to be either engaged or insu- 
lated : when insulated, they are 
either placed very near the walls 
or at some considerable distance 
from them. 

With regard to engaged columns, 
or such as are near the walls of a 
building, the intercolumniations are 
not limited, but depend on the width 
of the arches, windows, niches, or 
other objects, and their decorations, 
placed ^'ithin them. But columns 
that are entirely detached, and per- 
form alone the office of supporting 
the entablature, as in peristyles, 
porches, and galleries, must be near 
each other, both for the sake of 
real and apparent solidity. 

The ancients had several manners 
of spacing their columns, which are 
described by Vitruvius in his third 
and fourth books. Those practised 
in the Ionic and Corinthian orders 
were, the pycnostyle, the systyle, 
the eustyle/the diastyle, and the 

In the Doric order they used other 
intercolumniations, regulating them 




by the triglyphs, of which one was 
always to be placed directly over 
the middle of each column, so that 
they were either systyle monotri- 
glyph, of one diameter and a half; 
diastyle, or araeostyle : the Tuscan 
intervals were exceedingly wide, 
some of them being above seven 
diameters, which, as the architraves 
were of wood, was practicable. 

Vitruvius intended the five inter- 
columniations, mentioned in his 3rd 
book, merely for the Ionic and Co- 
rinthian orders ; the latter of which, 
according to him, differed from the 
former only in its capital ; for, in the 
second and seventh chapters of his 
fourth book, he establishes other 
intervals for the Doric and Tuscan 
orders. Nevertheless, they have em- 
ployed these intercolumniations in 
different orders. Palladio has used 
the systyle in the Corinthian, and 
the araeostyle in the Tuscan ; by 
which means the Corinthian peri- 
style, of which the character should 
be extreme delicacy and lightness, 
becomes twice as strong and mate- 
rial as the Tuscan, of which the 
distinguishing characteristics ought 
to be extreme solidity. 

Interlignium, in ancient architecture, 
the space between the ends of the 

Interpensiv(B, timbers in the roof of 
the cavaedium, extending in a dia- 
gonal direction from the angles 
made by the walls of the court to 
the angles made by the junction of 
the beams supporting the roof 

Intrados, the soffit or under-surface of 
an arch, as opposed to cxtrados 

In vacua, a void or empty space 

Invention, in painting, consists princi- 
pally in three things : first, the 
choice of a subject properly within 
the scope of art ; secondly, the sei- 
zure of the most striking and ener- 
getic moment of time for represen- 
tation ; and lastly, the discovery 
and solution of such objects, and 
such probable incidental circum- 
stances, as, combined together, may 

best tend to develop the story, or 

augment the interest of the piece. 
The cartoons of Raphael furnish 
an example of genius and sagacity 
in this part of the art. 

Inverse, turned back or inverted ; op- 
posed to direct 

Inverse ratio, when more requires 
less, or less requires more 

Inverted arch, an arch of stone or 
brick, with the crown downwards, 
commonly used in the construction 
of tunnels 

Iodine scarlet is a new pigment, of a 
peculiarly vivid and beautiful colour, 
exceeding even the brilliancy of 
vermillion. It has received several 
false appellations, but is truly an 
iodide or biniodide of mercury, vary- 
ing in degrees of intense redness. 
It has the body and opacity of ver- 
million, but should be used with an 
ivory palette-knife, as iron and 
most metals change it to colours 
varying from yellow to black. 

Iodine yellow, ioduret of lead, is a 
precipitate from an acid solution of 
lead by an alkaline solution of 
iodine, of a bright yellow colour, 
which, from its active chemical affi- 
nities, and the little experience of 
its qualities in painting, is to be 
employed with doubt and caution 

Ionic capital. The Greek architects 
must have possessed much science 
in the formation of curves of every 
description. We cannot generate 
the curve of the volute of an Ionic 
capital but by approximation; but 
the inventors of the order must 
have known how to generate this 
and other curves in Greek architec- 
ture, on fixed principles ; so must 
the artist in vases, &c. Mr. Jopling 
is said to have discovered the true 
generic curve. 

Ionic Order: this, says Palladio, " had 
its origin in Ionia, a province of Asia; 
and we read that the famous tem- 
ple of Diana at Ephesus was built 
of that order. The column, with 
its capital and base, is nine modules 
high ; and by a module is under- 
stood the diameter of a column be- 
low. The architrave, frieze, or 




cornice, have the fifth part of the 
height of the column. When the 
columns are single, the inter-co- 
lumns are of two diameters and a 
fourth part, and this is the most 
beautiful and commodious manner 
of all inter-columns, which Vitru- 
vius calls eustylos." 

Amongst the ancients, the form 
of the Ionic profile appears to 
have been more positively deter- 
mined than that of any other order ; 
for in all the antiques at Rome, the 
temple of Concord excepted, it is 
exactly the same, and conformable 
to the description which Vitruvius 
has given of it. 

Modern artists have likewise been 
more unanimous in their opinions 
upon the subject ; all of them, ex- 
cepting Palladio and his imitators, 
having employed the dentil cornice, 
and the other parts of the profile, 
nearly as they are found in the Co- 
liseum, the temple of Fortune, and 
the theatre of Marcellus. 

In Palladio's works we meet with 
three different Ionic entablatures ; 
all of them very beautiful. The 
first is the true antique, which 
he has made use of at the palace of 
the Porti ; and in several doors and 
windows of the Thiene and Val- 
marana palaces, in Vicenza. The 
second is a very judicious imitation 
of the entablature in the temple of 
Concord, and is executed by him 
in the upper arcade of the basilica 
in the same city. The third, which 
is an invention of his own, being 
the same with that in his book, he 
has employed with some small dif- 
ference at the Chiericato palace, at 
the rotunda of Marchese Capra, 
and in various others of his build- 
ings in the Vicentine, or at Venice. 
Iron, the most useful and the most 
abundant of the metals, is found in 
various conditions of ore in most 
parts of the earth. Those ores 
which are principally worked for the 
production of the metal for manu- 
facturing purposes, are either oxides 
or carbonates, that is, they contain 


the metal in a state of combination 
either with oxygen, or with oxygen 
and carbonic acid. The oxides are 
the best ores, and are found in vast 
beds in Sweden : the carbonates are 
inferior in point of strength and 
ductility, and therefore require an 
extensive reduction. They form the 
greater portion of the iron ores of 

The principal varieties of the ox- 
ides of iron are, the magnetic; the 
massive, found in the north of Eu- 
rope, and other parts of the world ; 
the micaceous, found in the lava of 
volcanoes, &c. ; and the red and 
brown haematites, found in Great 
Britain and Europe. The princi- 
pal varieties of the carbonates are, 
the massive, found in Great Britain 
and Ireland, Europe, and America ; 
and also the argillaceous, commonly 
known as clay iron-stone, found 
abundantly in beds and coal deposits 
in England, Wales, and Scotland. 

Besides the oxides and carbonates 
here enumerated, iron is found in 
large quantities in combination with 
sulphur; and the several compounds 
thus formed are known as pyrites, 
several varieties of which are found 
inNorway, Sweden, Germany, Ame- 
rica, and in many parts of England. 

Various artificial oxides of this 
metal are applied to medicine, dye- 
ing, and other purposes in the arts. 

The tenacity and strength of iron 
are impaired by its adulteration 
with foreign matters. Thus, of the 
oxides and carbonates, those are 
best in which the proportion of the 
metal is great. These qualities are 
further increased by fusion, and by 
the mechanical process of hammer- 
ing; and this fact points to the main 
distinction in the kinds of iron as 
applied for manufacturing purposes, 
viz. foundry iron, and forge iron. 

In the manufacture of iron, the 
first process is the reduction of the 
iron-stone or ore, technically called 
the mine, into the state of a metal. 
This is done by fusion in a furnace, 
with coke added to produce com- 




bustion, and limestone to act as a 
flux and assist the fusion of the ore. 
An artificial current of air is neces- 
sary to fuse the ore in these furnaces, 
which are therefore called blast fur- 
naces, and provided with tubes or 
tuyeres, through the tapered noz- 
zles of which, strong currents of air 
are delivered to the interior of the 
furnace, the required velocity of the 
blasts being sustained by steam or 
other power. Formerly the air was 
thus introduced at the same tempe- 
rature as that of the external atmo- 
sphere; but a plan has for many 
years been extensively adopted of 
previously heating the air for the 
blasts in separate vessels to a high 
temperature, by which the fusion 
of the ore is so powerfully assisted, 
that the saving of fuel in the furnace 
is many times greater than the 
quantity used for the preparatory 
heating of the air. Furnaces thus 
supplied are termed hot-blast fur- 
naces, and the product is called hot- 
blast iron, while that made with un- 
heated air is called cold-blast iron. 
The cost of the process of reduc- 
tion with the hot blast being so 
much less than of that with the 
cold blast, the ultimate value of the 
former is of course also partly de- 
pendent upon the quality of the 
produce. On this head much differ- 
ence of opinion has often been mani- 
fested, and with all the earnestness 
usually displayed in the advocacy 
of self-interest. The value of each 
process must, no doubt, arise from 
the completeness of the fusion pro- 
duced, and the separation effected 
between the iron and the impuri- 
ties combined with it in the ore. 
The hot-blast furnace effects the 
fusion more readily than the cold- 
blast, but admits a larger combina- 
tion of cinders with the ore ; and 
the advantage which has been 
taken of this facility of adulteration, 
in order to reduce the cost of pro- 
duction, has doubtless led to the 
introduction into the market of 
many qualities of hot -blast iron 


which are inferior in strength to 
that made with the cold blast. The 
results of some of the most care- 
fully conducted experiments which 
have been made upon the strength 
of cast iron, and published in the 
6th volume of the new series of 
'Memoirs of the Literary and Phi- 
losophical Society of Manchester,' 
show that the transverse strength 
of the cold-blast iron tried was 
about 1\ per cent, greater than 
that of the hot-blast. The experi- 
ments here referred to were made 
upon rectangular bars 1 inch square, 
and 4 feet 6 inches long between 
the supports. The mean average 
breaking weights, placed at the 
middle of these bars, were 


In 21 samples of hot- 
blast iron .... 445-5714 
In 22 samples of cold- 
blast iron .... 456-9090 
The metal is allowed to flow 
from the furnace into rude channels 
formed on the surface of the ground, 
where it cools, and is taken up in 
the form of rough bars about 3 feet 
long, and each weighing nearly one 
cwt., which are technically called 
pigs. In the making of one ton of 
pig iron in Staffordshire, the fol- 
lowing materials are used : 
Coal, 2 tons 5 cwt. 
If coke is used instead of coal, 

1 ton 17 cwt. 
Charred mine, or ore, 2 tons 

5 cwt. to 2 tons 10 cwt. 
Limestone, 13 cwt. to 16 cwt. 
In the condition of pig iron, the 
metal forms the two staple de- 
scriptions of foundry iron and of 
forge iron, according to its quali- 
ties, and the proportion of carbon 
and oxygen which it contains. The 
several sorts of pig iron are consi- 
dered to be six in number, and are 
thus distinguished: Nos. 1, 2, and 
3, foundry iron, of which the first 
two are never used for forge iron. 
No. 3, or dark grey, and also the 
fourth quality known as bright iron, 
are sometimes used for the foundry, 




and sometimes for the forge. The 
fifth and sixth sorts, known as 
mottled iron and white iron, are 
never used for the foundry. The 
order here observed corresponds 
with that of the proportion of car- 
bon and oxygen mixed with each 
kind of the iron, and also with that 
of the fluidity to which the metal is 
reducible : it also corresponds with 
the scale of their softness and 
toughness. Thus, No. 1 has the 
most carbon and oxygen, and the 
white iron has the least. No. 1 is 
the most fluid when melted, and the 
white iron the least so. Again, No. 
1 is the softest, and the white iron 
the hardest ; and No 1 is the tough- 
est, while the white iron is the 
most brittle. But white iron is the 
best adapted for conversion into 
malleable iron, while Nos. 1 and 2, 
foundry iron, contain so large a pro- 
portion of carbon and oxygen, that 
they are totally unfit to be manu- 
factured into bars. 

The conversion of pig iron into 
malleable iron is effected by ex- 
tended processes, or subsequent to 
those by which the ore has been 
reduced to the form of pig. These 
processes are as follow : 
1. Refining, 2. Puddling, ham- 
mering, and rolling, 3. Cutting 
up, piling, and rolling ; the 3rd 
series of operations being re- 

The refining is for the purpose 
of separating a portion of the car- 
bon from the pig, and is performed 
in furnaces fitted with tuyeres for 
supplying a blast of air to the 
point of fusion. The metal run 
from the refining moulds is exceed- 
ingly brittle, and is then broken up 
into small pieces, and committed 
to the puddling or reverberatory 
furnace, to undergo a further puri- 
fication from the oxygen and car- 
bon which remain after the process 
of refining is accomplished. While 
in this furnace, the mass into which 
the pieces of refined metal become 
clustered is worked and stirred 


about by the workman or puddler, 
until its thickness and tenacity are 
so far increased that it may be 
formed into lumps, or balls, which 
the puddler does with tools adapt- 
ed to the purpose. 

The hammering or shingling is 
performed upon the balls or blooms 
of puddled iron, with a very heavy 
hammer, worked by a cam-wheel, 
and has the effect of improving the 
solidity of the metal, and reducing 
the balls into an oblong form, by 
which they are better prepared for 
the action of the rollers. 

The rolls or rollers are fitted to- 
gether in pairs, and so formed in 
the periphery and arranged in size, 
that open spaces are formed be- 
tween them, through which the 
metal is passed while hot; and each 
succeeding pair of rollers present- 
ing a smaller space, the iron which 
is drawn through them becomes 
proportionately reduced in size and 
increased in length. 

The metal has thus been convert- 
ed from a hard brittle and readily 
fusible substance into a malleable 
bar, which is soft, tough, and very 
difficult of fusion ; but it is still far 
from fit for the smith's use, being 
to a great extent unsound in struc- 
ture, imperfect in tenacity, and 
irregular on the surface. 

The third set of processes is 
now commenced by cutting up the 
puddled bars into lengths with 
powerful shears. These lengths, of 
various dimensions, according to 
the sized bars to be produced, are 
carefully piled up and heated in 
another furnace similar to the pud- 
dling furnace, and which is called 
the balling furnace. In this the 
bars are simply heated to a degree 
which admits of their becoming 
welded together in the pile and 
adapted for reduction to the form 
of finished bars in the rolls. 

The rolling is the last operation 
in the making of bar-iron. The 
metal is drawn successively through 
a series of rollers, that is, between 




the peripheries of each pair of 
rollers, and thus gradually reduced 
in size, increased in length, and 
freed from the cinder and other 
impurities which remain after the 
puddle-rolling has been performed. 

The last set of operations is 
sometimes repeated in producing 
iron for superior purposes. The 
processes here described will give 
a general idea of the manufacture 
of iron from the native ore into the 
form of malleable bars; and it may 
be readily conceived how an exten- 
sion and variation of the process of 
rolling may be made to produce the 
several other forms in which this 
metal is prepared for the construc- 
tions of the engineer, the smith, 
and the machinist. 

As varieties of bar-iron may be 
mentioned, L, or augle-iron ; T, 
or tee-iron ; and H, or deck-beam 
iron ; which are prepared in several 
sizes, for the construction of roofs, 
iron vessels, &c. The malleable 
rails used for railways are also 
produced by an arrangement of 

Boiler-plate iron, sheet -iron, 
hoop-iron and nail rod-iron, are 
produced from the form of bars by 
the processes of heating and rolling, 
or hammering, as required. Boiler- 
plates require, according to the 
desired strength and size, several 
repetitions of heating, hammering, 
and rolling. Sheet-iron is distin- 
guished from boiler-plate by being 
thinner ; hoop-iron is rolled in the 
same manner as the bars, but be- 
tween rollers without grooves in 
their edges, the requisite thickness 
being effected by successive pass- 
ages through the rollers, which are 
brought nearer to each other at 
each process, by means of adjust- 
ing screws. Nail rod-iron is rolled 
in thin bars, which are, while still 
hot, passed between steel-cutters 
that slit them up into the form of 
small rods, which, although rough, 
are well fitted to be manufactured 
into nails. 


A very useful form of sheet-iron, 
which should be noticed, is that of 
corrugated iron, which is produced 
by passing the sheets between 
rollers having grooved peripheries. 
By this form, the strength or stiff- 
ness of the sheet is so much in- 
creased, that sheet-iron thus formed 
may be usefully applied to a great 
variety of purposes, for which it is 
otherwise, owing to its thinness 
and pliability, utterly inadequate. 

By the combustion of charcoal 
with the coke, and the adaptation 
of a peculiar furnace in the process 
of smelting, Mr. Clay has succeeded 
in producing malleable iron direct 
from the ore, and thus materially 
reducing the series of processes 
here described. The results thus 
brought out are of a very interest- 
ing character, and promise to ac- 
quire a great practical value. 

Iron. Moses forbade the Hebrews the 
use of any stones to form the altar 
of the Lord, which had been in any 
manner wrought with iron ; as if 
iron communicated pollution. He 
says, the stones of Palestine are of 
iron, that is, of hardness equal to 
iron, or, being smelted, they yielded 
iron. "An iron yoke" is a hard 
and insupportable dominion. "Iron 
sharpeneth iron," says the Wise 
Man; "so a man sharpeneth the 
countenance of his friend:" the pre- 
sence of a friend gives us more 
confidence and assurance. God 
threatens his ungrateful and perfi- 
dious people with making the 
heavens iron, and the earth brass ; 
that is, to make the earth barren, 
and the air to produce no rain. 
Chariots of iron are chariots armed 
with iron, with spikes and scythes. 

Iron-stone, iron-bound stone, in colour 
of a blueish gray, and very hard to 
work: it contains but very little 

Iron-stone has the appearance of 
rusty black shale, and, when laid 
together in large heaps, is so com- 
bustible that it ignites, leaving a 
a calx of 60 per cent, of iron. It 




abounds in Scotland. Common 
iron-stone is also very abundant 
in connection with coal, and in 
former times formed the principal 
supply, which induced the founda- 
tion of the Carron Iron Works. 

Iron wood is imported from the Bra- 
zils, the East and West Indies, and 
other countries, in square and 
round logs, 6 to 9 inches and up- 
wards through. Its colours are 
very dark browns and reds : some- 
times it is streaked, and generally 
straight-grained: used principally 
for ramrods, turnery, &c., and is 
extremely hard. 

Iron yellow, jaune de fer, or jaune de 
Mars, &c., is a bright iron ochre, 
prepared artificially, of the nature 
of sienna earth. The colours of 
iron exist in endless variety in na- 
ture, and are capable of the same 
variation by art, from sienna yel- 
low, through orange and red, to 
purple, brown, and black, among 
which are useful and valuable dis- 
tinctions, which are brighter and 
purer than native ochres. 

Isochronism, in mechanics, the per- 
forming of several things in equal 
times; such as the vibrations of 
the pendulum 

Isodomon, a building every way 

Isodomos, in Greek architecture, ma- 
sonry cut and squared to the same 
height, so that, when laid, the 
courses were all regular and equal 

Isometrical, projections and drawings 
so termed 

Isoperimetrical, in geometry, such 
figures as have equal perimeters or 

Isosceles, in geometry, a triangle that 
has only two sides equal 

Isothermal, in chemistry, equal heat 

Italian Architecture, a style now much 
appreciated not only in Italy, but 
in England and France, was first in- 
troduced at the revival of classical 
architecture, and was subsequently 
much improved and adapted to 
modern refinement. The architec- 
ture of Venice, Florence, Genoa, 


Rome, and Sicily, afford to the 
architect a complete library of ex- 
amples, by the possession of the 
several works published of the ar- 
chitecture of the palaces and man- 
sions of these cities. 
Italian Architecture, Roman. Respect- 
ing buildings originally erected in 
Italy Mr. Jos. Gwilt has thus written : 
The Romans followed the Greeks 
in the general form of their temples, 
but added to their splendour by a 
greater richness of detail, and the 
employment of other orders. For 
the simple steps on which the Greek 
temple was elevated, they substitu- 
ted pedestals, and added a base to 
the Doric order. The climate pre- 
scribed a more elevated pediment ; 
but the luxury of the people was 
the cause of the preference given to 
the richer orders of architecture. 


The chief temples of Rome were 
the Capitol, built on the Tar- 
peian or Capitoline mount, by Tar- 
quinius Superbus. (See Capito- 
lium.} No traces of it at present 
remain. The edifice of the Capitol 
was about 200 feet square, and con- 
tained three temples, consecrated 
to Jupiter, Minerva, and Juno. On 
the Capitol were also the temples 
of Terminus and Jupiter Feretrius, 
and the cottage of Romulus. 

The Pantheon, built by Agrippa, 
the son-in-law of Augustus, and 
dedicated to Mars and Venus, or 
more probably, from its name, to 
all the gods. Pope Boniface IV. 
consecrated it in honour of the Vir- 
gin Mary and All Saints, A.D. 607. 
It is now generally known by the 
name of the ' Rotonda ;' its dia- 
meter between the axes of the 
columns is 147 feet: like most of 
the ancient buildings, it has fallen 
a prey to the spoiler. The Balda- 
chino in St. Peter's is indebted for 
its materials to the Pantheon of 

The temple of Apollo, on the 
Palatine hill, was built by Augus- 




tus : a temple of Diana stood on 
the Aventine. 

The temple of Janus was sup- 
posed to have been built by Romu- 
lus ; that of Romulus by Papirius. 
Of those to the Sun and Moon, 
Fortuna Virilis, Vesta, Minerva 
Medica, Neptune, Antoninus and 
Faustina, Concord, Jupiter Stator, 
and most particularly of the tem- 
ple of Peace, considerable remains 
are fortunately still in being. The 
three magnificent arches now stand- 
ing of that last named, though of 
themselves majestic, convey but a 
faint idea of its pristine splendour. 
Of the temple of Jupiter Stator, 
whose columns, capitals, and en- 
tablatures were a perfect example 
of the Corinthian order, only three 
columns are in existence. The re- 
mains of the temples of Antoninus 
Pius, Claudius, Hercules, Jupiter 
Tonans, Isis, Romulus, and Venus 
and Cupid, are still interesting. 

No vestiges exist of the temples 
dedicated to Saturn, Juno, Mars 
bis Ultor, in the forum of Augus- 
tus, nor of numberless others that 
adorned the city. 

The temples of Balbec and Pal- 
myra are the last of the ancient 
Roman works that can lay claim to 
the appellation of classic architec- 
ture. In these, invention seems to 
have found its limits. The repro- 
duction and new adaptation of their 
detail was all that has been done 
by following artists. 

The Romans, not content with 
the quadrilateral temple, made use 
of the circular form, as in the Pan- 
theon, temple of Vesta, and others 
at Rome, and that of the Sibyl at 
Tivoli. Except their theatres, and 
the little work generally known by 
the name of the Lantern of Demo- 
sthenes, the Greeks have left no 
buildings on a circular plan. 

After the time of Diocletian, a 
new style prevailed in Italy. The 
basilicse of Constantine, as they ex- 
isted previous to their restoration, 
and, in short, almost all the first 


Christian churches, were built out 
of the materials which the old tem- 
ples afforded in abundance. The 
basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura 
still contains a large portion of the 
columns which had originally be- 
longed to the mausoleum of Adrian. 
The style of these basilicse may 
with propriety be termed Roman- 
Gothic. This was followed by the 
Greek-Gothic, of which examples 
may be found in most of the cities 
of Italy, as in St. Mark at Venice, 
the cathedral at Pisa, (built by 
Buschetto da Dulichio, a Greek ar- 
chitect of the llth century,) and 
in the baptistery and leaning cam- 
panile of the same city : specimens 
abound also in Bologna, Sienna, 
Venice, Viterbo, Rome, &c. They 
are chiefly the works of Nicola da 
Pisa and his scholars. 

At the time that the famous ca- 
thedral of Milan, the perfection of 
the Lombard-Gothic style, was in 
hand, Brunellesrchi was advancing 
a step further, and had begun the 
restoration of classical architecture 
in the great cupola of Sta Maria 
del Fiore at Florence ; his prototype 
seeming to have been the temple 
of Minerva Medica, to which his 
work has sufficient resemblance to 
justify the allusion to it. He suc- 
ceeded in his enterprise, and thus 
gave a death-blow to the Italian- 
Gothic of all sorts. L. B. Alberti, 
Bramante, and Fra. Giocondo re- 
stored the use of the orders ; Michael 
Angelo, Raphael, Sangallo, Palladio, 
and Scamozzi completedthe change; 
the church of St. Peter rose, and 
every little city began to provide 
itself with a Duomo. 

The fora of the ancients were 
large squares surrounded by por 
ticoes, which were applied to dif- 
ferent purposes. Some parts of 
them answered for market-places, 
other parts for the public meetings 
of the inhabitants, still other parts 
for courts of justice. The forum 
also occasionally afforded accom- 
modation for the shows of gladi 




ators. Rome contained seventeen 
fora, of which fourteen were used 
for the show and sale of goods, 
provisions, and merchandise, and 
were called Fora Venalia ; the other 
three were appropriated for civil 
and judicial proceedings, and hence 
called Fora Civilia et Judicialia. 
Of the latter sort was the forum 
of Trajan. 

The forum of Julius Caesar was 
far more splendid than the Forum 
Romanum : it cost upwards of 
800,000 sterling, and stood in 
the neighbourhood of the Campo 
Vaccino, to the east of the temples 
of Peace and of Antoninus and 

In the vicinity of that last named 
was the forum of Augustus : the 
temple of Mars bis Ultor decora- 
ted the centre of it. 

The forum of Nerva, called also 
the Forum Transitorium, begun by 
Domitian, was decorated by Alex- 
ander Severus with colossal statues 
of the emperors, some of which 
w r ere equestrian. Parts of this 
forum are still in tolerable preser- 

The forum of Trajan, which has 
lately been accurately traced by 
means of very extensive excavations, 
and the demolition of a great num- 
ber of houses, was by far the most 
magnificent. The Trajan column 
formed one of its ornaments : the 
architect was Apollodorus, and its 
situation was between the forum of 
Nerva and the Capitol. 

The basilica (a term now applied 
to the cathedrals of Rome) was 
originally a court of justice. Like 
the forum, it was furnished with 
shops for the merchants and bank- 
ers. In the place called the Comi- 
tium were four basilicas, viz. that 
of Paulus, the Basilica Opimia, 
Julia (built by Vitruvius), and Por- 
tia : besides these, the most impor- 
tant were those of Sicinius, Sem- 
pronius, Caius and Lucius, Antoni- 
nus Pius, and the Basilica Argen- 
tariorum, or of the goldsmiths. 


Some of less consideration stood 
in the vicinity of the Forum Ro- 

The modern halls of Italy in 
some respects answer the purpose 
of the ancient basilica. Those 
most worthy of notice are at Venice, 
Vicenza, Padua, and Brescia. 

Near the Tarpeian rock stood 
the famous prison built by Ancus 
Martius, which was afterwards cal- 
led Tulliana, from the additions 
thereto by Servius Tullius. The 
Curia Hostilia, where the senate 
frequently met, was the Comitium : 
at its entrance, close to the tem- 
ple of Saturn, was the Milliarium 
Aureum, the central point from 
which all the roads to the different 
provinces diverged, and near to 
which ran the gallery constructed 
by Caligula, which joined the Pa- 
latine and Capitoline hills. It was 
constructed with eighty columns of 
white marble. 

The porticoes of Pompey, Au- 
gustus, Domitian, and Nero were 
the most celebrated of Rome. The 
first -named afforded a refreshing 
retreat from the sun's rays. The 
portico of Augustus was construct- 
ed with columns of African mar- 
ble, and was ornamented with fifty 
statues of the Danaides. 

Those of Nero, three in number, 
each three miles in length, were 
called Milliariae, on account of their 
extraordinary dimensions, forming 
a part of his palace. 

The pyramidal form was gene- 
rally applied to tombs. In the he- 
roic ages, a cone of earth, whose 
base was of considerable extent, 
covered the ashes of the person to 
be commemorated. This was the 
practice of the early ages. Men 
were, however, desirous of triumph- 
ing over death, and the Pyramids, 
as well as numberless other monu- 
ments, the names of whose authors 
are now lost, have proved the 
vanity of their desires : the memory 
of man must depend upon " deeds 
done in the flesh." 




The pyramid of Caius Cestius, a 
trifle compared with those of Egypt, 
is yet enormous, considering the in- 
dividual to whose memory it was 
erected. The tower of Cecilia Me- 
tella, called the Capo di Bove, on 
the Appian way, is a beautiful speci- 
men of art. The Appian, Flami- 
nian, and Latin ways exhibit num- 
berless sepulchres of an interest- 
ing nature. Those which are found 
with the inscription D. M., or Diis 
Manibus, contain the ashes of the 
persons whose names they bear; 
but the others are mostly cenotaphs, 
the bodies having been deposited 

Triumphal arches may be reck- 
oned among the luxuries of the 
Romans. Nothing which could tend 
to perpetuate the fame of the con- 
queror was omitted in the design. 
Some of them were with two, some 
with three passages. The richest 
were on the Triumphal way. Those 
which also served as gates generally 
consisted of two openings, one for 
the carriages passing out of, the 
other for carriages passing into the 
city. With the Greeks, a trophy 
erected on the field of battle was 
held of equal importance with the 
triumphal arch of the Romans, and 
a breach was sometimes made in 
the walls to admit the entry of the 

The Roman senate received the 
conqueror at the Porta Capena, 
near the Tiber, which was the en- 
trance to the city from the Appian 

The arch of Augustus at Rimini 
has but a single passage, about 33 
feet wide : it was crowned with a 
pediment, contrary to the usual 
practice. This was a beautiful 
specimen, but it is much mutilated. 

That called the arch of the Gold- 
smiths at Rome is a curious example. 
It is very small, with a single open- 
ing, whose crowning is a flat lintel. 

The arch of Augustus at Susa, a 
small townjust on the Italian side of 
Mount Cenis, is extremely elegant. 


Those of Aurelian and Janus are 
more singular than beautiful. 

The arch of Pola in I stria is only 
curious on account of its affording 
a justification of the use of coupled 
columns, were the authority of the 
ancients necessary for the purpose : 
it was erected by Salvia Posthuma 
in honour of Sergius Lepidus and 
his two brothers. 

The arch of Trajan at Ancona is 
still in tolerable preservation. It 
has long since been stripped of its 
bronze ornaments, but their absence 
has not impaired its elegant pro- 

The arches of Titus at Rome 
and Trajan at Benevento bear con- 
siderable resemblance to each other. 
That of Gavius at Verona, called 
' del Castel Vecchio,' no longer ex- 
ists. The precepts of Vitruvius 
have been confronted with his prac- 
tice in this arch ; but Vitruvius 
Cerdo, not Vitruvius Pollio, was 
the architect. 

The arches of Septimius Severus 
and of Constantine are with three 
openings. The latter is decorated 
with ornaments shamefully stripped 
off from the arch of Trajan, which, 
from their absurd application, ren- 
der the barbarism of the robber 
more disgusting. 

Rome formerly contained eight 
bridges. The Pons Sublicius, built 
by Ancus Martius near the Tiber, 
was of timber, so framed as to re- 
quire no iron bolts or ties for its 
security. It stood at the foot of 
the Aventine, and was that which 
Horatius Codes defended. It was 
replaced by one of stone by ^Emilius 
Lepidus, and then had the name of 
jEnrilianus. Tiberius afterwards 
repaired it. Finally, Antoninus 
Pius rebuilt it of marble, whence it 
obtained the name of Marmoratus. 

The Pons Triumphalis, near the 
Vatican, is in ruins : few vestiges 
of it exist. Those who triumphed 
passed over this bridge in their way 
to the Capitol. 

The Pons Fabricius led to an 




island in the Tiber : it is now called 
Quattro Capi. That which led 
from the island to the right bank 
of the river was called Pons Cestius 
or Esquilinus : it was rebuilt during 
the reigns of the emperors Valen- 
tinian, Valens, and Gratian. 

Pons Janiculi, so called because 
it led to the Janiculum, and now 
known by the name of Ponte Sisto, 
(from having been restored by Six- 
tus IV.) was of marble, and built 
by Antoninus Pius. 

Pons ^Elius, built by ^Elius Adri- 
anus, is still in existence. It is 
situated close to the mausoleum of 
Adrian. This having changed its 
name into that of Castel St. Angelo, 
the bridge has acquired a corre- 
sponding appellation. 

The Pons Mirvius, now Ponte 
Molle, is a little way out of the city, 
on the road to Florence. On this 
bridge Cicero arrested the ambas- 
sadors of the Allobroges, and in its 
vicinity Constantine defeated Max- 

Pons Senatorius, or Palatinus, is 
partly remaining, close to the Pa- 
tine mount. 

Ponte Salaro is over the Teve- 
rone, about three miles from Rome. 

The spans of the arches are gene- 
rally but small; yet there are some 
few magnificent exceptions, as in 
the Ponte del Castel Vecchio at 
Verona. This consists of three 
arches, the largest of which is 170 
feet span ; its two other arches are 
smaller: they diminish from the 
city, the left bank of the river being 
considerably lower than the right. 
The bridge built by Augustus over 
the Nar, near Narni, on the Flami- 
nian way, was a single arch of 150 
feet span. In the later times of the 
city, bridges were decorated with 
trophies, colossal statues, triumphal 
arches, and the like. Such was the 
case with the Pons Julius and the 
bridge of Augustus at Rimini. 

The country round Rome is co- 
vered with the remains of aque- 
ducts, some of w r hich conveyed the 


water to Rome from a distance of 
more than 60 miles. 

The first aqueduct (Aqua Appia) 
was built, according to Diodorus, 
by Appius Claudius, in the year of 
the city 441. The water which it 
supplied was collected from the 
neighbourhood of Frascati, and its 
summit was about 100 feet above 
the level of Rome. 

The second (Anio Vetus) was 
begun forty years after the last- 
named by M. Curius Dentatus, and 
finished by Fulvius Flaccus : it was 
supplied from the country beyond 
Tivoli. Near Vicovaro it is cut 
through a rock upwards of a mile 
in length, in which part it is 5 feet 
high and 4 feet wide. The water 
of this aqueduct was not good, and 
therefore only used for the most 
ordinary purposes. 

The third (Aqua Martia) was 
supplied from a fountain at the ex- 
tremity of the mountains of the 
Peligni. The water entered the 
city by the Esquiline gate. This 
aqueduct was the work of Quintus 

The fourth (Aqua Tepula) was 
supplied from the vicinity of Fras- 

The fifth (Aqua Julia) was about 
six miles long, and entered the city 
near the Porta Esquilina. 

The sixth (Aqua Virginis) was 
constructed by Agrippa thirteen 
years after that immediately pre- 
ceding. Its summit, in the terri- 
tory of Tusculum, was about eight 
miles from Rome, which it entered 
by the Pincian gate. This water 
still bears its ancient appellation, 
being called Aqua Vergine. 

The seventh (Aqua Alsietina, 
called also Augusta, from the use 
to which Augustus intended to ap- 
ply it for supplying his Naumachia,) 
was brought from the lake whose 
name it bears. 

The eighth (Aqua Claudia), whose 
summit is about forty miles from 
Rome, was begun by Caligula, and 
completed by Claudius. It enters 




the city at the Porta Nevia, near 
the Esquiline mount. The quality 
of the water which this aqueduct 
supplies is better than that of any 
of the others. 

The ninth (Anio novus, to dis- 
tinguish it from the second-named 
water,) was begun and finished by 
the same persons as the last men- 
tioned. It is the water of the Anio, 
which, being exceedingly thick and 
muddy after the rains, is conveyed 
into a large resei-voir at some little 
distance from Rome, to allow the 
mud to subside. 

The Aqua Felice is modern, and 
was erected by Sixtus V. in 1581. 
The popes have, from time to 
time, been at considerable pains 
and expense in repairing and re- 
newing the aqueducts; but the 
quantity of water delivered is con- 
stantly diminishing. In the ancient 
city, the total sum of the areas of 
the different pipes (which were 
about an inch in diameter) through 
which the above immense quantity 
of water was delivered, amounted 
to about 14,900 superficial inches; 
but the supply was subsequently 
reduced to 1170. 

The waters were collected in re- 
servoirs called castella, and thence 
were conveyed through the city in 
leaden pipes. The keepers of the 
reservoirs were called castellani. 
Agrippa alone built thirty of these 
reservoirs during his aedileship. 
There are five modern ones now 
standing in the city: one at the 
Porta Maggiore, Castello dell' Ac- 
qua Giulia, dell' Acqua Felice, dell' 
Acqua Paolina, and that called the 
Fountain of Trevi. 

In later times, the bath was al- 
ways used by the Romans before 
they went to their supper. The 
rich generally had hot and cold 
baths in their own houses ; and it 
was not till the time of Augustus 
that the baths assumed an air of 
grandeur and magnificence. They 
were called Thermae, that is, hot 
baths, though the same pile of 


building always contained cold 
well as hot baths. Different au- 
thors have reckoned as many as 
800 public baths in Rome. The 
chief were those of Agrippa, Nero, 
Titus, Domitian, Caracalla, Anto- 
ninus, and Diocletian. Their ves- 
tiges indicate the amazing magnifi 
cence of the age in which they 
were erected. The pavements were 
mosaic, the vaulted ceilings were 
gilt and painted, and the walls in- 
crusted with the richest marbles. 
Some of the finest and best pre- 
served remains of ancient Greek 
sculpture have been restored to light 
from these edifices. It was from 
these that Raphael took the hint 
for his fantastic decorations of the 
Vatican, and the first restorers of 
art drew their resources. 
Dramatic entertainmentswere first 
introduced at Rome in the 391st 
year of the city. In ancient times 
the people stood during the per- 
formance. For a considerable pe- 
riod the theatres were mere tempo- 
rary buildings constructed of wood. 
The most splendid of these upon 
record was that of Marcus ./Emilius 
Scaurus : it was magnificently de- 
corated, and was capable of con- 
taining 80,000 persons. 

It was in Pompey's second con- 
sulship that the first stone theatre 
was erected : this accommodated 
40,000 spectators. To avoid the 
animadversions of the censors, (for 
the magistracy did not yet sanction 
theatrical exhibitions,) he dedicated 
it to Venus. 

Several other theatres afterwards 
arose: that of Marcellus can still 
be distinctly traced, and part of the 
circular facade, in tolerable pre- 
servation, is singularly elegant. 
The theatre of Balbus was also of 
considerable celebrity. 

The theatres were open at top 
to the heavens ; but in times of rain 
or excessive heat, means were pro- 
vided for covering them with a 
species of cloth awning, by which 
the inclemency of the weather might 




be wholly or partially excluded. 
Their general form on the plan was 
that of the letter D. The seats 
(gradus) rose behind each other, 
like steps. The front row was as- 
signed for the use of the senators 
and the ambassadors of foreign 
states. Fourteen rows behind this 
were reserved for the equites, and 
the rest were open for the public 
generally. The beautiful Olympic 
theatre, by Palladio, at Vicenza, 
was formed on the model of the 
ancient Roman theatres, and gives 
one an excellent idea of their effect. 
Like the theatres, amphitheatres 
were at first constructed of wood, 
and were only temporary. The fii st 
amphitheatre of stone was built by 
Statilius Taurus, at the desire of 

Of all the monuments of anti- 
quity, none is capable of creating 
such sublime sensations in the mind 
as the stupendous amphitheatre 
generally called the Coliseum. It 
was commenced in the time of 
Vespasian, and completed by Titus. 
The plan of it is oval, and its ac- 
commodation was for 87,000 spec- 
tators, who could enjoy the exhibi- 
tions therein without crowding each 

That part in which the gladiators 
fought was at the bottom, and was 
called the arena, from being usually 
covered with sand to absorb the 
blood spilt in the savage conflicts 
for which it was used. The arena 
was encircled by a wall, called the 
podium, which projected at top. 
Thr podium was fifteen or sixteen 
feet in height : immediately round 
it sat the senators and foreign am- 
bassadors. As in the theatres, the 
seats rose at the back of each 
other: fourteen rows in the rear of 
the podium being allotted to the 
equites, and the remainder to the 
public generally, w r ho sat on the 
bare stone; but cushions were pro- 
vided for the senators and equites. 
Though open to the sky, the build- 
ing was occasionally covered by 


means similar to those used in the 

The amphitheatre at Verona is 
still in excellent preservation. 

The Naumachise, or buildings for 
the exhibition of sham naval com- 
bats, were somewhat similar on 
their plans to the circi, to which 
purpose also sometimes these latter 
were appropriated. The amphithe- 
atres were, moreover, occasionally 
used for the same sort of display. 

Those of Augustus and .Domitian 
were the most magnificent. 

The circus was a long narrow 
building, whose length to itsbreadth 
was generally as five to one : it was 
divided down the centre by an or- 
namented barrier, called the spina. 
These buildings were used for the 
celebration of games, racing, &c. ; 
and sometimes also for making ha- 
rangues to the people. 

The first circus of stone is attri- 
buted to Tarquin, and was situated 
between the Palatine and Aventine 

The Circus Maximus was much 
improved and altered by Julius 
Caesar, who supplied it with water 
for the purpose of occasionally using 
it as a naumachia. Augustus made 
great additions to it, decorating it 
with the famous obelisk which now 
stands in the Piazza del Popolo, 
where it was placed by Fontana 
in the year 1589, during the 
pontificate of Sixtus V. Being 
much dilapidated, it was repaired 
under Antoninus, and afterwards 
embellished with a second obelisk, 
which has found a resting-place in 
front of the church of St. John 
Lateran, where it was set up by the 
same Fontana. No vestiges of this 
circus remain. 

The circus of Flaminius, in the 
vicinity of the Pantheon of Agrippa, 
was of considerable dimensions, 
and very magnificent. 

The Circus Agonalis occupied the 
site of what is now known by the 
name of the Piazza Navona. 
The circus of Nero, upon a part 




whereof some portion of the basilica 
of St. Peter is seated, was a splen- 
did building. The obelisk now 
standing in the open circular piazza 
before St. Peter's belonged to this 

Those of Florus, Antoninus, and 
Aurelian, are no longer even in 
ruins ; but that of Caracalla is suf- 
ficiently perfect to trace its plan 
and distribution. It was 738 feet 
in length. 

The streets, in the time of Au- 
gustus, were narrow and irregular. 
After the great fire in Nero's reign, 
the city was rebuilt with greater 
splendour. The streets were then 
set out straight, and considerably 
broader than before. Those houses 
wherein several families dwelt were 
called insula. Domus w r as the ex- 
pression of a house occupied by 
one family only. 

We know little of the form of the 
Roman houses, though Vitruvius 
has described at sufficient length 
the different apartments of which 
they consisted. 

The small houses discovered in the 
ruins of Pompeii can bear but little 
if any resemblance to the houses of 
the opulent inhabitants of Rome. 
The most celebrated were those of 
the Gordians, P. Valerius Publicola, 
Caesar, Sallust, Mecaenas, Cicero, 
Verres, Augustus, and Lucullus. 
The Domus aurea of Nero was 
probably the most magnificent in 
Rome. The villa of Adrian, at 
Tivoli, was so extensive, that it al- 
most deserved the name of a city. 
Immense ruins of the palaces of 
the Caesars are still to be seen. 

Rome was decorated with num- 
berless pillars. The most remark- 
able are fortunately in an excellent 
state of preservation, namely, those 
of Trajan and Antoninus. 

The column of Trajan stood in 
that emperor's forum : it is about 
12 feet in diameter at its base, and 
(including the pedestal) is about 
125 feet in height. The ascent to 
the gallery on the top of the abacus 

of its capital is by 185 steps, each 
2 feet 9 inches long, winding round 
the column, and lighted by 40 open- 
ings. A colossal statue of Trajan 
formerly crowned the top ; but St. 
Peter has long since deposed the 

The column of Antoninus is 176 
feet high, its number of steps 106, 
with 56 openings for the admission 
of light. Sixtus V. caused its pe- 
destal to be cased, when, in 1589, 
the pillar was under repair. It was 
this pontiff who elevated St. Peter 
to his situation, as well on this as 
on the Trajan column. 

The great sewers of Rome are 
reputed to have been the work of 
Tarquinius Priscus. The Cloaca 
Maxima, which still carries some of 
the filth and waste water of Rome 
into the Tiber, was the work of 
Tarquinius Superbus. 

The public ways were not only 
some of the most stupendous, but 
also the most useful of the Roman 

The first road which the Romans 
paved was the Via Appia, so called 
because it was executed by order 
of Appius Claudius. He carried it 
as far as Capua, whence it was af- 
terwards continued to Brundusium 
in all, a distance of 350 miles. 
It is still entire in many places, 
though more than twenty centuries 
have elapsed since its construction. 
It was properly called ' Regina 

The Via Numicia led to Brindis 
(Brundusium) ; the Via Flaminia 
to Rimini and Aquileia; the Via 
Aurelia was along the coast of 
Etruria ; the Via Cassia ran to Mo- 
dena, between the Flaminian and 
Aurelian ways ; the Via ^Emilia 
extended from Rimini to Piacenza, 

The smaller ways were, the Via 
Praenestina to Palestrina (the an- 
cient Praeneste) ; Tiburtina to Ti- 
voli; OstiensistoOstia; Laurentina 
to Laurentum, south of Ostia ; Sa- 
laria, &c. The cross-roads were 
called Diverticula. 




Italian architecture comprises so 
many diversities that it is hardly 
possible to affix to it any thing like 
a precise character, except by limit- 
ing it to a particular epoch or 
school, or to one special class of 

. buildings ; and even then the ex- 
ceptions may be more numerous 
than the examples referred to as a 
standard. With many vices and 
defects, it possesses many excel- 
lences and recommendations, and a 
variety of resources, which render 
it capable of being turned to far 
greater account than hitherto has 
been done. But if on the one 
hand it affords much scope to the 
architect, it calls on the other for 
the exercise of discriminating taste ; 
one that not only rejects what is 
positively bad, but is capable of 
re-combining all the better ele- 
ments of the style, so as to impart 
to them originality and freshness, 
without forfeiting what is valuable 
in and characteristic of the style 
itself; so that, instead of appearing 
contrary to its genius, the novel 
forms and effects that may be pro- 
duced shall seem to be beauties, 
which have merely been lying la- 
tent, and waiting for a discoverer 
to bring them to light. A style is 
to be judged of, not only retro- 
spectively by what it has produced, 
but prospectively also, according to 
what it is capable of supplying. 
Nevertheless, so far from being at 
all encouraged, such view of the 
subject is kept out of sight as much 
as possible ; and precedent is al- 


JACK, an instrument for raising a 
heavy weight through a short dis- 
tance ; it consists of a strong piece 
of wood, with an iron rack which is 
moved, by wheels fixed inside the 
wood, from a handle outside 

Jack, in navigation, a flag or colour ; 
a small union flag 

Jak wood, a native of India, is im- 
ported in logs from 3 ft. to 5 ft. 


lowed to usurp such sway, that any 
departure from it, no matter in 
what spirit, is liable to be con- 
founded with and reprobated as 
capricious innovation, although the 
one proceeds quite in an opposite 
direction to the other. 

Italian church (the), in the front or 
facade, is never true to the internal 
structure ; it is always divided into 
two apparent stories, by two heights 
of pillars, or pilasters, and by win- 
dows, or alcoves ; but the greater 
number of churches in Rome have 
the outward look of large dwelling- 
houses, a highly ornamented centre 
and wings less so, with two or three 
ranges of windows, not differing 
from a habitable house 

Ivory is first mentioned in the reign 
of Solomon : ivory was used in de- 
corating those boxes of perfumes 
whose odours were employed to 
exhilarate the king's spirits. It is 
probable that Solomon, who traded 
in India, first brought thence ele- 
phants and ivory into Judea. Ca- 
binets and wardrobes were orna- 
mented with ivory by marquetry- 
work. These were called ' houses 
of ivory/ "Eighty more chests of 
ivory, for your use and pleasure," 
are enumerated in the letter which 
accompanied the very remarkable 
tribute of the Ethiopian queen, 
Candace, to Alexander the Great. 

Ivory-black and bone-black, ivory and 
bone charred to blackness by strong 
heat in closed vessels ; if skilfully 
prepared, they are eligible for oil 
and water painting 


diameter; the grain is coarse and 
crooked: used in cabinet-work, 
marquetry, and turning, and also 
for brush-backs 

Jamb, in building, a supporter on 
either side, as the posts of a door 

Jambs, the side pieces of any open- 
ing in a wall, which bear the piece 
that discharges the superincumbent 
weight of such wall 




Janta, a machine extensively used 
in Bengal and other parts of India, 
to raise water for the irrigation of 
land. It consists of a hollow 
trough of wood, about 15 ft. long, 
6 inches wide, and 10 inches deep, 
and is placed on a horizontal heara 
lying on bamboos fixed in the bank 
of a pond or river : one end of the 
trough rests upon the bank, where 
a gutter is prepared to carry off the 
water, and the other end is dipped 
in the water by a man standing on 
a stage, plunging it in with his foot. 

Janua, among the Romans, the street- 
door of a private house 

Japanning, the art of painting and 
varnishing on wood, leather, metal* 
or paper, after the manner of the 

Jaune Minerale. This pigment is a 
chromate of lead, prepared in Paris. 
The chrome-yellows have obtained 
other names from places or per- 
sons from whence they have been 
brought, or by whom they have 
been prepared, such as Jaune de 
Cologne, &c. 

Jesse (the root of), a term applica- 
ble to the genealogy of Christ, as 
affording subjects for the painter, 
sculptor, or embroiderer 

Jet d'Eau, a French expression, sig- 
nifying a fountain that throws up 
water to some height in the air 

Jetty, a part of a building that pro- 
jects beyond the rest, and over- 
hangs the wall below, as the upper 
stories of timber-houses, bay-win- 
dows, pent-houses, small turrets at 
the corners, &c. 

Jetty, a projecting erection into the 
sea, partaking something of a pier, 
mostly constructed of timber, with 
open spaces for the sea to play 

Jewry, a district, street, or place or 
locality, in which Jews formerly 

Jib, the overhanging part of a crane, 
or a triangular frame with a pulley 
at the end, for the chain to pass 
over which leads from the crane 

Jib, in navigation, the foremost sail 
of a ship 


Jib-boom, a spar run out from the 

Jigger, a machine consisting of a piece 
of rope about 5 feet long, with a 
block at one end and a sheaf at the 
Other, used to hold on the cable 
when it is heaved into the ship by 
the revolution of the windlass 

Jigging, in Cornwall, a method of 
dressing the smaller copper and 
lead ores, by the motion of a wire 
sieve in a kieve or vat of water 

Joggle, a term in the business of ma- 
sonry, the art of joining and fitting 
the stones together 

Joinery, the art of joining, compre- 
hends all the fixed wood-work in- 
tended for ornament or convenience 
in the interior of a house 

Joint, the interstices between the 
stones or bricks in masonry and 
brick-work are so called 

Joists, in carpentry, the secondary 
beams of a floor; those pieces of 
timber framed into girders and 
summers, on which the boards of 
the floor are laid 

Journal, a bearing of a shaft when it 
is between the points where the 
powers and resistance are applied ; 
a bearing subject to torsion 

Jube, anciently, the rood-loft or gal- 
lery over the entrance into the 
choir of a cathedral or church 

Jugumentum, the lentil of a door 

Jumper, a long borer used by one 

Jumper wood, an aromatic and very 
durable kind of wood 

Junk -ring, a ring fitting a groove 
round a piston, to make it steam- 
tight. The ring is turned accu- 
rately to the diameter of the cylin- 
der, and slightly hammered all 
round on the inside to increase its 
elasticity ; it is then cut open, and 
put in its place : springs are some- 
times used for pressing it outward. 

Justice (Courts of). These places 
(according to Palladio) were an- 
ciently called basilicas, where the 
judges attended to administer jus- 
tice, and where, sometimes, great 
and important affairs were trans- 




acted : whence we read, that the 
tribunes of the people caused to be 
taken away a column that inter- 
rupted their benches, from the Ba- 


KAGE, anciently applied to chantry 
chapels enclosed with lattices or 

Kaolin, aluminous earth ; the porce- 
lain earth of the Chinese 

Kazer, in Cornwall, a sieve 

Kedging, in navigation, a term used 
when a vessel is brought up or 
down a narrow river or over a bar 

Keel, false, in ship-building, a strong 
thick piece of timber bolted to the 
bottom of the real keel, which is 
very useful in preserving it 

Keels, in navigation, small vessels that 
carry coals down the river Tyne 

Keelson, in ship-building, the piece 
of timber attached to a ship's keel 

Keep, the chief tower or dungeon of 
a Norman castle 

Keeping, in painting, is the observance 
of a due proportion in the general 
light and colouring of a picture, so 
that no part be too vivid or more 
glaring than another, but a proper 
harmony and gradation be evident 
in the whole performance 

Kept down is a term implying gloomi- 
ness of tint, or an object so shaded 
with fuscous colour that its form 
can scarcely be determined ; which 
object is not intended to be seen 
by the spectator until he has re- 
gularly observed all the other parts 
of the painting, but which is ne- 
cessary to the composition 

Kermes lake, an ancient pigment, per- 
haps the earliest of the European 
lakes : the name is probably derived 
from the alkermes of the Arabians, 
from Kerman, the ancient Carma- 
nia, on the borders of Persia 

Kerned, a term applied to a heap of 
mundic or copper ore hardened by 
lying exposed to the sun 

Ketch, in navigation, a vessel with 
with masts and sails 

Kevels, in ship-building, answer the 


silica Portia ; which was at Rome, 
near the temple of Romulus and 
Remus, and is now the church of 
St. Cosmus and Damianus. 


purpose of timber-heads, and are 
sometimes fixed to the spirketing 
on the quarter-deck, when the tim- 
ber-heads are deficient 

Key, a term applied to a painting 
when one object, generally the prin- 
cipal one, is so worked up to its 
proper tone, strength of colour, 
&c., that the painter is compelled 
to finish the whole piece in a mas- 
terly manner : this is said to have 
been the practice of Titian 

Key-grooving machine, a machine for 
cutting the grooves or key-ways in 
the boss of a wheel to be fixed on 
a shaft 

Key-screw, a lever used for turning 

Key-stone, the stone in an arch which 
is equally distant from its springing 
extremities. In a circular arch 
there will be two key-stones, one 
at the summit and the other at the 
bottom thereof: in semi-circular, 
semi-elliptical arches, &c., it is the 
highest stone, frequently sculp- 
tured on the face and return 

Kiabooca wood, or Amboyna wood, 
imported from Sincapore, is very 
ornamental, and is used for small 
boxes and writing-desks, and other 
ornamental works 

Kibbal, a bucket in which ore is raised 
from the mines 

Kieve, a vat or large iron-bound tub 
for washing of ores 

Kilkenny marble, a fine black marble, 
full of shells and corolloid bodies 

Killas, a clay slate occurring in dif- 
ferent parts of a mine 

Kil/epe, anciently a gutter, groove, or 

Kilogramme (pronounced Kilo), a 
French weight, equivalent to 2 fts. 
3 oz. 5 drs. 13 grs. avoirdupois 

King -at -arms, in heraldry, a principal 




officer at arms, of whom there are 
three : Garter, Norroy, ajid Claren- 

King-post, the middle post of a roof, 
standing in the tie-beam and reach- 
ing up to the ridge ; it is often 
formed into an octagonal column 
with capital and base, and small 
struts or braces, which are slightly 
curved, spreading from it above the 
capital to some other timbers 

Kingston's valve, a flat valve form- 
ing the outlet of the blow-off pipe 
of a marine engine : it opens from 
the side of the vessel by turning a 

King wood, called also violet wood, is 
imported from the Brazils : it has 
violet-streaked tints, and is used in 
turnery and small cabinet-work 

Kirk, church, a term still used in 
Scotland, formerly so in England 

Klinometer, or Climometer, an instru- 
ment contrived to measure the in- 
clinations of stratified rocks, the 
declivity of mountains, and the dip 
of mineral strata 

Knee, a term sometimes used for the 
return of the drip-stone at the 
spring of an arch 

Knees, in ship - building, are the 
crooked pieces of oak timber, or 
iron, which secure the beams to 
the side of the ship 

Knight-heads or bollard-timbers, the 
timbers on each side nearest the 
stern, and continued high enough 
to secure the bowsprit 

Knits, small particles of lead ore 

Knockings, lead ore with spar, as cut 
from the veins 

Knot or Knob, a boss; a round bunch 
of leaves or flowers, or other orna- 
ment of a similar kind 

Knuckle -timber, the foremost top 
timber in the ship that forms the 
buck-head; the timbers abaft it, 
as far as the angle is continued, 
may be called knuckle-timbers 

Krems, Crems, or Kremnitz white, 
a white carbonate of lead, named 
from Crems or Krems, in Austria ; 
also called Vienna white 

Kyanizing and Burnettizing. Kyan- 


izing is a simple process by means 
of w r hich timber, canvas, and cord- 
age, &c. may be preserved from 
the effect of dry-rot, and seasoned 
in a very short time. It was in- 
vented by Mr. Kyan, who obtained 
a patent for it, which was purchased 
by a company called the ' Anti- 
Dry-rot Company,' constituted and 
empowered by Act of Parliament. 

The timber is prepared as fol- 
lows : a wooden tank is put together 
so that no metal of any kind can 
come in contact with the solution 
when the tank is charged. 

The solution consists of corrosive 
sublimate and water, in the pro- 
portion of 1 tb. of corrosive subli- 
mate to 10 gallons of water as a 
maximum strength, and 1 ft. to 15 
gallons as a minimum, according to 
the porosity or absorption of the 
timber subjected to the process. 

Oak and fir timber absorb nearly 
alike, but the domestic woods, such 
as beech, poplar, elm, &c. are more 

An hydrometer will mark accu- 
rately the strength of the solution, 
waterbeing (vide diagram) ; then, 
when the hydrometer sinks to 6, 

- Water. 

lib. of cor. sub. to 
15 gal. of water. 


_ - 1 lb. to 10 gal. do. 

-- 1 ft. to 5 gal. do. 




it denotes that the solution con- 
tains lib. of sublimate to 15 gallons 
of water ; when it rises to 1 7, 1 ft. 
of sublimate to 5 gallons. 

As a general rule, when it stands 
midway between 5 and 10, the 
solution will be the proper strength. 
The corrosive sublimate will dis- 
solve best in tepid water. 

The period required for satu- 
rating timber depends on its thick- 
ness : 24 hours are required for 
each inch in thickness, for boards 
and small timbers. 

The timbers, after saturation, 
should be placed under a shed or 
cover from the sun and rain, to dry 

In about 14 days, deals andtimber 
not exceeding 3 inches in thickness 
will be perfectly dry and seasoned, 
and fit for use. Large timbers will 
require a proportionate time, ac- 
cording to their thickness. 

The solution may be used ad 
infinitum, as its strength is not 
diminished ; but it will be advisable 
to ascertain occasionally by the 
hydrometer that it contains the re- 
quired proportions of corrosive sub- 
limate and water. 

Professor Faraday and the late 
Dr. Birkbeck have, with many 
other scientific men, testified in the 
strongest manner to the efficacy of 
this solution. The former says, 
with respect to the penetration of 
the solution by steeping, without 
pressure, that it may be tested by 
the application of a drop of hydro- 
sulphuret of ammonia, which will 
turn black on meeting with the 

In the cube of elm, the corrosive 
sublimate may be traced by the 
above test to the depth of from 
to of an inch ; by the test of 
voltaic action, from f to 1 inch. 

In the cube of oak, with the same 
test, it was found at of an inch, 
but irregular, and apparently fol- 
lowed the fissures of the wood ; by 
voltaic action, not quite so far as 
in the elm. 


In the cube of fir, the penetra- 
tion was the least by the common 
test, -| to of an inch ; by voltaic 
action, ^ of an inch, the turpentine 
in the wood probably being the 
obstruction to penetration. 

From this testimony it is evident 
that when pressure is not used, the 
timber should be worked up into 
the form required before immersion. 

The patentees or company, who 
have also the means of saturating 
with hydraulic pressure at their 
establishment, similar to that at 
Portsmouth Dockyard, under Sir 
William Burnett's process, grant 
licenses at the rate of 5*. per cubic 
foot internal dimensions of the tank, 
and sell corrosive sublimate at 4s. 
per ft. 

Hft. is sufficient to saturate a 
load of timber of 50 cubic feet, at 
the rate of 1 ft. of sublimate to 15 
gallons of water. 

The process has been for several 
years extensively used for sleepers 
on railroads. 

Several of the sleepers on the 
South Western Railway, which had 
been subjected to this process, were 
taken up, owing to their being 
decayed, particularly in the chalk 
districts. It was, however, stated 
by the engineer that they had 
been steeped at the company's 
works in a hasty manner, and that 
he did not consider it conclusive 
against the process ; that he had 
never seen any wood decayed that 
had been steeped by the patentees. 
It is also said that neither Kyan's, 
Burnett's, nor Payne's process, can 
resist the combined effects of mois- 
ture and great heat, say 80 Fahr. 


Burnettizing is the process by 
means of which timber, felt, can- 
vas, cordage, cottons, and woollens, 
may be preserved from dry-rot, 
mildew, moth, and premature de- 
cay. It takes its name from its 
inventor, Sir William Burnett, M.D., 
K. C.B., F. R. S., of the Navy, who 
took out a patent for it in 1837. 




It consists in immersing the 
various substances above enume- 
rated in a solution of chloride of 
zinc and water in a wooden tank, 
in the proportion of 1 tb. of chlo- 
ride of zinc to 4 gallons of water 
for wood, and 1 tb. of the chloride 
to 5 gallons of water for the re- 
mainder of the articles, with the 
exception of felt, which requires 
1 ft. of the chloride to 2 gallons of 

Three-inch deals require to re- 
main in the tank or cistern six 
days, and all other woods in the 
same proportion, or two days per 
inch. They are then taken out and 
put under a shed, on their ends, to 
dry, and require for this purpose 
from fourteen days to three months, 
according to the thickness of the 
wood, when they are fit for use. 

The timber should be reduced to 
the scantling required for use before 
it is subjected to this process. 

Canvas, yarn for cordage, cottons, 
and woollens, require to be sus- 
pended in the solution for forty- 
eight hours. 

The process, however, with re- 
spect to timber, is much more ex- 
peditiously and effectively done by 
hydraulic pressure in Her Majesty's 
dockyard at Portsmouth, where 
large quantities of timber, &c., are 
prepared for the use of the Royal 
Navy at the various dockyards in 
England, particularly for ships' 

There is a large wrought-iron 
tank, 52 feet in length and 6 feet 
in diameter, with a door 2 feet 6 
inches x 2 feet at each end for 

Timber of all sizes and descrip- 
tions is put into this cylinder, which 
contains about twenty loads. As 
soon as it is filled, and the doors 
well secured both against external 
and internal pressure, the air is ex- 
hausted in the cylinder, and also in 
the timber, by means of an air- 
pump worked by a small rotatory 
engine of 10-horse power, on the 

Earl of Dundonald's principle, un- 
til the barometer stands at 27: 
the valve leading to the air-pump 
is then shut, and the cock of a pipe 
leading from the tank, filled with 
the solution, to the cylinder, is 
turned: the solution rushes into 
the cylinder to fill up the partial 
vacuum, and about half-fills it, when 
the cock is turned, and the air- 
pump again set to work until the 
barometer stands at 27i, when the 
same process is repeated, and the 
cylinder nearly filled with the so- 

A pressure of 150tbs. per square 
inch is then obtained by means of 
a Bramah forcing-pump, connected 
with an iron copper or reservoir, 
filled with the solution, and com- 
municating with the cylinder by 
means of a pipe. This is worked 
by hand until a valve placed on the 
top of the cylinder, and loaded to 
the required gauge, begins to lift. 

The timber is then left in the 
cylinder, subject to this pressure 
for eight hours, which is considered 
sufficient for the largest logs, even 
in a rough state. The solution 
being then drawn off into the tank 
and the timber taken out of the 
cylinder, it is re-loaded, and the 
process repeated: the same solu 
tion is used for two months, when 
fresh is prepared. 

The same process for drying the 
timber thus saturated is adopted 
as before stated. Canvas, felt, anc 
yarn, &c. are not subjected to 

The felt is used as a lining to th 
magazines of men-of-war, between 
two thicknesses of wood ; also to 
cover over the steam boilers o 
steam ships : it is said to be ren 
dered much less liable to combus 
tion by the process. 

It is stated that in tropical cli 
mates, more especially in Africa 
the saturated canvas has stood th 
climate, when the unprepared, unde 
similar circumstances, has rapid! 

219 L 5 




Both Burnettizing and Kyan- 
izing offer great advantages to the 
engineer : 

1st. Wood of every kind is ren- 
dered more durable, and is rapidly 

2ndly. It brings into general 
use larch, poplar, and a variety of 
other indigenous woods, as well as 
American pine, &c., which, with- 
out the process, from being liable 
to rapid decay, and being much 
inferior to Baltic timber, are sel- 
dom used in public buildings. 

To the military engineer, these 
inventions offer still greater advan- 
tages. He is frequently called on, 


LABURNUM, a small dark-greenish 
broom-wood, is sometimes used in 
ornamental cabinet-work 

Labyrinth, a series of hedges, mounds, 
or walls, with numerous winding 
passages; intricate and winding 
walks in a garden 

Lacing, a piece of compass or knee- 
timber, fayed to the back of the 
figure and the knee of the head 
of a ship, and bolted to each 

Lacker, a varnish applied upon tin, 
brass, and other metals, to preserve 
them from tarnishing, and to im- 
prove their colour 

Lac lake is prepared from lac, an 
Indian drug. It resembles cochi- 
neal and kermes, being the produc- 
tion of a species of insect. Its co- 
lour is rich, transparent, and deep, 
less brilliant, and more durable 
than those of cochineal and kermes, 
but inferior in both these respects 
to the colour of madder. 

Laconicum, among the ancients, the 
semicircular end of a bath ; a cir- 

" cular stove, for the purpose of 
heating the sudatories, or sweating- 
rooms of a bath : the use of the 
diy bath is said to have been pre- 
valent among the Lacedaemonians 

Lacquer. See Lacker. 

Lacunaria, the ceiling of the ambu- 


in distant colonies, to construct 
block-houses, stockades, bridges, 
and barracks, where the only ma- 
terial to be had in abundance is 
the tree standing in the forest : to 
him a few pounds of either ingre- 
dient would be invaluable, by en- 
abling him to season and render 
durable the timber a few days after 
it was cut down, and thus provide 
him with the ready means of ren- 
dering a distant post tenable in a 
short time by a small body of men, 
with the additional satisfaction of 
knowing that the work thus hastily 
erected would be found to be of a 
permanent nature. 


latory around the cella of a tem- 
ple or of the portico. The beams, 
which extended from the walls to 
the entablature, were intersected by 
others ranged longitudinally : the 
square spaces made by these inter- 
secting beams were contracted to- 
wards the top, and were sometimes 
closed with single stones, which 
might occasionally be removed. 

Lacunars, in architecture, are panels or 
coffers in the ceilings of apartments, 
and sometimes in the soffits of the 
corona of the Ionic, Corinthian, and 
Composite orders 

Lady-chapel, a chapel dedicated to the 
blessed Virgin 

Lake (colour), a name derived from the 
lac or lacca of India, is the cogno- 
men of a variety of transparent red 
and other pigments of great beauty, 
prepared for the most part by pre- 
cipitating coloured tinctures of dye- 
ing drugs upon alumine and other 
earths, &c. The lakes are hence a 
numerous class of pigments, both 
with respect to the variety of their 
appellations and the substances 
from which they are prepared. The 
colouring matter of common lake 
is Brazil wood, which affords a very 
fugitive colour. Superior red lakes 
are prepared from cochineal, lac, 




and kertnes ; but the best of all are 
those prepared from the root of the 
rubia tinctoria, or madder -plant. 
See Lac lake. 

Lama, in mining, slime or schelm 
Laminae, the extremely thin plates or 
layers of metal which compose the 
solid metal 

Laminable, a term applied to metal 
which maybe extended by passing it 
between steel or hardened (chilled) 
cast-iron rollers 

Laminated, disposed in layers or plates. 
When metal can be readily extended 
in all directions, under the ham- 
mer, it is said to be malleable, and 
when in fillets under the rolling- 
press, it is said to be laminable. 
Lamp-black is a smoke-black, being a 
soot of resinous woods obtained in 
the manufacturing of tar and tur- 
pentine. It is a pure carbonaceous 
substance of a fine texture, intensely 
black and perfectly durable, which 
works well, but dries badly in oil 
Lance wood, imported in long poles 
from 3 to 6 inches in diameter, 
from Cuba and Jamaica, is of a 
paler yellow than box wood : it is 
selected for elastic works, as gig 
shafts, archery bows and springs, 
surveyors' rods, billiard cues, &c. 
Landscape. In landscape we find Na- 
ture employing broken colours in 
enharmonic consonance and variety, 
and equally true to picturesque re- 
lations : she employs also broken 
forms and figures in conjoint har- 
mony with colours, occasionally 
throwing into the composition a 
regular form or a primary. 
Landscape Gardening. The outline 
of a wood may sometimes be great, 
and always beautiful, but the first 
requisite is irregularity. That a 
mixture of trees and underwood 
should form a long straight line, 
can never be natural; and a suc- 
cession of easy sweeps and gentle 
rounds, each a portion of a greater 
or less circle, composing altogether 
a line literally serpentine, is, if pos- 
sible, worse ; it is but a number of 
regularities put together in a disor- 


derly manner, and equally distant 
from the beautiful, both of art and 
of nature. 

The true beauty of an outline con- 
sists more in breaks than in sweeps ; 
rather in angles than rounds ; in 
variety, not in succession. The 
outline of a wood is a continued 
line, and small variations do not 
save it from the insipidity of same- 
ness : one deep recess, one bold 
prominence, has more effect than 
twenty little irregularities ; and that 
one divides the line into parts, but 
no breach is thereby made in its 
unity : a continuation of wood al- 
ways remains, the form of it only is 
altered, and the extent increased: 
the eye, which hurries to the ex- 
tremity of whatever is uniform, de 
lights to trace a varied line through 
all its intricacies, to pause from 
stage to stage, and so lengthen the 

The parts must not, however, on 
that account, be multiplied till they 
are too minute to be interesting, 
and so numerous as to create con- 
fusion : a few large parts should be 
more strongly distinguished in 
their forms, their directions, and 
their situations : each of these may 
afterwards be decorated with sub- 
ordinate varieties, and the mere 
growth of the plants will occasion 
some irregularity: on many occa- 
sions more will not be required. 
Every variety in the outline of a 
wood must be a prominence or a 
recess ; breadth in either is not so 
important as length to the one and 
depth to the other : if the former 
ends in an angle, or the latter di- 
minishes to a point, they have more 
force than a shallow dust or a 
dwarf excrescence, how wide so- 
ever : they are greater deviations 
from the continued line which they 
are intended to break, and their 
effect is to enlarge the wood it- 

Every variety of outline hitherto 
mentioned may be traced by the 
underwood alone; but frequently 




the same effects may be produced 
with more ease, and much more 
beauty, by a few trees standing out 
from the thicket, and belonging or 
seeming to belong to the wood, so 
as to make a part of its figure. 

The materials of natural land- 
scape are ground, wood, and water, 
to which man adds buil dings i and 
adapts them to the scene : it is 
therefore from the artificial con- 
siderations of utility, convenience, 
and propriety, that a place derives 
its real value in the eyes of a man 
of taste : he will discover graces 
and defects in every situation ; he 
will be as much delighted with a 
bed of flowers as with a forest 
thicket, and he will be as much 
disgusted by the fanciful affecta- 
tion of rude nature in tame scenery 
as by the trimness of spruce art in 
that which is wild. 

Landscape Painting. The best paint- 
ers in landscape have studied in 
Italy or France, where the verdure 
of England is unknown : hence 
arises the habit acquired by the 
connoisseur, of admiring the brown 
tints and arid foregrounds in the 
pictures of Claude and Poussin; and 
from this cause he prefers the 
bistre sketches to the green paint- 
ings of Gainsborough. One of our 
best landscape painters studied in 
Ireland, where the soil is not so 
yellow as in England ; and his pic- 
tures, however beautiful in design 
and composition, are always cold 
and chalky. Autumn is the fa- 
vourite season of study for land- 
scape painters, when all nature 
verges towards decay, when the 
foliage changes its vivid green to 
brown and orange, and the lawns 
put on their russet hue : but the 
tints and verdant colouring of 
spring and summer will have su- 
perior charms to those who de- 
light in the perfection of nature, 
without perhaps ever considering 
whether they are adapted to the 
painter's landscape. 

Land Steward. A person solely occu- 


pied in the management and culti- 
vation of an estate should see to 
the production, advancement, and 
value of the land ; should be well 
acquainted with the pursuits and 
interests of country life ; should un- 
derstand the qualities of the soil 
and the proper manuring of the 
same, as well as the different com- 
binations of sand, gravel, loam, 
clay, chalk ; he should be able to 
show what stock the pasture will 
maintain, what quantity of grain 
the arable land will produce, and 
what quantity of hay may be ex- 
pected from the meadows : with 
other requisite knowledge pertain- 
ing to farming, he will be able to 
form a fair estimate of the produce 
of the farm, to keep accounts, and 
ultimately acquire a taste for the 
erection of farm buildings and la- 
bourers' rural cottages, and also the 
arrangement of landscape, flower, 
and vegetable gardens. 

Laniard, in navigation, a stout piece 
of line or cord used to fasten and 
secure the shrouds, stays, or buoys 

Lantern, in architecture, a small struc- 
ture on the top of a dome or in 
similar situations for the admission 
of light, and the promotion of ven- 
tilation. It is generally made or- 
namental, arid was much used in 
Gothic and Tudor architecture. 

Lapidarius, a lapidary, a stone-cutter 

Lapis lazuli, a mineral which fur- 
nishes the valuable pigment called 

Lapis lydius, a variety of touch-stone ;. 
the schistose jasper of Brongniart r 
containing silica, iron, alumina, 
and charcoal 

Laque Miner ale is a French pigment, 
a species of chromic orange. This 
name is also given to orange oxide 
of iron. 

Larboard, in navigation, the left-hand 
side of a ship, standing with face to 
the head : now the word ' Port ' is 

Lardrose, a screen at the back of a 
seat behind an altar 

Later, a brick or tile. Besides the 




Greeks and Romans, other ancient 
nations employed brick for build- 
ing to a great extent, especially the 
Babylonians and Egyptians. 
Lathe, a machine for turning metals 
or wood by causing the material to 
revolve upon central points, and be 
cut by a tool fixed in a slide-rest, 
or held by hand. 

The lathe is very ancient, and 
seems to have been known to the 
Greeks and Romans, but, till within 
the last half century, was a very 
rough and almost powerless ma- 
chine compared with the elegant, 
very powerful, and well constructed 
machine now in use. It is used for 
turning either metal or timber, and 
varies in size and construction, ac- 
cording to the nature of the work 

The construction of the present 
lathe is as follows : a long frame, 
called the lathe-bed, having a per- 
fectly planed surface, and a slot or 
mortise from end to end, is fixed at 
each end upon two short standards, 
and upon one end of it a frame, 
called the head-stock or mandril- 
frame, is bolted: this frame carries 
the short shaft or mandril, upon 
which are the driving pulleys. The 
end of the mandril stands through 
the inner side of the frame, and is 
screwed so that a socket or centre 
chuck may be fixed on it: this 
chuck acts as a centre for the work 
to rest upon, and has a projecting 
arm or driver to carry it round with 
it. Another frame, called the back 
centre frame, capable of being fixed 
upon the lathe-bed at any distance 
from the front centre, has a cylin- 
der, with a pointed end or centre, 
at precisely the same height as the 
other, with two set-screws, one to 
adjust the centre piece, the other 
to fix it. The work is placed be- 
tween these two centres, and caused 
to revolve by a band passing over 
a pulley on the mandril, if the lathe 
is large, and by a treddle and band- 
wheel, if the lathe is small. 

In small lathes, the rest, upon 


which the tool is held, is fixed in 
a socket cast on a small slide by a 
set-screw: the slide is for adjust- 
ing its position, and is capable of 
being fixed at any part of the lathe- 
bed between the centres. 

In large lathes the slide-rest is 
always used. See Slide-rest. 

Lathe-bed, that part of a lathe on 
which the ' poppet-head ' slides 
forward or backward to its required 

Latitude, breadth, width, extent ; in 
geography, the distance, north or 
south, from the equator, a great 
circle, equally distant from the 
poles, dividing the globe into equal 
parts, north and south 

Latten, a mixed metal resembling 
brass. The monumental brasses in 
churches are called latten. 

Lattern-sail, in navigation, a long 
triangular sail used in xebecs, &c. 

Launders, in mining, tubes and gut- 
ters for the conveyance of water in 
mines, &c. 

Lavatory, a cistern or trough to wash 
in, used formerly in monasteries 

Laver, brazen. Moses was directed 
to make, among other articles of 
furniture, for the services of the ta- 
bernacle, a laver of brass, borne by 
four cherubim, standing upon bases 
or pedestals, mounted on brazen 
wheels, and having handles belong- 
to them, by means of which they 
might be drawn and conveyed from 
one place to another, as they should 
be wanted. These lavers were 
double, composed of a basin which 
received the water that fell from 
another square vessel above it, from 
which the water was drawn by cocks. 
The whole work was of brass : the 
square vessel was adorned with the 
heads of a lion, an ox, and a che- 
rub. Each of the lavers contained 
forty baths, or four bushels, forty- 
one pints, and forty cubic inches of 
Paris measure. 

Lay figure, a figure made of wood 
or cork, in imitation of the human 
body. It can be placed in any po- 
sition or attitude, and moves at 




every joint, on the principle of the 
ball and socket. It serves, when 
clothed, as a model for drapery 
and for fore-shortening. The dress 
of the person is generally placed on 
the lay-figure after the head is 
taken, by which the painter finishes 
his entire portrait at leisure, with- 
out requiring the person to sit. 

Lazaretto, an hospital ship for the 
reception of the sick 

Lead is a very heavy metal, suffici- 
ently well known. The mode of 
purifying it from the dross which 
is mixed with it, by subjecting it to 
a fierce flame, and melting off its 
scoria, furnishes several allusions 
in Scripture to God's purifying or 
punishing his people. It was one 
of the substances used for writing 
upon by the ancients 

Leader, a branch, rib, or string of ore, 
leading along to the lode 

Lead spar, sulphate of lead 

Leading springs, the springs fixed 
upon the leading axle-box of a lo- 
comotive engine, bearing the weight 

Leading wheels, the wheels of a loco- 
motive engine, which are placed 
before the driving wheels 

Leaf, a water-course, or level for 
conveyance of water 

Leaves, a term applied to window- 
shutters, the folding-doors of clo- 
sets, &c. 

Leaving (in Cornish), or casualties, 
in tin, is the same as hanaways of 
copper or lead ore 

Lectern or Lettern, the desk or stand 
on which the larger books used in 
the services of the Roman Catholic 
church are placed. In modern 
Protestant churches they are now 
often used, and are very ornamental 
in appearance, and far more ap- 
propriate than the cumbersome 
reading-desk. Lecterns are made 
sometimes of stone or marble, but 
usually of wood and brass, and 
generally are extremely well exe- 

Lectus, a bed or couch 

Ledger, a large flat stone laid over a 


tomb : horizontal timbers used in 
forming scaffolding are also called 

Ledyment, a string-course, or hori- 
zontal suite of mouldings, such as 
the base-mouldings of a building 

Lee, in navigation, the side opposite 
to the wind ; as the lee-shore is 
that on which the wind blows 

Lembus, according to Plautus, a skiff 
or small boat, used for carrying a 
person from a ship to the shore 

Lemon yellow, a beautiful light and 
vivid colour. In body and opacity 
it is nearly equal to Naples yellow 
and masticot, but much more pure 
and lucid in colour and tint, and at 
the same time not liable to change 
by damp, sulphurous or impure air, 
or by the action of light, or by the 
steel palette-knife, or by mixture 
of white lead or other pigments, 
either in water or oil. 

Levecel, anciently a pent-house, or a 
projecting roof over a window, 
door, &c. 

Level, an instrument for determining 
the heights of one place with re- 
spect to another 

Levelling, the art by which the rela- 
tive heights of any number of 
points are determined. 

The height of a point is the 
vertical distance to which it is ele- 
vated or depressed, as compared 
with the true general surface of 
the earth. 

The earth is in form a spheroid. 
On land we can nowhere trace its 
true geometric surface ; but the 
sea, when at rest, presents every 
where a very near approximation 
to it, and hence the level of the 
sea has been assumed as the stand- 
ard to which all heights are to be 

The absolute height, then, of any 
point is its vertical distance from 
the level of the sea : the relative 
height of two or more points, com- 
monly called their difference of 
level, is the difference of those ver- 
tical distances. 

A true level is anv surface or 




line which is parallel to the true 
geometric surface of the earth; 
every true level must, therefore, 
necessarily present a curve every 
where perpendicular to the direc- 
tion of gravity. It is a beautiful 
property of fluids that in every 
situation, when at rest, their sur- 
face will present a true level. 

All points situated within the 
same true level are evidently at the 
same height. 

One point is said to be higher or 
lower than another, according as a 
true level traced through it passes 
above or below that point ; and 
the vertical distance at which it so 
passes is the measure of its relative 

In theory, levelling is extremely 
simple. It consists in tracing 
through space a series of level sur- 
faces, and finding their intersec- 
tions with vertical lines passing 
through the points whose relative 
height we wish to ascertain. 
Level, Road, a triangular frame of wood 
with a long straight base, and a 
plummet suspended by a thread 
from the vertex of the triangle. 
When the ground to which it is 
applied is level, the thread will co- 
incide with a line perpendicular to 
the base. 

A tool similar in principle to the 
above-mentioned is used by fitters, 
and is made of a plate of sheet- 
iron, two sides of which form a 
right angle, and the thread which 
suspends the plummet is parallel to 
the vertical side when the base is 

Level, Spirit, a glass tube, closed at 
the ends, and nearly filled with 
water or spirits, fixed in a piece of 
wood or metal, with a flat base, to 
which the tube is perfectly parallel. 
When placed upon a level surface, 
an air-bubble will be at the centre 
of the tube. 

Lever, the first mechanical power, 
being an inflexible straight bar, 
supported in a single point on a 
fulcrum or prop, called its centre 


of motion : it is used to elevate a 
great weight 

Lever-valve, a safety-valve kept in its 
seat by the pressure of a lever with 
an adjustable weight. In locomo- 
tive engines a spring is used at the 
end of the lever, instead of the 
weight ; and the pressure is regu- 
lated by a screw, and indicates on 
a brass plate. 

Levigation, the process of reducing 
hard bodies into subtile powder by 
grinding upon marble with a muller 

Lewis, an instrument used by masons 
for hoisting, consisting of thin 
wedges of iron, forming a dovetail, 
which is indented into a large stone 
for the purpose of moving it 

Ley, a standard of metal ; contents in 
pure metal 

Libella, a small balance ; a level used 
by carpenters and masons, to test 
flat surfaces 

Libra, a pound weight ; a balance, or 
a pair of scales : one of the twelve 
signs of the zodiac 

Library, a room or rooms appropri- 
ated for the arrangement and keep- 
ing of books, fitted up with shelves 
to hold them, or furniture called 
book-cases, to which shelves are af- 
fixed for the same purpose 

Lifts, in navigation, the ropes at the 
yard-arms, used to make the yards 
hang higher or lower, as required 

Lifting-gear, the apparatus for lifting 
the safety-valves from within a 
boiler : it consists of levers con- 
nected to the valve and to a screw 
workedby ahandle outside the boiler 

Light. The meteorological pheno- 
mena induced by the action of light 
are, chiefly, atmospheric refraction, 
i. e. the temperature of the different 
strata of the atmosphere ; the tints 
which at certain times spread over 
the disc of the sun, the moon, and 
the stars; the various aspects of 
the waters of the ocean, of seas, 
and of lakes; the Fata Morgana, 
the mirage, and all those varied 
optical appearances which both 
celestial and terrestrial objects pre- 
sent when seen through atmosphe- 




ric strata of different degrees of 

Light red is an ochre of a russet- 
orange hue ; principally valued for 
its tints. The common light red 
is hrown ochre burnt; but the prin- 
cipal yellow ochres afford this 
colour best ; and the brighter and 
better the yellow from which this 
pigment is prepared, the brighter 
will this red be, and the better 
flesh-tints will it afford with white. 

Lignum vitee, or Guaiacum, is a very 
hard and heavy wood, shipped from 
Cuba and other adjacent islands. 
When first cut, it is soft and easily 
worked; but it speedily becomes 
much harder on exposure to the 
air. It is cross-grained, covered 
with a smooth yellow sap, like box, 
almost as hard as the wood, which 
is of a dull brownish green, and 
contains a large quantity of the 
gum guaiacum, which is extracted 
for the purposes of medicine. The 
wood is used in machinery, and for 
rollers, presses, mills, pestles and 
mortars, sheaves for ships' blocks, 
skittle-balls, &c. 

Limber boards, short pieces of plank 
fitted from the limber strake to the 
keelson of a ship, butting at the 
sides of all the bulk-heads, that 
they may be easily taken up 

Limber strake, the strake of wood 
waleing nearest the keelson, from 
the upper side of which the depth 
in the hold of a vessel is measured 

Lime or Quicklime. When required 
perfectly pure, lime is obtained by 
heating to whiteness, in an open 
platinum crucible, precipitated car- 
bonate : most marbles yield it mo- 
derately pure ; but as prepared for 
ordinary purposes, by the calcina- 
tion of common limestone in a fur- 
nace with coal, it is far otherwise 

Limestone becomes lime on being de- 
prived of its carbonic acid and of 
the water it contains, whether hy- 
grometrically or in combination. 
The agent employed to effect this 
is heat. 

With the same heat, the calci- 


nation is effected with more ease 
and rapidity, in proportion as the 
stone is of a less compact texture 
than the smallness in bulk of the 
fragments into which it is reduced, 
or to its being impregnated with 
a certain degree of humidity. 

The contact of the air is not in- 
dispensable, but it exercises a useful 
influence, especially in regard to 
argillaceous limestone. Moreover, 
no limestone can be converted into 
lime in a vessel so close as to ren- 
der the escape of the carbonic acid 

Limestone which is pure, or 
nearly so, supports a white heat 
without inconvenience. Under the 
intense heat of the hydro-oxygen 
blow-pipe this substance affords the 
brilliant light, the beautiful appli- 
cation of which to the microscope 
is now so well known. The com- 
pound limestone, on the other hand, 
alloyed in the proportions necessary 
to form hydraulic or eminently 
hydraulic lime, fuses easily. Its 
calcination demands certain pre- 
cautions : the heat ought never to 
be pushed beyond the common red 
heat, the intensity being made up 
for by its duration. 

The compound limestone, when 
too much burnt, is heavy, compact, 
dark-coloured, covered with a kind 
of enamel, especially about the an- 
gular parts ; it slakes with great 
difficulty, and gives a lime carbon- 
ized and without energy: some- 
times it will not slake at all, but 
becomes reduced, after some days- 
exposure to the air, to a harsh 
powder altogether inert. 

The pure and compound lime- 
stones, when insufficiently burnt, 
either refuse to slake, or slake only 
partially, leaving a solid kernel, a 
kind of sub-carbonate with excess 
of base. 

The calcining of calcareous mi- 
nerals constitutes the art of the 
lime-burner. According to situa- 
tion, either fire-wood, fagots, brush- 
wood, turf, or coal is used. 




Lime-kilns of various kinds have 
have been suggested or tried. The 
forms of interior most generally 
adopted are, 1st, the upright rect- 
angular prism; 2nd, the cylin- 
der ; 3rd, the cylinder surmounted 
hy an erect cone slightly trun- 
cated ; 4th, a truncated inverted 
cone ; 5th, an ellipsoid of revo- 
lution variously curvated, or egg- 
shaped kiln. 

The rectangular kilns are in use 
in Nivernais, and in the south of 
France, in which are burnt, at the 
same time, limestone and bricks. 
The limestone occupies very nearly 
the lower half of the capacity. The 
upper is filled with bricks, or tiles, 
laid and packed edgewise. 

The cylindric kilns are princi- 
pally employed upon works which 
consume a large quantity of lime in 
a short time. They are termed 
'field-kilns;' their construction is 
expeditious and economical, but 
precarious. Above a pointed oven- 
shaped vault, is raised, in the form 
of a tower, a high stack of lime- 
stone, which is enclosed by a cur- 
tain of rammed earth, and supported 
outwardly by a coarse wattling, in 
which care is taken to leave an 
opening to introduce the fire be- 
neath the vault. 

The kilns of the third kind are 
constructed in a solid and durable 
manner, like the four-sided kilns : 
no bricks are burnt in these; the 
largest stones occupy the lower part 
of the cylinder ; the smaller pieces 
and fragments are thrown into the 
cone which surmounts it. 

The kilns of the fourth and fifth 
kind are specially intended for the 
burning with coal. 

The interior wall of the kiln is 
generally built with bricks, or other 
material unalterable by heat, ce- 
mented throughout a thickness of 
from 12 to 15 inches with a mix- 
ture of sand and refractory clay, 
beaten together. 

In the flare-kilns fed by logs or 
brush-wood, the charge always rests 


upon one or two vaults built up 
dry with the materials of the charge 
itself. Underneath these vaults 
a small fire is lighted, which is 
gradually increased as they retire, 
in proportion as the draught esta- 
blishes itself, and gains force. On 
reaching the exterior, the aperture 
at the eye of the kiln is suitably 
adjusted, and then kept constantly 
filled with the combustible. The 
air which rushes in carries the flame 
to a distance over every point of the 
vaults: it insinuates itself by the 
joints, and is not long in extending 
the incandescence by degrees to the 
highest parts. 

There are some kinds of stone 
which the fire, however well re- 
gulated, seizes suddenly, and causes 
to fly with detonation : they can- 
not, without the risk of spoiling 
the charge, be used for the con- 
struction of the vaults and piers in 
loading the kiln. In such a case, 
materials which are free from this 
inconvenience are employed. 

Practice can alone indicate the 
time proper for the calcination. It 
varies with a multitude of circum- 
stances, such as the more or less 
green, more or less dry quality of 
the wood; the direction of the 
wind, if it favour the draught, or 
otherwise, &c. The master-burners 
usually judge by the general settling 
of the charge, which varies from 
5- to ^. In a kiln of the capacity 
of from 211-8 to 264'75 cubic feet, 
the fire lasts from 100 to 150 hours. 

In the coal-kilns by slow heat, 
the stone and coal are mixed. Of 
all the methods of burning lime, 
this is certainly the most precarious 
and difficult ; more especially when 
applied to the argillaceous lime- 
stone. A mere change in the du- 
ration or intensity of the wind, any 
dilapidation of the interior wall of 
the kiln, a too great inequality in 
the size of the fragments, are so 
many causes which may retard or 
accelerate the draught, and occasion 
irregular movements in the descent 




of the materials, which become 
locked together, form a vault, and 
precipitate at one time the coal, and 
another the stone, upon the same 
point : hence an excess oFdeficiency 
in the calcination. 

Sometimes a kiln works perfectly 
well for many weeks, and then all 
at once gets out of order without 
any visible cause. A mere change 
in the quality of the coal is suf- 
ficient to lead the most experienced 
lime-burner into error. In a word, 
the calcination by means of coal, 
and the slow heat, is an affair of 
cautious investigation and prac- 

The capacity of a furnace con- 
tributes, no less than does its form, 
to an equable and proper calcina- 
tion. There are limits beyond 
which they cannot be enlarged 
without serious evils. 

The bulk of coal burnt to pro- 
duce a cubic foot of lime neces- 
sarily varies with the hardness of 
the limestone used, but within 
narrow limits. 

The calcination of limestones 
presents other important problems, 
which can only be solved by expe- 

Limes, hydraulic (artificial). Already 
the artificial limes have been ap- 
plied to a number of important 
works. In the canals ofSaint Martin 
and Saint Maur they have almost 
exclusively been used. Nearly a 
thousand cubic metres have been 
employed within five years at the 
harbour of Toulon. These limes 
have served for the fabrication of 
the mortar for the foundations of 
several bridges, and |their con- 
sumption is increasing daily in 
Paris and its environs. 

The artificial hydraulic limes are 
prepared by two methods : the most 
perfect, but also the most expen- 
sive, consists in mixing with rich 
lime, slaked in any way, a certain 
proportion of clay, and calcining 
the mixture : this is termed ' arti- 
ficial lime twice kilned.' 


By the second process, any very 
soft calcareous substance is sub- 
stituted for the lime (such, for ex- 
ample, as chalk, or the tufas), which 
it is easy to bruise and reduce to a 
paste with water. From this a 
great saving is derived, but at the 
same time an artificial lime, perhaps 
of not quite so excellent a quality 
as by the first process, in conse- 
quence of the rather less perfect 
amalgamation of the mixture. In 
fact, it is impossible, by mere me- 
chanical agency, to reduce calca- 
reous substances to the same degree 
of fineness as slaked lime. Never- 
theless, this second process is the 
more generally followed, and the 
results to which it leads become 
more and more satisfactory. 

By a proper regulation of the 
proportions, a degree of energy 
may be given to the factitious lime, 
which will render equal it if not 
superior to the natural hydraulic 

It is usual to take twenty parts of 
dry clay to eighty parts of very 
rich lime, or to one hundred and 
forty of carbonate of lime. But if the 
lime or its carbonate should already 
be at all mixed in the natural state, 
then fifteen parts of clay will be 
sufficient. Moreover, it is proper 
to determine the proportions for 
every locality. In fact, all clays 
do not resemble one another to such 
an extent as to admit of their 
being considered as identical: the 
finest and softest are the best. 

There is at Meudon, near Paris, 
a manufactory of artificial lime, set 
on foot by Messrs. Brian and St. 
Leger. The materials made use of 
are, the chalk of the country and 
the clay of Vaugirard, which is 
previously broken up into lumps of 
a moderate size. A millstone set 
up edgewise, and a strong wheel 
with spokes and felloes, firmly at- 
tached to a set of harrows and rakes, 
are set in movement by a two- 
horse gin, in a circular basin of 
about six feet and a half radius. 




In the middle of the basin is a 
pillar of masonry, on which turns 
the vertical arbor to which the 
whole system is fixed: into this 
basin, to which water is conveyed 
by means of a cock, four measures 
of chalk are successively thrown, 
and one measure of clay. After an 
hour and a half's working, about 
fifty-three cubic feet (English) of a 
thinpulp is obtained, whichis drawn 
off by means of a conduit, pierced 
horizontally on a level with the bot- 
tom of the basin. 

The fluid descends by its own 
weight ; first into one excavation, 
then into a second, then a third, 
and so on to a fourth or fifth. 
These excavations communicate 
with one another at top. When 
the first is full, the fresh liquid, as 
it arrives, as well as the super- 
natant fluids, flow over into the 
second excavation ; from the second 
into the third, and so on to the 
last, the clear water from which 
drains off into a cesspool. Other 
excavations, cut in steps like the 
preceding, serve to receive the 
fresh products of the work, whilst 
the material in the first series ac- 
quires the consistency necessary 
for moulding. The smaller the 
depth of the pans in relation to 
their superficies, the sooner is the 
above-mentioned consistency ob- 

The mass is now subdivided into 
solids of a regular form by means 
of a mould. This operation is 
executed with rapidity. A moulder, 
working by the piece, makes on an 
average five thousand prisms a day, 
which will measure 2 11 -8 cubic 
feet. These prisms are arranged 
on drying shelves, where in a short 
time they acquire the degree of 
desiccation and hardness proper for 
calcination. At Paris a mixture of 
coke and coal is employed, and 
the common mode of burning by 
slow heat rendered necessary by that 
kind of combustible. 

The artificial hydraulic limes are 


intended to supply the place of the 
natural ones in those countries 
where the argillaceous limestone 
is entirely wanting, and which are 
commonly sold in Paris. 

Lime-tree (the) is common in Europe, 
attains considerable size, is very 
light-coloured, fine and close in 
the grain, and is used in the con- 
struction of piano-fortes, harps, &c.: 
it is particularly suitable for carving, 
from its even texture and freedom 
from knots. The works of Gibbons 
at Windsor Castle, and St. Paul's, 
London, are of the lime-tree. 

Limning, a term formerly applied to 
portrait - painting, is drawing or 
painting the body and limbs of the 
human figure 

Linch-pin, the small pin in carts, &c., 
that is put at the ends of the axle- 
tree to confine the wheels on them 

Linear perspective is that which de- 
scribes or represents the position, 
magnitude, form, &c. of the se- 
veral lines or contours of objects, 
and expresses their diminution, in 
proportion to their distance from 
the eye 

Link-motion, a new apparatus for re- 
versing steam engines : it is used in 
locomotive engines instead of the 
reversing forks, and consists of a 
link with a slot from end to end, 
into which a guide-block fits, and 
is connected to the slide-valve rod : 
the rods of the two eccentrics are 
connected one to each end of the 
link, which is raised or lowered, or 
held in a central position by appa- 
ratus attached to the centre of it, 
moved by the reversing lever. 
When the link is in a central po- 
sition with regard to the slide- 
valve rod, the guide-block remains 
stationary, as it is then at the centre 
upon which the link vibrates. When 
the link is up, the guide-block is at 
the lower end, and the slide receives 
motion from the backward eccen- 
tric. When the link is down, it 
receives motion from the forward 




Links, in locomotive engines, are flat 
or round pieces of iron with round 
holes at each end: they are used 
to connect together, by bolts, dif- 
ferent parts of the mechanism of 
the engine 

Lintel, a piece of timber or stone 
placed horizontally over a door- 
way or window, to support the 
superincumbent weight 

Lintel. " And ye shall take a bunch 
of hyssop, and dip it in the blood 
that is in the basin, and strike the 
lintel and the two side-posts with 
the blood that is in the basin ; and 
none of you shall go out at the 
door of his house until the morn- 
ing." Exodus xii. 22. 

Liquid rubiate, or Liquid madder lake, 
is a concentrated tincture of mad- 
der, of the most beautiful and per- 
fect rose colour and transparency. 
It is used as a water colour only in 
its simple state, diluted with pure 
water, with or without gum ; it 
dries in oil, by acting as a dryer 
to it. Mixed or ground with all 
other madder colours, with or with- 
out gum, it forms combinations 
which work freely in simple water, 
and produce the most beautiful and 
permanent effects. 

Lithography, the art of drawing on 
and engraving on stone, and taking 
impressions from the same at press, 
similarly to copper-plate printing, 
but differing in manipulation 

Little winds, in mining, an under- 
ground shaft, sunk from the hori- 
zontal drift, by which the top of 
the winds communicates with the 
side or bottom of the great work- 

Load water-line, the mark on a ship 
which the water makes when she 
is loaded 

Loam, a natural mixture of sand and 
clay : in the neighbourhood of 
London, loam consists of fine red- 
dish-gray sand 87 parts, allumina 
13 parts = 100 

Local colours are such as faithfully 
imitate those of a particular object, 
or such as are natural and proper 


for each particular object in a pic- 
ture ; and colour is distinguished 
by the term trial, because the place 
it fills requires that particular co- 
lour, in order to give a greater 
character of truth to the several 
colours around it 

Lock, a mechanical contrivance to 
fasten a door, gate, or any place or 
thing for security. A vast deal of 
ingenuity has been exercised to 
prevent false openings : keys of va- 
rious kinds are made to fit the 
wards (interior contrivances), and 
prevent what is called picking, the 
key being made only to suit that 
belonging to the possessor. 

Lock, in inland navigation, a portion 
of a canal confined between a sluice- 
gate and a flood-gate, to facilitate 
the passage of boats in ascending 
or descending planes 

Lockrand, a course of bond stones, or 
a bonding course, in masonry 

Locks for canal and river navigation. 
The earliest approximation to what 
is now known by the name of lock 
consisted of a simple dam formed 
across the bed of a river, so as to 
raise the water to such a height as 
to allow vessels to float along it. 
Where the river had a considerable 
fall with a strong current, it was 
necessary to have these dams at 
short distances from each other, 
otherwise the requisite depth of 
water could not be obtained. As 
the whole space between two of 
these dams was in fact the lock, 
it was necessary, in passing from 
one level to another, to run down 
the water for the whole of that 
distance, thereby causing consider- 
able delay, and a waste of water 
that would now be considered a 
serious evil. In China these dams 
are common, and they have also 
been used on the Continent. 

Lock with a double set of gates, but 
no chamber walls, are now of ordi- 
nary construction. The evils at- 
tendant on the dams formerly 
constructed were in a great mea- 
sure removed by the introduction 




of double sets of gates or sluices ; 
the upper set being constructed so 
near to the lower as only to leave 
room enough for the vessel or ves- 
sels to float between them. Framed 
gates were also used instead of se- 
parate beams and planks, because 
the space to be emptied or filled 
was so small that a very short time 
was required to pass the water, 
and there was no stream of suffi- 
cient strength to prevent their 
being easily opened. Where these 
locks are intended for rivers, it is 
usual to make a side cut or arti- 
ficial canal for the purposes of the 
navigation, and to leave the river 
course for the passage of the sur- 
plus water. A quick bend of the 
river is generally chosen for one of 
these cuts; and to keep the water 
in the upper part of the river to a 
sufficient height for navigation, a 
dam or weir is made across the old 
river course at or below the point 
where the artificial cut quits it. 
The lock is then built at the most 
convenient part of the cut, and its 
fall made equal to the difference in 
the levels of the water at the top 
and at the bottom of the dam or 
weir. When a vessel is going up 
the river, she floats along the cut, 
and passes between the lower gates 
into the lock ; the lower gates are 
then closed, and the valves or 
paddles of the upper gates being 
opened, the water flows into the 
lock, and rises to the level of the 
upper part of the river ; the upper 
gates are then opened, and the 
vessel floats out of the lock. The 
reverse of this operation conducts 
a vessel down the river. 

The abutments for the gates have 
been made of timber, brick-work, 
and masonry; but when the double 
set of gates was first introduced, it 
was usual to leave the space be- 
tween the upper and lower gates 
unprotected by either timber or 
any kind of building. Of course 
the agitation of the water in the 
lock was constantly washing away 


the earthen banks, thereby causing 
a risk of their being broken down 
by such continued weakening ; and 
by enlarging the space between the 
two sets of gates, it occasioned a 
loss of time in emptying and filling, 
as well as a waste of water. 
Lock (common modern canal). The 
difference of altitude between the 
upper and lower levels, where the 
locks are constructed, varies ac- 
cording to local circumstances. 
Where the ground is longitudinally 
steep and water plentiful, the locks 
are generally made of greater lift 
or fall than where the ground is 
comparatively flat and water scarce. 
It is evident, that where the super- 
ficial area of locks is the same, one 
having a rise of 12 feet would re- 
quire twice the quantity of water 
to fill it that would be requisite for 
one of 6 feet. Having many locks, 
however, of small lifts instead of a 
few of greater, increases the ex- 
pense, as well as the time for pass- 
ing them. 

For narrow canals these locks 
are generally made about 80 feet 
long, and 7 to 8 feet wide in the 
chamber. On the Caledonian canal 
they are 180 feet long, 40 feet wide, 
and 30 feet deep. Locks are also 
constructed of every intermediate 

Lock-gates have till lately been 
made of timber; but in consequence 
of the difficulty of procuring it of 
sufficient size for those on the 
Caledonian canal, cast iron was 
partially adopted for the heads, 
heels, and ribs. Iron gates, cast in 
one piece, have been used on the 
Ellesmere canal, as well as others 
with cast-iron framing and timber 

Locks with side ponds. When water 
is scarce, it is common to construct 
side ponds, by which a considerable 
portion (in general one -half) is 
saved. The usual number of these 
ponds is two ; for it has been de- 
termined by experience, that when 
a greater number has been made 




use of, the loss occasioned by leak- 
age and evaporation has sometimes 
been more than equal to the ad- 
ditional quantity of water thus re- 

Locks for the transit of vessels of 
different sizes. Where vessels of 
different sizes have to pass the 
same locks, three pairs of gates are 
sometimes placed instead of two, 
the distance between the upper 
and lower pairs being sufficient to 
admit the largest vessels, and that 
between the upper and middle pairs 
being adapted to the smaller class. 
By this contrivance, when a small 
vessel is to be passed through, the 
lowest pair of gates is not used ; and 
when a large vessel goes through, 
the middle pair of gates is not 
worked. Thus it is evident that 
the quantity of water contained 
between the middle and lower pair 
of gates is saved when a small ves- 
sel passes, compared with what 
would be required were the middle 
set of gates omitted. 

Locks (parallel double - transit}. 
Where the transit is great, much 
time and water may be saved by a 
double-transit lock, which is two 
locks placed close to arid parallel 
with each other, with a communi- 
cation between them, which can be 
opened or cut off at pleasure by 
valves or paddles. 

As one of these locks is kept full 
and the other empty, a vessel in 
descending floats into the full one : 
the upper gates are then closed, 
and the water is run, by means of 
the connecting culvert, into the 
empty lock (the gates of which 
were previously closed), till the 
water in the two locks is on the 
same level, which will be when 
each is half-full : the connecting 
paddles are then closed, and the 
remaining half of the water in the 
descending lock is run into the 
lower canal. The next descending 
vessel has to be floated into the 
lock which remains half-filled, and 
which consequently requires only 

half a lock of water to be run from 
the upper pond to raise it to the 
proper level, and then that half is 
transferred to the lock previously 
used, to serve the next descending 
vessel; but supposing a vessel to 
be ascending after the first descent, 
it will enter the empty lock, and 
receive a quarter-lock of water from 
that which remained half-filled : of 
course, three-quarters of a lock of 
water is now required from the 
upper canal to complete the filling. 
If a descending vessel next follows, 
it enters the full lock, and its water 
is run into the lock which was 
previously left a quarter-full; and 
when both have arrived at the same 
level, it is evident they will be each 
five-eighths full, and the succeeding 
descending vessel will require only 
three-eighths of a lock of water 
from the upper pond or canal. 
From these observations, it will be 
seen that the double -transit lock 
saves nearly one-half of the water 
which a common single lock would 

Sometimes the two parallel locks 
are made of different sizes, to suit 
the various descriptions of vessels 
that may have to pass. 
Locks connected longitudinally, com- 
monly called a Chain of Locks. 
When loss of water is of no conse- 
quence, a considerable expense is 
sometimes saved by placing the 
locks close together, without any 
intermediate pond ; for by passing 
from one immediately into the 
other, there is only required one 
pair of gates more than the number 
of locks so connected, besides a 
proportionate saving of masonry. 
Thus, eight connected locks would 
only require nine pairs of gates ; 
whilst, if they were detached, they 
would require sixteen pairs. But 
to show that these cannot be adopt- 
ed with propriety excepting where 
water is abundant, it is necessary 
to observe, that every two alternate 
ascending and descending vessels 
will require as many locks-full of 




water as there are locks: for in- 
stance, if a vessel has just ascended, 
it has left all the locks full ; a de- 
scending vessel then enters the 
upper lock, and when its gates are 
closed, the water is run down ; but 
all the locks below being previously 
filled, they cannot contain it, and 
it consequently passes over the 
gates or weirs of all of them into 
the lower canal : the vessel has by 
this means descended to the level of 
the second lock, the water in which 
must abo be run into the lower 
canal, for the same reason as al- 
ready stated. When the water of 
all the locks has thus been run 
down, an ascending vessel will re- 
quire all these locks to be filled 
from the upper canal, which, how- 
ever, will be retained in the locks 
ready for the succeeding vessel to 
pass down. From this it will be 
evident, that where eight locks 
are connected, a descending vessel 
draws no water from the upper 
canal, because the locks are pre- 
viously all filled, but it empties 
eight locks of water into the lower 
canal : an ascending vessel, on the 
contrary, empties no water into 
the lower canal, because all the 
locks were previously emptied, but 
it draws eight locks-full from the 
upper canal, in order to fill them : 
consequently, the passing of one 
ascending vessel, and one descend- 
ing, requires eight locks -full of 

Other modes of passing vessels 
from one level to another, by sub- 
stituting machinery, either wholly 
or in part, have been adopted ; but 
these have either failed entirely, or 
have not been brought into general 

Locomotive Steam Engines, a class of 
travelling machines adapted either 
for railways or common roads, 
were originally designed for the 
latter, but did not succeed; and 
roads were then made for them, 
called railways, on which they have 
been most successful. The principle 


of action being the same in both 
kinds, a description of the railway 
variety will explain the manner in 
which progressive motion is obtain- 
ed by the agency of steam. 

Locomotion or progression is the 
combined effect of a number of 
parts in each engine performing 
separate duties. The principal of 
these parts and the plan of their 
co-operation may be thus classed : 
1st. The parts which generate the 

2nd. The parts which regulate the 

employment of the steam. 
3rd. The parts by which the driver 
controls the action of the engine. 
4th. The parts immediately con- 
cerned in producing locomotion. 
5th, The parts which excite the 

rapid combustion of the fueL 
6th. The parts which supply water 

to the boiler. 
7th. The parts which support the 

engine on the rails. 
8th. The manner in which loco- 
motion is produced by these parts. 
In explaining them and their 
effect as thus arranged, we have 

1st, The parts which generate 
the steam, called the boiler, con- 
taining internally a fire-box,varying 
according to the dimensions of the 
engine from 25 (as in the 'Rocket') 
to 303 small tubes (as in the broad- 
gauge engines), a regulator, and 
a steam-pipe. Externally, a chim- 
ney and two safety-valves are fixed 
to the boiler. 

2ndly, The parts which regulate 
the employment of the steam are, two 
slide-valves (covering the passages 
to andfromthe cylinders), attached 
to two sets of 'valve-gear,' worked 
by two eccentrics for the 'forward* 
and two other eccentrics for the 
'backward' motion of the engine ; 
but only two of them work at one 
time, the other two being what i 
called * out of gear.' Four rods 
called eccentric-rods, encircling the 
eccentric-sheaves at one end, and 
jointed to the slide-valve gear at 
the other end, complete the con- 




nection of the slide-valves to the 
eccentrics fixed on the axle of the 
driving wheels. 

3rdiy, The parts by which the dri- 
ver controls the action of the engine 
are, three sets of levers and rods 
connected to the slide-valve, eccen- 
tric-rods, regulator-valves, andfeed- 
pipe cocks, whereby he can ' put 
on' or ' shut off' steam to the cy- 
linders, water to the boiler, or 
place the slide-valves in a ' for- 
ward' or 'backward' position at 
his pleasure. These arrangements 
are usually called the ' hand-gear. ' 

4thly, The parts immediately con- 
cerned in producing locomotion 
are, two cylinders, on which work 
two steam-tight pistons, fixed on 
the end of the piston-rods. On the 
open end of the piston-rods are 
also fixed T- pieces, called cross- 
heads, which slide between or 
round guide-bars, called motion- 
bars, fixed parallel with the cylin- 
ders. By this means the pistons 
can only move in a right line with 
the cylinders. Two strong rods, 
called connecting-rods, attach the 
cross-heads to the driving wheels, 
or to a cranked axle when there is 
one used. "Whether the pistons 
are connected to a cranked axle or 
to the arms of the driving wheels, 
this connection is always made at 
an angle of 45 degrees to each 
other ; therefore the one piston is 
in the centre of the cylinder exert- 
ing its greatest power during that 
part of the stroke when the other 
piston is at the end of the cylinder 
exerting no power. (This excel- 
lent arrangement was amongst the 
first improvements introduced by 
the late Mr. G. Stephenson, in 
1814, who thus placed the locomo- 
tive in the same high position, as to 
efficiency, as was previously done 
for fixed engines by Watt.) The 
connection being thus completed 
between the pistons and the driv- 
ing wheels, it is evident that any 
movement of the one must imme- 
diately act upon the other. 


5thly, The parts which excite the 
rapid combustion of the fuel re- 
quired in locomotive engines are, 
the chimney and a pipe called the 
blast-pipe, so made as to cover the 
exhausting passages from both cy- 
linders, and terminating in the 
centre of the chimney, near the 
level of the top of the boiler. It 
is the escape through this pipe of 
each succeeding cylinder-full of 
steam, or that portion of it allowed 
to escape by the slide-valves, which 
causes the 'beats' or 'pulsations' 
so distinctly audible when the 
locomotive is at work. 

6thly, The parts which supply 
water to the boiler are, two force- 
pumps, connected by two feed- 
pumps to the boiler, and to a re- 
servoir of water. The pumps are 
worked either from the cross-head, 
or from eccentrics on the axle of the 
driving wheels. 

7thly, The parts which support 
the engine are, 2, 4 or 6 wheels, 
besides the driving wheels, a set of 
springs, and a strong frame on 
which the boiler and machinery are 
securely fixed. 

Sthly, The manner in which lo- 
comotion is produced from the co- 
operation of these several parts is 
as follows. The boiler is filled 
with water until it completely sur- 
rounds all the tubes and inside fire- 
box. Fire is then applied, and in 
due time steam is generated from 
the water and collected between 
the surface of the water and the 
top of the boiler, until it has 
reached the pressure required. On 
the regulator being then opened, 
and the slide-valves placed in their 
working position by the driver, the 
steam passes from the boiler through 
the steam-pipe to the cylinders, 
where its force moves the pistons, 
which, being attached to the driv- 
ing wheels (as has been explained), 
causes them to revolve, and thus 
produces locomotion. The slide- 
valves and pumps being wrought 
from some part set in motion by 




the piston, regulate the admission 
of steam to the cylinder, and of 
water to the boiler. When the 
steam has moved the piston to the 
end of the cylinder, a passage is 
opened for its escape to the atmo- 
sphere through the blast-pipe, and 
the velocity of this escaping steam 
creates a partial vacuum in the 
chimney, causing a rush or ' blast ' 
of air through the fire to fill this 
vacuum ; which blast excites the 
rapid combustion of the fuel, and 
consequent rapid generation of 
steam. This completes the duties 
of one admission of steam to the 
cylinders, until its escape to the 
atmosphere ; and when this escape 
has taken place, another admission 
of steam, to the opposite side of 
the piston, forces it back to the 
other end of the cylinder ; and by 
the medium of the crank, the re- 
ciprocating motion of the piston is 
converted into a rotatory one, and 
the locomotion begun by the first 
admission of steam to the cylinders 
is continued by the second and 
succeeding admissions. 

The repetition of these simple 
operations has amazed and gratified 
the world, by safely conveying 
heavy passenger trains at upwards 
of 70 miles an hour, and merchan- 
dise trains of 600 tons weight, at 
25 miles per hour ! the mere idea 
of which, not many years since, 
would have been regarded as purely 

Such is the modern railway loco- 
motive, an illustrative example of 
the genius of man ; but, like other 
important inventions, it is the 
joint production of many minds, 
and many more are still directed 
to its further improvement. The 
records of the Patent Office show, 
that from January, 1840, to the 
end of September, 1849, no less 
than 226 patents were enrolled, all 
of them more or less applicable 
to the steam engine and its ap- 
pendages. Of these 226 patents, 
45 were enrolled during the first 


nine months of 1849. It has been 
remarked that steam engines and 
railways were too matter-of-fact 
subjects for poets and painters; but 
from the above record it is evident 
that they deeply impress them- 
selves upon the inventive intellect 
of the world ; and if the prodigies 
performed by steam remain un- 
sung or unportrayed, they dare, if 
not realize, the very sublimity of 
both poetry and painting ; for what 
more interesting scene to delineate 
than one of these stately machines 
moving safely along, at eagle-speed, 
the very elite of the land, (including 
even the Royal Family,) through 
districts rich in the historical as- 
sociations of past ages, and still 
teeming with the works of nature 
and of art ! Surely it cannot be 
that the subject is too lofty a one 
for poetical or pictorial illustration, 
for in greatness of idea lies the 
success of both. 

A brief review of the progress of 
locomotive engines is all that can 
be here given. It is now (1849) 
about 2000 years since the powers 
of steam were recorded by Hero of 
Alexandria, but it is only 200 years 
(in 1650) since it was first usefully 
employed by the Marquis of Wor- 
cester. The first idea of using it 
for propelling carriages is generally 
ascribed to Dr. Robison, in 1759, 
when it was suggested by him to 
Watt, who included a steam carriage 
in his patents of 1769 and 1784, but 
never carried them out. In 1786, 
Oliver Evans, of Philadelphia, had 
clear perceptions of the advantages 
of applying steam to waggons, 
boats, and mills ; but the want of 
friends and means compelled him 
to confine his exertions to steam 
mills. From 1802 to 1805, Trevi- 
thick applied steam carriages to 
both common roads and railways, 
with considerable success for first 
experiments ; and his engine, with 
Stephenson's improvements, is now 
the modern locomotive. About the 
year 1803, it appears that a Mr. 




Fredericks also made a steam en- 
gine for a silver mine in Hanover, 
which, in 1811, was employed to 
convey their Majesties and suite of 
Westphalia over the mineral rail- 
way at considerable speed. This 
was probahly the first royal trip on 
a railway. From 1805 up to 1814, 
invention was directed to insure 
the adhesion of the wheels upon 
the rails; and many ingenious plans 
were tried, some of which succeeded 
well at slow speeds, but were not 
calculated for high velocities. In 
1814, however, Mr. Blackett, of 
the Wylam Railway, reverting to 
Trevithick's plan, fully established 
the FACT, that on a level, or mo- 
derately inclined railway, the ad- 
hesion of a smooth iron wheel upon 
a smooth iron rail was sufficient 
to draw heavy loads. He tried both 
six and eight wheeled engines. In 
1814, Mr. Stephenson introduced 
two cylinders, or two complete 
steam engines, to one locomotive. 
From this time up to 1829, the 
powerful opposition of the owners 
of other modes of conveyance 
greatly retarded the progress of 
the locomotive engine ; and so 
strong was the feeling that they 
were not economical, that both 
Mr. Walker and Mr. Rastrick re- 
ported against them, in 1829. 
These reports, and one of a doubt- 
ful character by Telford, led to the 
offer of a prize of 500, in 1829, 
by the directors of the Liverpool 
and Manchester Railway, for the 
best locomotive engine, whose 
weight was not to exceed six tons. 
This proceeding gave an important 
impulse to locomotives, and ended 
in establishing their superiority 
over all other existing systems of 
travelling. Five competitors ap- 
peared, namely, Messrs. Stephen- 
son, Erickson, Hockworth, Burstal, 
and Brandreth. The machinery of 
the two last were not suitable, and 
did not proceed to trial. Mr. 
Stephenson's ' Rocket,' Mr. Erick- 
son's ' Novelty,' and Mr. Hock- 


worth's ' Sanspareil,' were all tried, 
and the prize was fairly won by the 
' Rocket,' which, after the trials 
were over, reached a speed of 35 
miles per hour, and the ' Novelty' 
about 24 miles per hour. 

The ' Rocket ' embraced the fire- 
box, tubes, and blast-pipe of the 
modern locomotive. 

The 'Novelty' embraced the 
plan now much used on short lines, 
of carrying engine, fuel, and water, 
all on one frame. 

The ' Sanspareil ' embraced the 
blast-pipe of the modern engine, 
with the single returned tube of the 
older locomotives. From this it 
will be seen that this competition 
at once brought put the leading 
features which have since rendered 
the locomotive engine so popular 
throughout the world. 

From 1830, upto the introduction 
of the 7-feet gauge on the Great 
Western Railway, in 1838, no 
marked improvement took place in 
the locomotive, but the rivalry 
which sprung up between the 
gauges served greatly to develop 
their capabilities. 

Engines of a novel construction, 
having the boiler on one frame, and 
the machinery on another frame, 
were tried on the Great Western 
Railway; also engines embracing 
Trevithick's plan of working the 
driving wheels by toothed wheels, 
fixed on a separate cranked axle, 
were tried, but all abandoned for 
engines modelled from one of 
Stephenson's ; and the last new 
Great Western engines only follow 
up his latest improvements and 
Gray's expansive slide-valve motion 
on a large scale. 

A number of patents have been 
enrolled for improving the loco- 
motive engine, but a few only have 
been reduced to practice. 

Amongst the more conspicuous 
of them are, Mr. Stephenson's im- 
provements in the slide-valve mo- 
tion ; Mr. Gray's expansive mo- 
tion ; Mr. Crampton's arrangement 




of wheels ; Mr. Bodmer's arrange- 
ment of four pistons in two cylin- 
ders; Mr. M'Connell's tank engine; 
Mr. Samuel's express engine ; and 
Mr. Adam's steam carriage. The 
improvements in the mechanism 
of the slide-valve motion, by Messrs. 
Stephenson and Gray, have been 
widely adopted. Mr. Crampton 
has engines of his plan at work 
both in England and on the Con- 
tinent, which enable high driving 
wheels to be used on the narrow 
gauge, without raising the centre 
of gravity. (For an illustration of 
these and other examples, see the 
new edition of ' Tredgold on the 
Steam Engine.') 

Mr. Bodmer's plan is to admit 
the steam between two pistons in 
one cylinder acting on two cranks, 
so as to compensate the strain on 
the frame and machinery. His 
engines work steadily, and are in- 
genious in construction. 

The Tank engine carries on the 
Bame frame water and fuel, its tank 
for water being placed on the top 
of the boiler. This is the plan 
adopted on the Great Western Rail- 
way ; but on narrow-gauge lines 
the tank is usually placed below 
the boiler and framing, a better 
arrangement, where the machinery 
permits it to be done. 

Mr. Samuel's express engine 
weighed only 25 cwt., and con- 
veyed seven passengers at the rate 
of 30 miles per hour on the Eastern 
Counties Railway. 

Mr. Adam's steam carriage is on 
this plan, with a very handsome 
carriage for passengers, all on one 
frame, and has been tried on some 
of the branch railways of both 

Having thus briefly glanced at the 
progress of the locomotive engine, 
it only remains as briefly to notice 
some important discussions which 
have agitated the mechanical world 
regarding them. 

From the earliest introduction of 
1 ocomotives, four, six, or eight wheels 


appear to have been used, according 
to the designs of the makers ; but 
about 1840-1-2, an animated dis- 
cussion of the respective merits of 
the four and six wheeled engines was 
carried on in the columns of the 
railway press. Both classes have 
their merits, and both classes had 
able advocates, but public opinion 
evidently tended in favour of the 
six-wheeled engine as the safer of 
the two under all contingencies : 
hence the greater proportion of the 
present locomotives have six wheels. 

The gauge controversy of 1845- 
6-7-8 led to the re-introduction of 
eight -wheeled engines on both 
gauges, weighing about 36 tons 
each, which realized speeds of about 
sixty and seventy miles per hour. 
The weight of these monster en- 
gines, it will be observed, is more 
than eight times that of the 'Rocket' 
(4 tons), which won the prize in 
1829, whilst the speed is only twice 
that of the ' Rocket' (thirty-five 
miles) at that time. It is worthy 
of remark, that in 1829 the exist- 
ing engines of 10 to 16 tons were 
considered as far too heavy, and the 
Liverpool and Manchester directors 
bound competitors not to exceed six 
tons weight. In 1849, the same feel- 
ing prevailed, and the injury done 
to the railway by these 36 tons 
engines is much complained of, and 
tank engines and steam carriages 
embody this feeling in practice. 

A description of the locomotive 
can scarcely be closed without no- 
ticing the death of its great im- 
prover, Mr. G. Stephenson, who 
died in 1848, aged 68 years. 

He found the locomotive a very 
imperfect machine ; he left it in that 
efficient state that even the daring 
genius of a Brunei could only copy 
his plans for the 7-feet gauge. This 
is another testimony to that far- 
seeing intellect which so early 
grasped the principal requisites for 
an efficient locomotive, and whose 
genius coped with and overcame 
the leading engineers of England, 




in 1829, by establishing both loco- 
motives and the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway against all op- 
position, and from which sprung 
that system of railways which has 
added so immensely to the resources 
of the nation ay, of the world. 

Civil services, military services, 
naval sendees, and no services, have 
at all times been liberally reward- 
ed by the Crown and Legislature; 
but there are no such rewards, no 
ORDER OF MERIT for such men as 
Stephenson, Watt, Arkwright, &c., 
who are the mainstays of our pro- 
gress, our greatness, and our power. 
This is wrong very wrong, and 
ought to be amended. However, 
if the Crown forget, and the Legis- 
lature neglect such men, it is con- 
solatory to know, that their names 
will be embalmed in the hearts of 
the people, whilst the profligacy of 
honours and rewards to those hav- 
ing no real claim on the gratitude 
of the nation is universally con- 

Upon the Taunus Railway, an 
apparatus is in use, invented by 
Mr. Thorman, which, from its 
simplicity and efficiency, cannot 
easily be excelled. It is attached 
to the hinder part of the tender, 
and is used in case of emergency, 
as well as being constantly used 
when at the stations, where it is 
necessary to uncouple the engine 
and tender from the train, thereby 
saving great trouble, and with less 
danger to engine-men and fire-men, 
as they can disconnect at any speed 
or at any time, whether the engine 
and train are in motion or not. (For 
a better elucidation of this simple 
and ingenious contrivance, see 
Thorman's work on the ' Taunus 
Railway,' 4to, 1846.) 

Locker, a small closet or cupboard: 
lockers were used in churches to 
hold sacred relics 

Locust-tree (the) of North America is 
of a greenish yellow ; is tough and 
durable, and used for treenails for 
ships, for posts, stakes, paling, &c. 


Lode, a metallic vein 

Loft, a room in the roof of a build- 
ing ; a store-room in a theatre ; a 
depository for hay and corn in a 
stable : a music loft ; a singing loft ; 
a rood-loft in a church 

Lofty tin, rich, massive, and rough tin 

Log, in navigation, a small triangular 
piece of board balanced by a thin 
plate of lead so as to swim perpen- 
dicularly, and, being fixed to a bine, 
measures the ship's way 

Logarithms are the artificial numbers 
used to facilitate or abridge arith- 
metical calculations, and may be 
considered as expressing the rela- 
tion between an arithmetical and 
geometrical series of terms, or 
between ratios and the measures of 
ratios, and are the indices or ex- 
ponents of a series of numbers in 
geometrical progression. The ori- 
gin and nature of logarithms may 
be easily explained. 

In arithmetical series the quan- 
tities increase or decrease by the 
same difference, but in a geome- 
trical series they increase or dimi- 
nish by a common measure. The 
first of the following lines exhibits 
an arithmetical progression; all the 
other lines are examples of geome- 
trical progression. 
10, 1,2,3,4, 5, 6, 7,8,9. 
21, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 

31, 3, 9, 27, 81, 243, 729, 2187, 

6561, 25683. 
41, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000, &c. 

Here consider the upper line as 
the index to all the rest ; every 
term of it is the logarithm of a 
corresponding term in each of them ; 
and it is evident that an infini- 
tude of other lines, or any one of 
the same lines, varying the point 
of commencement, and containing 
numbers in geometrical progression , 
might be added, to all of which the 
same arithmetical series might fur- 
nish logarithms. 

Logeum, the pulpitum or wooden 
stage of a theatre, placed upon the 
proscenium or permanent stage. 




In the Greek theatre the pulpitum 
extended into the orchestra beyond 
the proscenium. 

Logwood, from Campeachy, Jamaica, 
Honduras, &c., is largely used as a 
purple or dark red dye-wood 
Lombardic Architecture, a style which 
immediately succeeded the decline 
of the Roman style 
Lombardic School of Painting. The 
distinguishing characteristics of this 
school are, grace, an agreeable taste 
for design, without great correc- 
tion, a mellowness of pencil, and 
a beautiful mixture of colours. An- 
tonio Allegri, called Correggio, was 
the father and the greatest orna- 
ment of this school : he began by 
imitating nature alone, but as he 
was chiefly delighted with the 
graceful, he was careful to purify 
his design; he made his figures 
elegant and large, and varied his 
outlines by frequent undulations, 
but was not always pure and cor- 
rect, though bold in his concep- 
tions. Correggio painted in oil, a 
kind of painting susceptible of the 
greatest delicacy and sweetness ; and 
as his character led him to cultivate 
the agreeable, he gave a pleasing, 
captivating tone to all his pictures. 

London and Nottingham whites. The 
best of these do not differ in any 
essential particulars materially, nor 
from the white leads of other ma- 
nufactories. The latter, being pre- 
pared from flake-white, is gene- 
rally the grayest of the two. The 
inferior white leads are adulterated 
with whiting or other substances, 
which injure them in body and 
brightness, dispose them to dry 
more slowly, to keep their place 
less firmly, and to discolour the oil 
with which they are applied. All 
the above are carbonates of lead, 
and liable to froth or bubble when 
used with aqueous, spiritous, or 
acid preparations. 

Longitude, length; the distance of 
any part of the earth, east or west, 
from London, or any other given 

269 M 3 

Long timbers, in ship-building, thos 
timbers in the cant bodies which 
reach from the dead-wood to th 
second futtock-head 
Loobs, tin slime or sludge 
Loof, in navigation, pronounced luff 
a term applied when a ship going 
large before the wind, is brough 
close by the wind ; to put the helm 
towards the lee -side 

Loop-hole, a narrow opening or cre- 
nelle used in the battlements of the 
castles of the early English 

Lord of the land or tree, in Cornwall 
the person in whose land the mine 
is ; therefore the part which he re- 
serves to himself for liberty to work 
a mine in his land is the one-sixth, 
one-seventh, one-eighth, or any 
other proportion, free of expense, 
and called the ' dues' dish' 

Louvre, a lantern ; a turret on the 
roof of an ancient hall or kitchen 
for the escape of smoke and for 
ventilation, now made an orna 
mental and pleasing object 

Lozenge, in geometry called a rhomb, 
and when the sides are unequal, a 
rhomboid ; in heraldry, a four-cor 
nered figure, resembling a pane of 
glass in old casements. 

Lozenge moulding, a name given to 
the Norman style of mouldings and 
ornaments, which are shaped like 

Lubricate, to make smooth or slippery 

Lubricator, an oil-cup or other con- 
trivance for supplying oil or grease 
to rubbing surfaces, in order to 
diminish friction 

Lucerna, an oil -lamp. The Greeks 
and Romans originally used can- 
dles; but in later times these 
were chiefly confined to the houses 
of the lower classes 

Lugsail, in navigation, a small sail 
hoisted occasionally on the mast 
of a boat or small vessel 

Lychnus, a lamp suspended, or a pen- 
dent light 

Lysis, some member above the corona 
of a podium, introduced in temples, 
and in the scene of a theatre 





MACHINES ORGANA, defined by Vi- 
truvius, in his 10th book, as con- 
trivances for the concentration and 
application of force, which are 
known by the names of instru- 
ments, mechanical powers, ma- 
chines, engines, &c. 
Machinery, a general term applied to 
mechanical combinations of parts 
for creating power, or producing 
works which may otherwise be, 
more or less perfectly, made with 
the hands. The first class of these 
combinations is -usually distin- 
guished by the name of engines ; 
the second, by that of machines. 

Engines, or machines for creat- 
ing or accumulating and applying 
power, are distinguished from each 
other according to the material 
employed in the creation of their 
power, as air-engines, water-en- 
gines, gas-engines, steam-engines, 
electric-engines, &c. 

Machines employed in the ma- 
nufacturing arts are named accord- 
ing to their .products, as lace-ma- 
chinery, rope-machinery, paper- 
machines ; or to the processes they 
perform, as spinning -machinery, 
printing -machinery, sawing-ma- 
chinery, &c. 

The materials of which machine- 
ry is composed are, wood of various 
kinds, iron, brass, copper, and 
other metals, with flexible materials 
for bands, cords, &c., as wool, 
caoutchouc, and leather. 

The several parts of machinery 
are, frames, plummer-blocks, car- 
riages, bolts and nuts, pins, shafts, 
wheels, pinions, levers, cranks, 
springs, screws, pulleys, riggers, 
bands or belts, and cords, &c., 
studs, tappets, wedges, rods, cylin- 
ders, tubes, pistons, valves, buckets, 
floats, weights, beams,racks, chains, 
clutches, winches, &c. 

The power of engines, as distin- 
guished from machines, depends 
upon the nature of the material 



from which their power is gathered. 
The mere mechanical effect of every 
piece of machinery is calculable 
upon its combinations of certain 
elementary forms, commonly term- 
ed the mechanical powers, with 
deductions from the effect of these 
for friction between the parts, for 
rigidity of parts which are theore- 
tically supposed to be perfectly 
flexible, and for the elasticity of 
parts which are supposed to be 
perfectly rigid. 

The mechanical powers, some- 
times described as six in number, 
viz. the lever, the wheel and axle, 
the pulley, the inclined plane, the 
wedge, and the screw, are reduci- 
ble to two only, viz. the lever and 
the inclined plane, in each of which 
the effect produced is just as many 
times greater than the power em- 
ployed, as the space through which 
the power moves is greater than 
the space through which the effect 
is continued. Thus, if with a lever 
a weight be raised ten times greater 
than the weight or power by which 
it is raised, this weight or power 
will have to move through ten 
times as much space as the height 
through which the greater weight 
is raised. 

Propriety of form in the detail 
of machinery depends upon two 
circumstances. The first is, that 
the parts subject to wear and tear, 
and influenced by strains, should be 
capable of motion or adjustment : 
the second, that every portion 
should be equally strong, and pre- 
sent to the eye a uniform figure, 
or one that is consistent with its 
degree of action : theory, practice, 
and taste, all must combine to 
produce such. A great extent 
of beauty is attainable in all the 
details, but mathematical reasons 
cannot be given why a certain 
arrangement of lines should be 
preferable to another, provided 




they are equally strong. Truth 
does not strike us without the as- 
sistance of custom ; but so great is 
the force of custom, that unassisted 
by truth it has worked the great- 
est miracles ; and it certainly must 
be this universal Mentor which 
gives us the power to choose be- 
tween forms. 

Macellum, a market-place for all kinds 
'of provisions 

Maceria, a rough wall 

Machicolations, openings formed for 
the purpose of defence at the top 
of castles and fortifications, by set- 
ting the parapet out on corbels, so 
as to project beyond the face of the 

Madder carmine, or Field's carmine, 
is, as its name expresses, prepared 
from madder. It differs from the 
rose lakes of madder principally in 
texture, and in the greater rich- 
ness, depth, and transparency of its 
colour, which is of various hues, 
from rose colour to crimson 

Madder orange, or Orange lake, is a 
madder lake of an orange hue, va- 
rying from yellow to rose colour 
and brown 

Madder purple, Purple rubiate, or 
Field's purple, is a very rich and 
deep carmine, prepared from mad- 
der. Though not a brilliant pur- 
ple, its richness, durability, trans- 
parency, and superiority of colour, 
have given it the preference to the 
purple of gold purple, and to burnt 

Madder yellow is a preparation from 
the madder root. The best is of a 
bright colour, resembling Indian 
yellow, but more powerful and 
transparent, though hardly equal 
to it in durability of hue ; metallic, 
terrene, and alkaline substances 
acting on and reddening it as they 
do gamboge : even alone, it has by 
time a natural tendency to change 
in appearance. 

Mamiana, seats in the upper porticoes 
of the Roman forum, from whence 
spectators witnessed the combats 
of gladiators 


Magnase black is the best of all 
blacks for drying in oil without ad- 
dition, or preparation of the oil : 
it is a colour of vast body and 
tingeing power 

Mahogany is a native of the "West 
Indies and the country round the 
Bay of Honduras. It is said to be 
of rapid growth, and so large that 
its trujik often exceeds 40 feet in 
length and 6 feet in diameter. 
Spanish mahogany is importedfrom 
Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, St. Do- 
mingo, and some other of the West 
India Islands, in logs from about 
20 to 26 inches square and 10 feet 
long. It is close-grained and hard. 
There is also African mahogany. 
All the species are used for many 
purposes, more particularly for su- 
perior household furniture. 

Main links, the links in the parallel 
motion which connect the piston- 
rod to the beam of a steam engine 

Malleable, in metallurgy, capable of 
being spread by heating or by 
rolling, a distinguishing character 
of metals, but more especially of 
gold. When flattened, it is said to 
be laminable ; when drawn as wire, 

Manacaybo is a furniture wood of 
moderate size, hard, as good as ma- 
hogany, and in appearance between 
that and tulip wood 

Manchineel, a large tree of the West 
Indies and South America : it 
possesses the general character of 
mahogany, but has a poisonous and 
unwholesome sap 

Mandril, the spindle which carries 
the centre-chuck of a lathe, and 
communicates motion to the metal 
to be turned : in small lathes it is 
driven by a pulley 

Mandril-frame, the head-stocks or 
frame bolted to the end of a lathe- 
bed, for the purpose of supporting 
the mandril 

Mangrove, an aquatic tree, straight- 
grained, hard, and elastic: much 
used for ship-building 

Man-hole, in locomotive engines, an 
opening in the top of a boiler, used 




as an entrance when the boiler re- 
quires cleaning : it is covered by a 
strong plate bolted to the boiler 
plating, so as to be steam-tight 

Man-hole cover, inlocomotive engines, 
a strong plate of iron, bolted over 
the man-hole so as to be remove- 
able when required 

Manipulation, in mining, the manner 
of digging silver or other metals ; 
a term now generally applied to 
the means by which materials or 
effects are produced 

Manner is that habitude which paint- 
ers have acquired, not only in the 
management of the pencil, but also 
in the principal parts of painting, 
invention, design, and colouring. 
It is by the manner in painting that 
a picture is judged to be by the 
hand of Titian, Tintoret, Guido, the 
Caracci, and others. Some masters 
have had a variety in their manners 
at different periods of life, and 
others have so constantly adhered 
to one manner, that those who have 
seen even a few of them will imme- 
diately know them, and judge of 
them without any risk of a mistake. 
The variety observable among ar- 
tists in their manner and taste 
arises from the practice of the dif- 
ferent schools in which they have 
received their instruction, or of the 
artists under whom they have stu- 
died. Yet there are many instances 
of great artists who have divested 
themselves of that early partiality 
to a peculiar manner, and have 
altered it so effectually as to fix on 
one abundantly more refined and 
better adapted to their peculiar 
genius, by which means they have 
arrived at excellence. Thus, for 
instance, Raphael proceeded, and 
acquired a much more elevated 
manner after he had quitted the 
school of Perugino. 

Mannerist, a term applicable to a 
painter whose pictures have no re- 
semblance to the beautiful varieties 
of nature,but discover an unpleasing 
and tasteless sameness 

Manometer, an instrument intended 


to measure the rarefaction and con- 
densation of elastic fluids in confined 
circumstances, whether occasioned 
by variation of temperature or by 
actual destruction, or generation of 
portions of elastic fluids 

Mansard roof, of French origin, from 
the name of the inventor ; a curb 

Manse, a parsonage-house 

Mantel-piece, a beam across the open- 
ing of a fire-place, serving as a 
lintel or bressummer to support 
the masonry above, which is called 
the chimney-breast 

Maple wood is considered to be allied 
to the sycamore or the plane- 
tree; its colour is pale: much used 
for picture frames and Tunbridge 

Marble, a kind of stone found in great 
masses, and dug out of pits or 

Marcus, a large iron-headed hammer 

Market. The market or forum in the 
cities of antiquity was different 
from the market in our English 
towns, where flesh meat, merchan- 
dise, &c., are usually sold. The 
Apostle Paul disputed with philo- 
sophers in the market at Athens : 
this and other evidences prove it 
to have been also a place of dispu- 
tation and public resort. 

Margin or Lock-rail, the flat part of 
the stile and rail of framed work 

Marine engine, a steam engine to 
propel a ship. There are various 
kinds of them, the beam, direct- 
acting, oscillating, &c. (See Tred- 
gold's work.) 

Marline, a small line used for winding 
round ropes and cables 

Marone is of a class of impure colours, 
composed of black and red, black 
and purple, or black and russet 
pigments, or with black and any 
other denomination of pigments in 
which red predominates 

Marone lake is a preparation of mad- 
der, of great depth, transparency, 
and durability of colour : it works 
well in water, glazes and dries in 
oil, and is in all respects a good 




pigment : its hues are easily given 
with other pigments, but it is not 
much used 

Marquetry, chequered or inlaid work ; 
work inlaid with variegation, a sort 
of veneering, representing flowers, 
birds, and other figures 

Masonry. The early Roman archi- 
tecture, both in public and private 
buildings, was of far more durable 
materials and of more accurate 
masonry than such as was executed 
in the decline of the empire. It 
began to be uncemented blocks of 
stone, passed into the reticular work 
of the republic, thence into the 
travertine, and descended into the 
mixture of tufo, and brick, and 
stucco facing. 

Masonry. Marble is polished by being 
first rubbed with grit-stone, after- 
wards with pumice-stone, and lastly 
with emery or calcinedtin. Marbles, 
with regard to their contexture and 
variegation of colour, are almost in- 
finite : some are black, some white, 
and some of a dove colour : the best 
kind of white marble is called 
statuary, which, when cut into thin 
slices, becomes almost transparent, 
which property the other kinds do 
not possess. Other species of mar- 
ble are streaked with clouds and 
veins. The texture of marble is not 
altogether understood, even by the 
best workmen ; but they generally 
know upon sight, whether it will 
receive a polish or not. Some mar- 
bles are easily wrought, some are 
very hard, other kinds resist the 
tools altogether. Artificial marble, 
or Scagliola, is real marble pulver- 
ized and mixed with plaster, and is 
used in columns, basso-relievos, and 
other ornaments. 

The chief kind of stone used in 
London is Portland stone, which 
comes from the island of Portland, 
in Dorsetshire ; it is used for build- 
ings in general, as strings, window- 
sills, balusters, steps, copings, &c., 
but under great weight or pressure 
it is apt to splinter, or flush at the 
joints. When it is recently quar- 


ried, it is soft and works easily, but 
acquires great hardness in course 
of time. St. Paul's cathedral and 
Westminster bridge are construct- 
ed of Portland stone. 

Purbeck stone comes from an. 

island of the same name, also in 

Dorsetshire, and is mostly employed 

in rough work, as steps and paving. 

Yorkshire stone is also used 

where strength and durability are 

requisites, as in paving and coping. 

Ryegate stone is used for hearths, 

slabs, and covings. 

Mortar is used by masons in ce- 
menting their works. (See Brick* 
laying, Cements, Mortars, &c.) In 
setting marble or fine work, plaster 
of Paris is used, and in water-works, 
tarras is employed. 

Tarras is a coarse mortar, durable 
in water, and in most situations. 
Dutch tarras is made of a soft rock- 
stone, found near Cologne, on the 
Rhine. It is burnt like lime, and 
reduced to powder by mills, from 
thence carried to Holland, whence 
it has acquired the name of Dutch 
tarras. It is very dear, on account 
of the great demand for it in the 
construction of aquatic works. 

An artificial tarras is formed of 
two parts of lime and one of plaster 
of Paris : another sort consists of 
one part of lime and two parts of 
well-sifted coal ashes. 

Mast curlings, in ship-building, large 
timbers at the side of the mast 
rooms that are left deep enough to 
receive the cross-chocks 

Mastic, a cement used for the plaster- 
ing of walls 

Mastic varnish is easily prepared by 
digesting in a bottle, during a few 
hours, in a warm place, one part of 
dry picked resin with two parts or 
more of the oil of turpentine 

Materiatio, according to Vitruvius, 
the timber-work of a roof 

Mathematics, a science which teaches 
to number and measure whatever 
is capable of it, comprised under 
lines, numbers, superficies, or solids 

Matter and Motion. Quantities of 




matter in all bodies are in the com- 
pound ratio of their magnitude and 
densities ; for if the magnitudes are 
equal, the quantities of matter will 
be as the densities ; and if the den- 
sities are equal, the quantities of 
matter will be as the magnitudes : 
therefore, the quantities of matter 
are universally in the compound 
ratio of both. 

Mausoleum, a pompous funereal mo- 
nument, a costly sepulchre 

Maximum and minimum. The ex- 
tremes of temperature are no less 
important to the meteorologist than 
interesting to the general observer. 
They are obtained by the self-re- 
gistering thermometer. The first 
instrument of this kind was sug- 
gested by John Bernpuilly. Several 
forms of thermometers were com- 
municated to the Royal Society by 
Lord Charles Cavendish. The next 
in point of time were the contri- 
vances of Fitzgerald and Crighton. 
Six, Rutherford, Keith, Blackadder, 
and Dr. Trail, greatly added to the 


stock of self-registering thermo- 
meters. There are two kinds in 
general use ; Mr. Six's, which is 
placed vertically, and Dr. Ruther- 
ford's, which is suspended horizon- 
tally. The latter is preferable on 
land, and, from its simplicity, has 
to a certain extent superseded the 

Mear, thirty-two yards of ground in 
a vein of ore 

Measurement of earth-work. There 
are many works and tables pub- 
lished to facilitate the admeasure- 
ment of earth-work, which may be 
reduced in practice to the follow- 
ing geometrical forms, in one or 
more chains in length, as the case 
may be. The two chains marked 
B and c in the section will reduce 
to the forms in the diagrams that 
follow. The dotted lines, fig. 1, 
show the section at the largest end, 
next to B in the section ; and the 
dotted line, fig. 2. shows the sec- 
tion at the smallest end, next to A 
in the section. 

The bottom piece, c, being re- 
duced to a parallel throughout, is 
measured by multiplying the area of 

Slopes 2 to 1. 

the end by the length : the two 
banks being equal, it will measure 
thus : 15' 0" x 57' 0" x 132' 0". 


The piece B, the middle or wedge 
piece, being parallel horizontally 
only, is measured by taking one- 
Fig. 2. 

half the vertical height : thus, 
3' 6" x 87' 0" x 132' 0". 




The two pieces B B form the two 
halves of a right-angled pyramid, 
and are measured by multiplying 
the area of the end by one-third 
the height : therefore 7' 0" x 14' 0", 
the slope being 2 to 1, is equal to 
98' 0" ; the area of the two bases 
then, 1' 0" x 98' 0" x 44' 0", gives 
the cube quantity in the two. 
Measurement of shipping for tonnage 
(called the 'new measurement') 
was regulated in the 5th and 6th 
of George IV. By this Act certain 
rules were established for ascer- 
taining the tonnage of ships, as 
well on shore as afloat, and of ves- 
sels propelled by steam ; and the 
account of such tonnage, whenever 
the same shall have been ascer- 
tained according to the rules herein 
prescribed, (except in the case of 
ships admeasured afloat,) it is en- 
acted, shall be deemed the tonnage 
of such ships, and shall be repeated 
in every subsequent registry of 
such ships, unless any alteration 
shall have been made in their form 
and burthen, or unless it be disco- 
vered that the tonnage had been 
erroneously computed : and it is 
considered that the capacity of a 
ship is the fairest standard by which 
to regulate its tonnage ; that inter- 
nal measurements will afford the 
most accurate and convenient me- 
thod of ascertaining that capacity, 
and that the adoption of such a 
mode of admeasurement will tend 
to the interests of the ship-builder 
and the owner. 

It was enacted that the tonnage 
of every ship or vessel required by 
law to be registered shall, previous 
to her being registered, be mea- 
sured and ascertained while her 
hold is clear, and according to the 
following rule : Divide the length 
of the upper deck between the 
after-part of the stem and the fore- 
part of the stern-post into six equal 
parts. Depths : At the foremost, 
the middle, and the aftermost of 
those points of division, measure in 
feet and decimal parts of a foot the 


depths from the under side of the 
upper deck to the ceiling at the 
limber strake. In the case of a 
break in the upper deck, the depths 
are to be measured from a line 
stretched in a continuation of the 
deck. Breadths : Divide each of 
those three depths into five equal 
parts, and measure the inside 
breadths at the following points : 
at one-fifth and at four-fifths from 
the upper deck of the foremost and 
aftermost depths, and at two-fifths 
and four-fifths from the upper deck 
of the midship depth. Length : 
At half the midship depth measure 
the length of the vessel from the 
after-part of the stem to the fore- 
part of the stern-post, then to 
twice the midship depth add the 
foremost and the aftermost depths 
for the sum of the depths ; add to- 
gether the upper and lowerbreadths 
at the foremost division, three times 
the upper breadth and the lower 
breadth at the midship division, 
and the upper and twice the lower 
breadth at the after division, for 
the sum of the breadths ; then mul- 
tiply the sum of the depths by the 
sum of the breadths, and this pro- 
duct by the length, and divide the 
final product by three thousand five 
hundred, which will give the num- 
ber of tons for register. If the 
vessel have a poop or half-deck, or 
a break in the upper deck, measure 
the inside mean length, breadth, 
and height of such part thereof as 
may be included within the bulk- 
head; multiply these three mea- 
surements together, and dividing 
the product by 92'4, the quotient 
will be the number of tons to be 
added to the result as above found. 
In order to ascertain the tonnage 
of open vessels, the depths are to 
be measured from the upper edge 
of the upper strake. 

To ascertain the tonnage of steam 
vessels, it was also further enacted, 
that in each of the several rules 
prescribed, when applied for the 
purpose of ascertaining the tonnage 




of any ship or vessel propelled by 
steam, the tonnage due to the cu- 
bical contents of the engine-room 
shall be deducted from the total 
tonnage of the vessel as determined 
by the rules, and the remainder 
shall be deemed the true register 
tonnage of the said ship or vessel. 
The tonnage due to the cubical 
contents of the engine-room shall 
be determined in the following 
manner : measure the inside length 
of the engine-room in feet and de- 
cimal parts of a foot from the fore- 
most to the aftermost bulk-head, 
then multiply the said length by 
the depth of the ship or vessel at 
the midship division, as aforesaid, 
and the product by the inside 
breadth at the same division at 
two-fifths of the depth from the 
deck taken as aforesaid, and divide 
the last product by 92-4, and the 
quotient is deemed the tonnage 
due to the cubical contents of the 

Measurement of standing timber. 
Measure from the tree ten, twenty, 
thirty, &c., feet, and then plant the 
theodolite level: direct the tele- 
scope to the bottom of the tree, 
and observe the degree and tenth 
of depression ; and to the top of 
the tree, the degree and tenth of 
elevation. When the timber has 
been previously felled, it is custo- 
mary, in measuring, to girt a string 
round the middle of the tree, and 
fold it twice, which will give the 
fourth part of the girt, and which 
is considered the true side of the 
square ; then the length is mea- 
sured from the but-end of the 
tree, so far up as the tree will hold 
half a foot girt, or, more properly 
speaking, quarter-girt ; that is, the 
line six inches when twice folded. 
Various tables are published, to 
assist the timber-measurer in the 
performance of his duty. All tim- 
ber is bought and sold by the load, 
and a load is estimated at forty 
feet of unhewn or rough timber, 
and fifty feet of hewn timber, which 

is supposed to weigh one ton, or 
twenty hundred weight. 

Mechanical powers are contrivances 
by which we are enabled to sustain 
a great weight or overcome a great 
resistance by a small force. (See 

Mechanics, that branch of practical 
science which considers the laws of 
equilibrium and the motion of solid 
bodies ; the forces by which bodies, 
whether animate or inanimate, may 
be made to act upon one another ; 
and the means by which these 
forces may be increased so as to 
overcome those which are more 
powerful. The term mechanics 
was originally applied to the doc- 
trine of equilibrium. It is now, 
however, extended to the motion 
and equilibrium of all bodies, whe- 
ther solid, fluid, or aeriform. The 
complete arrangement of mecha- 
nics is now made to embrace, be- 
sides, the pressure and tension of 
cords, the equilibrated polygon, the 
catenary curve, suspension bridges, 
the equilibrium of arches and the 
stability of their piers, the construc- 
tion of oblique arches, the equili- 
brium of domes and vaults with 
revetments, the strength of mate- 
rials, whether they be of wood or 
iron, dynamics, or the science of 
moving bodies, with hydrostatics, 
pneumatics, and hydraulics. 

Medallion, in architecture, any cir- 
cular tablet on which figures are 
embossed; busts, &c. 

Mediaeval, relating to the middle ages 

Member, a moulding; either as a 
cornice of five members, or a base 
of three members, and applied to 
the subordinate parts of a building 

Mensuration is the application of the 
science of arithmetic to geometry, 
by which we are enabled to discover 
the magnitude and dimensions of 
any geometrical figures, whether 
solid or superficial. To enable us 
to express this magnitude in deter- 
minate terms, it is necessary to 
assume some magnitude of the 
same kind as the unit, and then, by 






stating how many times the given 
magnitude contains that unit, we 
obtain its measure. 

The different species of magni- 
tude which have most frequently 
to be determined are distinguish- 
able into six kinds, viz. 1. Length. 
2. Surface. 3. Solidity, or ca- 
pacity. 4. Force of gravity, com- 
monly called weight. 5. Angles. 
6. "Time. 

Mere, or Meer, a name frequently 
given, in England and the Nether- 
lands, to inland lakes or sheets of 
fresh water, such as Windermere, 
Whittleseamere, Ugg-mere, So- 
ham-mere, in England, and the 
Egmonder meer, Purmer meer, and 
Haarlemmer meer, &c., in the Ne- 
therlands. The term is most fre- 
quently used in the latter country, 
where, prior to 1440, there were 
more than 150 meers, of which 85 
occupied an area of 177,832 acres, 
since drained and reclaimed, in the 
provinces of North and South Hol- 
land; and where also the Haarlem- 
mer meer, covering an area of 
45,230 acres, is now in course of 

As the meers, in fen-lands, serve 
as reservoirs to hold a portion of 
the surplus rain-water falling on 
the district of which they form a 
part, their being dyked off and 
drained, where of considerable ex- 
tent, has most important effects on 
the neighbouring lands, by con- 
tracting the area of the reservoir 
or catch -water basin of the district. 
But as these drainages generally 
oblige improvements in the out- 
falls, their result is mostly benefi- 
cial to the other lands. 

The beds of the Dutch meers 
are from 10 to 20 feet below the 
level of the lowest point of the 
natural outfall in their districts ; 
consequently they are always 
drained by mechanical means. 
Wind-mills have been employed to 
drain the land, in the Netherlands, 
from time immemorial; but the 
drainage of the meers was not com- 

277 ~ 

menced until 1440, about which 
period wind-mills and draining 
machinery were considerably im- 
proved; and as late as 1840, wind- 
mills for draining purposes conti- 
nued in favour with the Dutch 
engineers, in preference to steam 
engines; and at that date, 12,000 
wind-mills were employed to drain 
the polders, in the Netherlands, 
and only five small steam engines, 
the largest not exceeding 30-horse 
power: the average consumption 
of fuel was 20 ibs. of coal per horse 
power per hour. 

In the English fens, steam had 
in a great measure superseded wind- 
mills for drainage purposes ; but 
the consumption of fuel was nearly 
as great as in the Dutch engines. 

In 1839, the Dutch States-Ge- 
neral decreed the drainage of the 
Haarlemmer meer, and voted eight 
millions of florins for that purpose, 
to which two millions more were 
subsequently added, making the 
total sum of 834,000. 

The Haarlemmer meer forms 
part of the great drainage district 
of Rhynland, which has an area of 
305,014 English acres: prior to 
1848, this area was occupied by 
56,609 acres of meers and water- 
courses, nearly all in communica- 
tion with each other, forming what 
is called the boezem, or catch-water 
basin of the district ; the surface of 
the water being maintained at the 
lowest level of natural sluiceage, 
by sluices at Katwyk into the North 
Sea, and at Sparndam and Halfweg 
into the Y, or the southern end of 
the Zuyder Zee. 

Above the boezem are 75,357 
acres drained into it by natural 
level ; and at depths from 2 feet 6 
inches to 4 feet below it are 170 
polders covering an area of 135,850 
acres; and 37,198 acres, divided 
into 28 polders which were for- 
merly meers, but are now drained, 
and whose beds are on an average 
14 ft. below the level of the boezem. 

The surplus rain and infiltration 




waters from the 173,048 acres of 
polder-land are lifted into the boe- 
zem by the united action of 261 large 
wind-mills, with an average force 
of 1500-horse power. 

The drainage of the Haarlemmer 
meer, which forms part of the 
boezem or basin, will deduct45,230 
acres from its area, and reduce it 
to 11,379 acres, or th part of its 
former size ; whilst the land surface 
drained into it will be increased 
from 229,657 to 293,735 acres. 

The average level of the boezem 
is 10 inches below the ordinary 
low water, and 27 inches below 
high-water mark in the Y or Zuy- 
der Zee ; and 7 inches above low 
water, and 57 inches below ordi- 
nary high water, in the North Sea. 

The bed of the Haarlem Lake is 
14 feet below the winter level of 
the bo